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renown rests chiefly on his novels. ' Of the twenty-nine, which form the Waverley series, the greater pumber have an historical groundwork. Scottish history and Scottish soil were invested by his genius with a new lustre.

War Summons of the Clan, p. 201.

Irving's Recollections of Scott, p. 211.

The Return of Ravenswood, p.288. Lochinvar, p. 362.

Helvellyn, p. 395. SEPULCHRE or SEPULCHER (sep'ul

ker). SERGEANT (sär'jent). SES-QUI-AL'TER (Italian, sesquialtero,

sesquiältro), a mixed stop of an organ, running through the scale of the instrument, and consisting of three, four, and sometimes of five ranks of pipes, tuned in thirds,

fifths, and eighths. SES-QUI-PE-DA'LI-AN (Latin, sesqui,

more by a half, and pes, pedis, a foot), containing or measuring a foot

and a half. SEW (so), to join or fasten with a

thread or needle. SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM, was born at

Stratford-on-Avon, in Warwickshire, England, in April (probably April 23d), 1564. His father, a woolcomber, though not opulent, seems to have been in good circumstar.ces; but it is alleged that a short course in the Stratford grammar school was all the regular education Shakespeare ever received. He married, at the age of 18, Anne Hathaway, a woman seven or eight years older than himself, the daughter of a substantial yeoman in the neighborhood. Two or three years after his marriage he removed to London, having possibly perceived the incipient tendencies of his genius during the occasional visits of the metropolitan players to Stratford.

In London we soon find the poet in comparative opulence. He rapidly acquired a large property in more than one theatre. The order in which he produced his dramatic compositions has been a subject of keen inquiry; but the minute researches of Malone elicit no satisfactory result. It is certain that Shakespeare soon vindicated the immense superiority of his genius by universal popularity. He became the companion of the nobles and wits of the time, and a favorite of|

Queen Elizabeth herself, at whose request some of the pieces were written.

The wealth which his genius realized enabled him, comparatively early in life, to retire from his professional career. He had purchased an estate in the vicinity of his native town; but his tranquil retirement was of no long duration. He enjoyed it only four years. He died in 1616, and was buried on the north side of the Chancel in the great church of Stratford. His bust is placed in the wall over his grave. His only son had died early; all the children of his married daughters died without issue.

The works of Shakespeare consist of 37 plays, tragedies, comedies, and histories; the poems “ Venus and Adonis," and " Tarquin and Lucrece," with a collection of sonnets Three or four of the plays, embodied in his works, are supposed to be erroneously attributed to him. The total want of care to preserve and to authenticate the productions of his genius before his death has been supposed to indicate the poet's indifference to fame.

The subject of Shakespeare's dramatic and poetical character is so vast that it would be idle here to attempt its analysis. On the occasion of the centennial celebration, in England and America, on the 230 of April, 1864, of his birth, the wellknown American critic, Mr. E. P. Whipple, remarked: “The fortune of Shakespeare's genius is to grow in fame with the growth of civilization, and to appear greatest to the greatest minds. His fame is wider now than ever before, and it will increase with the increasing study of his works. The most comprehensive of human intellects, he has, as a necessary result, never been thoroughly comprehended, and while he includes so many classes of minds, he is included by none.

“But enough is felt and known of his genius to make him the favorite poet of all the kinds and classes of men his ample page reflects, and to-day he will probably be gratefully remembered by a wider variety of devoted admirers than any other intellectual benefactor of the race ever succeeded in attracting. And doubtless the reason is to be sought in the fact that the most

endowed of human intellects had | Scene from Hamlet, p. 390. also the most sympathetic and Two Scenes from Hamlet, p. 435. tolerant of human hearts.”

SHELL. As used by Collins, p. 308, Another critic justly remarks: this word means å musical instra“ To say that he is the greatest man ment, because the first lyre is that ever lived, or the greatest intel said to have been made by strainlect that ever lived, is to provoke al ing strings over the shell of a toruseless controversy ; but what we toise. will say, and what we will challenge SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE, the son of the world to gainsay, is that he was a wealthy baronet, was born in the greatest expresser that ever liv- | 1792, in Sussex, England. A poet ed. No man that ever lived said | of admirable genius, he was, in the such splendid ex-tem'po-re things words which he applied to himself, on all subjects universally; no man "a power girt round with weakthat ever lived had the faculty of ness.". With the utmost gentleness pouring out on all occasions such a and amiability of personal demeanflood of the richest and deepest or, he united an extreme confilanguage. He may have had rivals dence in his own opinions on abin the art of imagining situations; stract questions; and, setting himhe had no rival in the power of self up, with the presumption of sending a gush of the appropriate youth, in opposition to received intellectual effusion over the image principles which he did not underand body of a situation once con stand, he made himself voluntarily ceived.

an outcast, and remained through “From the jeweled ring on an life a martyr to his own indistinct alderman's finger to the most moun chimeras. tainous thought or deed of man or

Shelley's school-days were made demon, nothing suggested itself uncomfortable by his sensitive temthat his speech could not envelop 1, per, and he was not distinguished and enfold with ease. That exces as a scholar. Before he was sixsive fluency which astonished Ben teen he had written two novels. In Jonson when he listened to Shake 1808 he was sent from Eton to Oxspeare in person astonishes the world ford. Here, with very slight philoyet. Abundance, ease, redundance, sophical reading, he became entana plenitude of word, sound, and gled in metaphysical difficulties, imagery, which, were the intellect and, at seventeen, was pleased to at work only a little less magnifi. publish, with a direct appeal to the cent, would sometimes end in sheer heads of colleges, a pamphlet, enbraggardism and bombast, are the titled “ The Necessity of Atheism." characteristic of Shakespeare's style. Instead of treating the audacious Nothing is suppressed, nothing omit freak with the unconcern it merited, ted, nothing canceled. On and on the college authorities gravely raisthe poet flows, words, thoughts, and ed it from insignificance into imfancies, crowding on him as fast as portance by expelling the author. he can write, all related to the mat Thus martyrdom made his wild noter on hand, and all poured forth tions all the more precious to him. together, to rise and fall on the Soon afterward" he printed his waves of an established cadence." poem of “ Queen Mab, in which

For passages quoted from Shake singular poetical beauties are interspeare in this volume, see 3, p. 31; persed through a mass of specula14, 16, p. 33; 21, 22, p. 34; 1, 4, tive absurdities. At the age of p. 36; 3, p. 37; 4, p. 38; 5, p. 39; eighteen an imprudent marriage 7, 9, p. 40; 12, 13, 14, p. 41; 3, 4, 5, alienated Shelley from his family. p. 43; 11, 12, p. 45; 1, 2, p. 46; 7, After three years of misery to him1, 2, 3, p. 48; 4, 5, p. 49; 12, 1, 2, self and his wife, the ill-assorted p. 51; 1, p. 55; 3, p. 56; 9, p. 59; | union issued in a separation; and not 14, p. 62; 5, p. 69; 8, p. 70; 4, p. long afterwards the young poet was 75; 1, p. 78; 1, p. 421.

agitated into temporary derangeQuarrel of Brutus and Cassius, p. ment by learning that his wife had

destroyed herself. His children Regrets of Drunkenness, p. 234. were taken from him by a decree The Trial Scene, p. 243.

of the Court of Chancery, on the Iago and Othello, p. 301.

ground of the atheism which he

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had avowed, and which he was father, Thomas Sheridan, was well too proud to retract on compul known as an actor and a teacher of sion.

elocution, and as the author of a Already, among his various wan. Pronouncing Dictionary. Richard, derings, he had, in 1816, become an idle and mischievous boy, passed acquainted with Lord Byron, and at school for a hopeless blockhead. lived near him on the Lake of Ge Leaving school he professed to study neva. There, and by the Lake of law; but his prospects were very Como, he began to write poetry hazy indeed, when, being barely of very sedulously. He studied and age, he made a runaway marriage admired Wordsworth and Cole with Miss Linley, a beautiful and ridge; he was familiar with the accomplished singer. A small forGreek dramatists, and was influ tune she brought him was speedily enced largely by "Goethe and Cal dissipated by that careless way of deron. Not long after his wife's living which he practiced at all death he married the daughter of stages of his life. Godwin, a lady well known in lit His earliest comedy, “ The Rierature. In 1818 they settled at vals," appeared in 1775, when the Pisa (peza), in Italy.

author was not 24 years old; his Here, with health already failing, " School for Scandal,” in 1777; and he produced some of his principal his witty, but ill-natured farce, The works, in a period of about four Critic,"in 1779. Becoming acyears. Such were his lyrical drama, quainted with Burke and Fox, and called “ Prometheus Unbound," the impressing these eminent men with gloomy but powerful tragedy of a strong belief in his political and * The Cenci” (chen'che), and many oratorical talents, he obtained a seat singularly fine minor poems, among in Parliament in 1780. But he bewhich we may specify “ The Sky came improvident in his expendilark," “ The Cloud," and " The tures and intemperate in his habits; Sensitive Plant.” In July, 1822, and the wit and orator died in 1616, when he had not quite completed abandoned by friends and hunted by his twenty-ninth year, he was bailiffs. drowned in a storm which he en Extracts from speech at the trial countered in his yacht in the Gulf of Hastings, p. 34. of Spezzia (spet'se-a).

Extract from “ The Rivals," p. 79. Shelley's poems, amid much that Sir Lucius and Bob Acres, p. 83. is mystical and unintelligible, are Scene from “ The Critic," p. 368. pervaded by a spiritual beauty SHORT-LIVED (lived). which produces on the reader the SHRIVELED or SHRIVELLED. effect of a strain of exquisite music. SIBYL (sib'il), a pagan prophetess. There is something marvelous in the SIMILE (sim'e-le). rich originality of his imagination, SIMULTANEOUS (sim- or si-). and the ideal loveliness of the forms SINAI (si'nā or si'na-i). which it pours forth. His true and SI'REN, in Greek mythology, one of noble heart contradicts the boyish certain female divinities who, by the errors of his head. He was generous, sweetness of their song, so fascicharitable, and affectionate; and, nated passing mariners, that they every year of his life, love was lead forgot their homes, and remained ing him nearer and nearer to the till they perished. great truths of God and immortality, SKEPTIC or SCEPTIC (from the Greek

ed speculative in-| skeptikos: skeptomai. to look about. tellect had wandered away from. to consider). The form skeptic is The Skylark, p. 447.

preferred by Johnson, Ash, Kenrick, SHENSTONE, WILLIAM, a pleasant, Entick, Sheridan, Perry, Jameson,

but not vigorous writer in verse Richardson, and many other leading and prose, was born in Shropshire, lexicographers. The form is more England, 1714; died 1763. He was agreeable to the genius of our lanskilled in landscape gardening, and guage, and is less liable than sceptic his estate, known as the Leasowes, to be mispronounced. was often resorted to as a show- / SKILLFUL or SKILFUL. place.

SkY (not ske-i). SHERIDAN, RICHARD. BRINSLEY, was SMITH, HORACE, joint author, in con

born in Dublin, Ireland, 1751. His nection with his brother James, of

OF

the famous “Rejected Addresses," I truly remarks of it, “yet does its was born in London, 1779, died 1849. | perusal soon become a kind of task A collection of his poems, edited by reading." Epes Sargent, was published in New SPHERE (sfere).

York in 1856. See extract, p. 63. SPON'DEE, a poetical foot containing SMITH, SYDNEY, born in Essex, Eng two long syllables.

land, in 1768, was educated at Win SPRAGUE, CHARLES, an American chester and Oxford. About 1796 he poet, was born in Boston, Oct. 26, became a curate, and soon after 1791. He was educated at the wards removed with a pupil to Franklin school, in that city, and Edinburgh. Here he became the entered a mercantile house at 13 principal originator of the Edin years of age. In 1820 he became a burgh Review, and wrote several teller, and afterwards a cashier, in papers for that celebrated periodical. the Globe Bank, a position he still During the years 1804-5-6 he de held in 1864. His poetical writings livered in London a series of admi consist of a series of theatrical prize rable lectures on Mental Philosophy. addresses, “ Curiosity," a poem, a He now settled in Yorkshire as rector Shakespeare Ode, and a number of of a parish. In 1831 he was made minor pieces, all exhibiting remarka canon of St. Paul's. Smith was able grace and power in the use of celebrated for his wit, his powers of language, and a genuine poetical raillery and sarcasm, and his flashes sensibility. See p. 254. of eccentric fun. A vigorous and STOCKTON, Robr. Field, of the U. S. elegant writer, he was equally dis- navy, a grandson of Richard Stocktinguished as a brilliant talker. He ton, a signer of the Declaration of was a strenuous advocate of Cath Independence, was born in Princeolic emancipation.

ton, N.J., 1796. He entered the navy On Religious Freedom, p. 193. at 15, and behaved with marked Labor and Genius, p. 418.

gallantry in several battles. In The Uses of the Passions, p. 374. 1845 he was sent as commodore to All Sorts of Minds, p. 468.

the Pacific coast, and was very SOCIALISM, appropriately, the substi efficient in establishing the authority

tution of the principle of association of the United States over California. for that of competition in every In 1851 he was elected to the Senate branch of human industry; a state of the United States, where he proin which there is a community of cured the passage of a law for the

property among all the citizens. abolition of flogging in the navy. SOC'RA-TES, born at Athens in the See p. 154.

year 468 B, C., suffered the punish- Story (store'ry). ment of death for “ impiety" at the Story, WM. W., a poet and sculptor, age of 70; his impiety consisting in is the son of Judge Story, of the U. his pursuit of truth, however it S. Supreme Court, and was born in might conflict with the absurd my Salem, Mass., 1819. He graduated thologies of the age. He was styled at Harvard College in 1838, and by Plato “ the best of all men of the published a volume of poems in time, the wisest and most just of all 1847. He has resided for many men.” See p. 138.

years in Italy, where he has acSolway. The spring tides in the quired a high reputation in art. See

Solway Frith, an arm of the Irish p. 466. Sea, are very remarkable for their STREW (stroo or stro, and sometimes rapidity and volume. At ebb-tide spelt strow). " a large portion of the Solway is left Stuart, thé royal house of Great dry.

Britain, after the union of Scotland. SORCERY (sõr'cer-y).

James, whose successors all bore SOVEREIGN (suv'ur-in or sõv'ur-in). the same name, succeeded to the SPENCER, HERBERT, an English phi throne of Scotland in 1406; the

losophical writer, born about 1807. fifth of his line becoming father of See pp. 148, 393.

the unhappy Mary, queen of Scots. SPENSER, EDMUND, a great English The other kings of this house were

poet, was born in London, about James VI. of Scotland and I. of 1553, died 1599. His principal work, England, Charles I. (who was be“ The Fairy Queen,” is an allegori headed), Charles II., and James II., cal poem, full of beauties; but Hume by whose deposition, in 1688, the Stuarts were finally expelled the will always appear, in the eyes of throne.

freemen, more glorious on that SUFFICE (suf-fize').

bloody scaffold than any king on his SUGGEST (sud-jesť or sug'jest). Of throne.

the pronunciation of this word | TALFOURD, THOMAS Noon, born in Smart truly remarks: “ It is pos | Stafford,' England, in 1795, died sible, with a great deal of pains, to 1854. He was the author of "Ion," pronounce suggest so as to preserve a classical tragedy, from which see to each g its regular sound; but an extract, 13, p. 45. surely the eleg:int, because the TAR-PE'IAN, in Roman antiquity, an

easy, pronunciation is that which appellation given to a steep rock in · runs both letters into the same Rome, whence those persons guilty sound, namely, that of j."

of certain crimes were precipitated. SULPHUROU'S (sulfur-us).

It formed part of the hill on which SUMNER, CHARLES, born at Boston, stood the Capitol. Mass., Jan. 6, 1811, was prepared Tasso, TORQUATO, a celebrated Italian for college at the Latin school, and poet, was born in 1544 at Sorrento, graduated at Harvard in 1830. on the southern shore of the Bay of Entering the law school he soon Naples. He wrote “Jerusalem Dedistinguished himself by the breadth livered," one of the few great epics and thoroughness of his legal ac which the world has seen. He was quisitions. In 1837, he visited confined in a madhouse for seven Europe, and became personally ac years; but in 1595 was invited to quainted with the most distinguished come to Rome from Naples, and be of his foreign contemporaries. In crowned a poet as Petrarch had 1851 he was elected the succes been. He died about the time fixed sor of Mr. Webster in the Senate of for the coronation. See p. 297. the U. States.

TAUNT (tänt or ta wnt). . Swift, JONATHAN, a celebrated writ TAYLOR, HENRY, born in England

er, was born in 1667, at Dublin, in about the year 1802, has contributed Ireland, and was educated at Kil to literature the fine historical drama kenny School, Trinity College, Dub of “ Philip van Artevelde," froin lin, and Hertford College, Oxford. which see an extract, p. 372. In 1701 he took his doctor's degree, TEDIOUS (te'de-us or tede’yus). and on the accession of Queen Anne TEM'PE, a beautiful valley of Theshe visited England. In 1710 he be | saly, in ancient Greece, between came active as a political writer. | Mounts Olympus and Ossa. When he first returned to Ireland | Tennysox, ALFRED, poet-laureate of he was exceedingly unpopular, buti England, was born in 1810, at Somhe lived to be the idol of the Irish ersby, a small parish in Lincolnshire. people. In 1726 he gave “Gulli The laureate's father, a clergyman, ver's Travels" to the world. As | was an amalgam of poet, painter, he advanced in years he suffered architect, musician, linguist, and from deafness and fits of giddi mathematician. At Trinity College, ness; in 1739 his intellect gave Cambridge, Alfred obtained the way, and he expired in October, chancellor's medal for an English 1745.

poem on Timbuctoo. The year folSWARTHY (swawrth'e, the th aspirate, Jowing, a volume of “ Poems, chiefly as in froth).

Lyrical," appeared from his pen. SWATH (swõth or swawth).

Three years afterward he put forth Sword (sord or sword; the former is another volume which contained his the preferred mode).

“ May Queen" and other popular SYDNEY, ALGERNON, the second son poems. From this time onward the

of Robert, earl of Leicester, was circle of his admirers began to born in England about the year widen; and in 1850, the publication 1621. He was a thorough republi of his “ In Memoriam," a group of can, and opposed the dictatorship 129 poems, suggested by the death of Cromwell. He is the author of a of the friend of his youth, Arthur volume of noble discourses concern Henry Hallam, gave Tennyson a ing government. He was beheaded rank among the greatest poets of Dec. 7th, 1683, for supposed impli England. His genius is essentially cation in plots against royalty. He retiring, meditative, and spiritual. met his fate with iron firmness; and! He is a thorough master of versifi.

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