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were translations made by himself, poetry, though exhibiting fine pow-
from ancient Erse manuscripts. ers, was never a source of profit to
There was a long controversy as to him. In 1854 he was appointed
the genuineness of these poems, State Geologist of Wisconsin. He
which was finally settled by the was a man of rather eccentric habits,
decision of the Highland Society, fond of seclusion, studious, and ir-
in 1805, that they had not been able reproachable in all his dealings. See
to obtain any one poem the same

p. 426.
in title and tenor with the poems of PEREMPTORY (pěr'em-töre).
Ossian. Wordsworth says of them: PETRARCH (pe'trark) or PETRARCA,
“ Having had the good fortune to FRANCESCO, one of the greatest
be born and reared in a mountain Italian poets, was born in Tuscany,
ous country, from my very child 1304, died 1374. Much of his poetry
hood I have felt the falsehood of consists of sonnets, to which he gave
the volumes imposed upon the world an admirable polish of diction and
under the name of Ossian. From melody.
what I saw with my own eyes I PHALANX (făl'angks or fā'-).
knew that the imagery was spuri PHARAOH (fā'ro or farelo).
ous." See an extract from Ossian, PHILIPPIC. See Demosthenes.
p. 65.

PHILISTINE (fil-is'tin).
OUNCE, a carnivoro

Phil-O-ME'LA, in ancient Grecian
native of India.

story, a king's daughter who was
PAGEANT (păj'- or pā'-).

metamorphosed into a nightingale.

PICTURE (pikt'yur).
PARENT (pare'rent).

PLACABLE (plā'- or plăc!-).
PARLIAMENT (par'li-ment).

PLA'to, the great Greek philosopher,
PARTHE-NON, the celebrated Gre was born at Athens, about 430 B.

cian temple of Minerva in ancient C.; died in his 80th year. His is

still the greatest name in speculative
PARTHIAN. See p. 339.

philosophy, as Shakespeare's is in
PASCAL, BLASE, a native of Clermont, poetry. He taught the immortality

in France, was born June 19, 1623. of the soul and the beauty of good-
As a boy he exhibited an astonish ness.
ing genius for mathematics; but his Plow or PLOUGH.
intellect in other departments of PLUTUS, in ancient mythology, the
thought was equally colossal. Re personification of wealth. Jupiter
nouncing the positive sciences for is said to have deprived him of
theology, he wrote works which sight, that he might bestow his gifts
show wonderful mental activity and i blindly, not favoring the deserving.

power. He died young, in 1662. PoE, EDGAR A., was born in Balti-
PATRIOT (pa'tri-ot or pat'ri-ot).

more, 1811. His parents belonged
PEEL, Sir ROBERT, an eminent Eng to the theatrical profession, and he

lish statesman, was born in Lan was left an orphan at an early age.
cashire, 1788. He studied at Oxford, I He was adopted by John Allan, a
entered Parliament at twenty-one wealthy Virginian, and taken to
years of age, became prime minister England; but in his 11th year he
in 1841, and died of a fall from a returned and entered the University
horse, 1850.

at Charlottesville. Being expelled
Peg'asus, in Greek mythology, a from the college, and getting into a

winged horse, regarded as the horse quarrel with his benefactor, he went
of the Muses, and as having pro abroad and passed a year in Europe.
duced by a stroke of his hoof the At St. Petersburg he got into some
inspiring fountain Hippocrene.

difficulty and sought relief from the
PERCIVAL, JAMES GATES, an Ameri American minister, Mr. Middleton,

can poet, was born in Berlin, Conn., who provided for him the means of
Sept. 15, 1795, and died at Haze returning home. Mr. Allan now got
Green, Wisconsin, 1857. He grad for him an entrance as a cadet at
uated at Yale College, in 1815, stud West Point, but Poe threw away
ied medicine, and in 1820 published this like other opportunities, and
a volume of poetry. He was dis left before he had been in the place
tinguished as a linguist; and in geog a year. Being now thrown on his
raphy, botany, and natural history 1 own resources, he tried literature,
was an accomplished scholar. His and became editor of the Southern -
Literary Messenger, published at of “The Etonian," a college maga,
Richmond. After some subsequent zine, sparkling with promise of
editorial experience in Philadelphia, future excellence. From Eton he
he removed in 1844 to New York. ! went to Cambridge, and was re.
Here he produced his principal poem garded as the peer of Macaulay in
of The Raven, which, though full of respect to ability. He was for a
defects and affectations, has the short time in Parliament, but died
charın of an original and musical in 1839. See p. 345.
versification. The same remark is PRACTICE (vb.) or PRACTISE.
applicable to his poem of The Bells; PRAGUE (prāg), the capital of Bohe-
but the constant recurrence of the mia, is celebrated for its cathedral,
word bells with its sibilant consonant an ancient edifice, rich in Gothic
mars the initative eflect intended. ornament.
See extracts from these poems, pp. PRAIRIE (prā're or prare're).
58, 67. Poe has given flashes, here | PRECEDENT (pres'e-dent, n.; pre-
and there, of a true poetical genius, sēd'ent, adj.).
brilliant, original, and weird. He PRESCOTT, WM. HICKLING, born 1796
died in Baltimore, 1849, in conse- at Salem, Mass., attained a high
quence of his irregular and intem rank among the historians of his
perate habits of life.

century. Deprived by an accident
POPE, ALEXANDER, the son of a Lon of the free use of his eyes, he began

don merchant, was born 1688. His a career of literary toil which re-
life as an author may date from his sulted in the production of four
16th year, when he wrote his “ Pas great historical works, - The Reign
torals." The principal of his poetical of Ferdinand and Isabella, The
writings which followed are: “Es Conquest of Mexico, The Conquest
say on Criticism,” published when of Peru, and the History of Philip
he was twenty-one ; " Essay on II., - all of which have been re-
Man," a singularly successful effort markably successful. He died
to weave ethical philosophy into 1859. See p. 163.
poetry ; “Moral Essays"; "" The PRETENSE or PRETENCE.
Rape of the Lock," a mock heroic PROʻTEST or PROT'EST, N. ; PRO-
on the fraudulent abstraction of a TEST', vb.
ringlet of a lady's hair; “ The Dun- PROWESS (proules).
ciad," which lashes with satire his PRUSSIA (průsh'a or proosh'a).
literary enemies; with numerous PURLIEU (pur'lu).
miscellaneous and fugitive pieces. PUTNAM, GEORGE, REV. DR., born in
He also translated the “Iliad” and Sterling, Mass., 1807, graduated at
*Odyssey' of Homer; of which Bent Harvard College, 1826. He studied
ley, the great scholar, remarked, divinity, and in 1830 was settled
“ It is a pretty poem, Mr. Pope; but over the first church in Roxbury,
you must not call it Homer." Pope near Boston. He is one of the most
was, if not the founder, the chief, of eloquent preachers of the age, ex-
the artificial school of poetry, the hibiting in his discourses fine lit-
influence of which terminated with erary skill, a generous, sympathetic
the appearance of Cowper. Pope's nature, and an eclectic spirit that
descriptions of nature have a garden seeks for the good and the true
aspect, where everything is scrupu wherever it may be found, however
lously elegant, regular, and beauti unpromising the place.
ful. With the profits from his writ-| | PYRITES (pe-ri'teez or pir'i-teez).
ings he bought a villa at Twicken- PYTHON (pi'thon), a' Greek word
ham, on the Thames. Through all meaning a dragon or serpent. The
his life of fifty-six vears, he was Pythian games were celebrated
delicate and frail. The wonder is near Delphi in honor of Apollo.
that soul and body kept together so the conqueror of the dragon Python.
long. His death took place 1744. Hence the priestess of Apollo was
See p. 356.

called Pythia. The word Python
Portal (poreltal).

is now often used as a personifica-
Possess (poz-zes').

tion of the false, mythical religion

was born in 1802 in London. At QUARRELING or QUARRELLING.

an early age he was placed at Eton, I QUALM (kwähm).
• where he became one of the editors | RADIANCE (ra'di-ans).

RACINE, JEAN (ră-seen' zhäng), the antiquated abuses was passed by

greatest among French tragic the House of Commons, March i, dramatists, was born in Picardy, 1831; by the House of Lords, June 1639. The most important part of 4, 1832. See Macaulay's remarks, his education was received in the p. 158. school of the Port-Royalists, whose RE'QUI-EM (re'kwi-em or rek'wi-em). earnest piety and severe morality REVERIE or REVERY (revler-re). received no discredit either from REVOLT (re-volt or re-võlt'). the writings or from the conduct of Rift, to rive, to split. their pupil. He began his dra RISE (vb. rīze; n. rise, not rize; so matic career in 1663, and his first Walker, Smart, Worcester, Webster, two plays were unsuccessful; but| Goodrich). Walker, after alluding his fine genius shone out with all | to the fact that the noun rise is its brightness in 1667, when his sometimes pronounced with the s “ Andromaque" (an'dro-mak) was like z, remarks, “ The pure s, howplayed. For ten years more he ever, is more agreeable to analogy, continued to produce, almost an and ought to be scrupulously prenually, plays, constituting a series served by all correct speakers.” of masterpieces, and exbibiting so RIVALED or RIVALLED. little inequality that critical opin ROGERS, SAMUEL,a London banker and ions are still divided as to their poet, was born in 1763, at Stoke comparative merit. Racine died in Newington, a metropolitan suburb. 1699. His last work was his sacred His chief poems are " The Pleasures drama of “Nathalie," of which of Memory" (1792); “ Columbus " Voltaire said, that it comes nearer (1812); “ Human Life,” (1819); and to perfection than any other literary Italy," of which the first part apwork which ever issued from the peared in 1822. A graceful and hands of man. See a translation gentle spirit fills the poetry of Rogof a passage from this work, ers. His love for the beautiful in p. 168.

nature and in art led him to delight RAMPART (răm'pärt).

in “a setting sun, or lake among the RAPHAEL (răf'a-el) SANZIO, the most mountains," and at the same time

celebrated of painters, was born at to fill his house in St. James Place Urbino, in Italy, 1483; died 1520. with the finest pictures wealth In 1508 he was invited to Rome by could buy. The breakfasts he gave Pope Julius II., who employed him in this pleasant home used to draw to paint the “School of Athens” some of the first men in London in the Vatican. In performing this round his table. His “Italy” is the commission, he gave such satisfac poem by which he is most favortion that the Pope ordered all the ably known to the literary world. pictures, already painted in the Never weary of benevolence, espevarious rooms, to be obliterated, cially to the literary struggler, this and the walls prepared for the pro kindly and gifted man lived far into ductions of Raphael alone, who, the present century, dying in 1855. with difficulty, succeeded in sav- | See p. 269. ing from destruction a ceiling, ROTHSCHILD, MAYER ANSELM, foundpainted by his old master Peru er of the banking-house by which gino.

the financial operations of Europe RAVINE (ră-veen' ; but on p. 276, have been controlled since the com

line 10, Coleridge puts the accent mencement of the present century, on the first syllable, thus: rav' was a native of Frankfort, Germany. veens).

He died 1812. His son, Nathan REAL (re'al, not reel).

Mayer Rothschild, removed to EngRECREANT (rec're-ant).

land in 1800, and by the extent of REFORM BILL. Under the old par- | his loan operations acquired im

liamentary system in England, cer mense influence. He died in 1836, tain towns had an old right to send and was succeeded by his eldest son, members to Parliament, irrespective the present Baron Rothschild. The of the number of voters in the family is still celebrated for its place. The possession of certain engrmous wealth. ancient tenements conferred a right Russia (roo'sha or rúsh'a). to vote. The reform bill which SABRE or SABER. swept away this and many other | SACRIFICE (vb. sak'ri-fīze; n. sak'ri.," fise or sak'ri-fize). Smart says that whatever speaks to the immortal the principle of distinguishing“ from part of man. The boon she bestows each other nouns and verbs that! is truth; truth not merely physical, are the same, or almost the same, but truth of moral feeling, truth of in form," by giving " certain con taste. The treasures of literature sonant letters a sharp, hissing sound are thus celestial, imperishable. in the noun, and a vocalized sound beyond all price. Genius, even in in the verb," has, in the verbs to its faintest scintillations, is the insuffice and to sacrifice, “ been allow spired gift of God; a solemn maned to communicate a most irregular date to its owner to go forth and sound to the letter c. This, if not labor in his sphere to keep alive altered in the verb, certainly ought among his brethren the sacred fire not to be adopted in the noun sacri which the heavy and polluted atfice."

mosphere of this world is forever SATRAP (sa'trap or satrap).

threatening to extinguish. Woe to SAVIOUR or SAVIOR.

him if he turn this gift into the SAUNTER (sän'ter or sawn'ter).

servant of his evil or ignoble pasSCAFFOLD (skaf'old or skaf'ŭld). sions; if he offer it on the altar Scar or SCAUR (skär), a detached of vanity, if he sell it for a piece of

protrusion of a rock; a bare, broken money ! *

place on the side of a mountain. SCIPIO (sip'e-o), the name of several SCEPTRE or SCEPTER.

illustrious citizens of ancient Rome. SCIENCE (Latin, sciens, knowing, pres 1. The most celebrated of the name,

ent participle of scio, I know), in its Scipio Africanus the elder, overmost comprehensive sense, knowl came the great Carthaginian genedge, or certain knowledge. The eral, Hannibal, in a decisive battle, knowledge of reasons and their con fought B. C. 262. clusions constitutes abstract, that of SCOTT, WALTER, was born in Edincauses and effects and of the laws burgh, Scotland, Aug. 15, 1771, of of nature natural science. The respectable though not wealthy science of God must be perfect; the parents. Some of his earliest years

science of man may be fallible. were, on account of the delicacy of SCIMITAR or CIMETER.

his health, arising from a malady SCHILLER, FRIEDRICH (Shiller, Fred that caused his lameness, passed

rik), the celebrated German poet, with his paternal grandfather on a was born in Wurtemberg, Novem farm in Roxburghshire. Here he ber 10, 1759, and died May 9, 1805. acquired that taste for border lore In his nineteenth year he began to and chivalric tradition which was write“ The Robbers," an irregularly so strongly developed in after life. impressive monument of youthful He entered the High School of Edfantasy, an exaggerated picture of inburgh in 1779, and passed to the human passion and error, drawn by University in 1783: he did not in one who, in his own words, had either sphere display any shining “presumed to delineate man two ability ; his Latin was little, and his years before he had met one." His Greek less. During these years, greatest dramatic work, the play of however, his health was precarious; Wallenstein, admirably translated and, besides, his favorite studies into English by Coleridge, was pub lay out of the province of schoollished in 1799. See an extract, p. masters and professors. Before his 434. “ The end of literature," says sixteenth year he had run through Thomas Carlyle, " was not. in a vast circle of fiction and miscelSchiller's judgment, to amuse the laneous reading, which contributed idie, or to recreate the busy, by to rear the splendid mass of mateshowing spectacles for the imagina rials from which he struck the rich tion, or quaint paradoxes and epi coinages of his future poetry and grammatic disquisitions for the un novels. derstanding; least of all was it to For a short period, during which gratify in any shape the selfishness he attended the law lectures of the of its professors, to minister to their University, he was initiated in his malignity, their love of money, or father's office into the practice of even their fame. As Schiller viewed | the legal profession ; and in 1792 it, genuine literature includes the he was admitted to practice as adessence of philosophy, religion, art;l vocate. But in this profession ho

was not calculated to rise; he says of it himself, in the language of Slender to Anne Page, “ There was! little love between us at first, and it pleased God to decrease it on better acquaintance." The affluence of his family secured him the means of indulging his favorite tastes; his studies were now incessant and various ; he succeeded in acquiring a general, if not critical, knowledge of the modern languages.

His first serious efforts in composition were some translations from the German ballads of Burger. In 1797 he married Miss Charlotte Carpenter, a young French refugee of great beauty. In 1804 he established himself at a farm on the river Tweed, not far from the Yarrow, and became a literary man by profession. It was here that his first great poem, “ The Lay of the Last Minstrel," was completed. Its pub. lication, in 1805, attracted universal and enthusiastic admiration. This tale was but the first of a series of picturesque romances from his pen, couched in flowing verse of eight syllables, and colored with the brightest hues of Highland and knightly life.

In 1808 “ Marmion" appeared; in 1810, the “ Lady of the Lake,” illustrating the scenery and chivalry of the Highlands in the reign of James V.; these were followed by the “ Vision of Don Roderic, “ Rokeby," and in 1814, “ The Lord of the Isles.” But Scott had reached his culminating point in his poetry. Byron's reputation was fast paling every other fire. Scott now struck into a new vein. He began to penetrate that rich mine in prose fiction the treasures of which astonished the world. In 1814 he wrote “ Waverley," and, for nearly fifteen years, continued anonymously in rapid succession the series of his novels. The secret of the authorship was faithfully kept, till commercial misfortune forced its surrender.

Scott's early wish to connect himself by proprietorship “to his mother-earthi," betrayed him into the purchase, piece by piece, of the bare territory that swelled into the estate of Abbotsford. His contemplated cottage expanded into a " romance in stone and lime,” as his celebrated mansion has been termed; I

and thither he removed in 1812. In 1820 he was created a baronet by the king. But Scott's wealth was illusory; his estate had cost him sums jinmensely above its worth; he became entangled in the responsibilities of the ill-conducted publishing house of Ballantyne & Co.; and the failure of Constable & Co. in 1826 completed his financial ruin. The poet's liabilities amounted to upward of £100,000.

After a life so splendidly laborious he found himself, at fifty-five years of age, without a foot of property he could call his own, and burdened with an enormous debt. But nothing could be more noble than the attitude in which his adversity exhibited him. He sat down in his old age, and in the midst of ruin and of family misfortune, to redeem his fair fame, and to right all whom his imprudence had unintentionally wronged. He would not listen to the offers of compromise generously made to him; he determined to pay his creditors the last farthing.

“ Woodstock" was the first novel he wrote after his great misfortune; and its sale for £8,228 - it was the work of only three months - gave strength to the hopes of the brave old man, that a few years would clear him from his gigantic debt. But his toil was killing him. Before he could reach the goal he sank in the struggle. A paralytic attack in 1831 prostrated the faculties of his overwrought brain. In vain a voyage to Italy was tried for the restoration : of his shattered constitution; returning with haste, that he might die beneath the shade of his own trees, and within hearing of his own Tweed, he expired in unconsciousness, Sept. 21, 1832. See the account of his last moments, p. 71.

The character of Scott's genius was more constructive than creative. The language of his poetry is sometimes careless and diffuse; though some of his minor poems and songs, his “ Lochinvar,” his “ Coronach," &c., show that when he chose to give the proportionate labor and care, he could reach as near to perfection as any poet of the age. His chief work of actual history was a life of Napoleon. He was eminently a painter in words. The picturesque is his forte. But his brilliant

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