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were translations made by himself, poetry, though exhibiting fine pow-
Phil-O-ME'LA, in ancient Grecian
story, a king's daughter who was
metamorphosed into a nightingale.
PLACABLE (plā'- or plăc!-).
PLA'to, the great Greek philosopher,
cian temple of Minerva in ancient C.; died in his 80th year. His is
still the greatest name in speculative
philosophy, as Shakespeare's is in
in France, was born June 19, 1623. of the soul and the beauty of good-
power. He died young, in 1662. PoE, EDGAR A., was born in Balti-
more, 1811. His parents belonged
lish statesman, was born in Lan was left an orphan at an early age.
at Charlottesville. Being expelled
winged horse, regarded as the horse quarrel with his benefactor, he went
difficulty and sought relief from the
can poet, was born in Berlin, Conn., who provided for him the means of
century. Deprived by an accident
don merchant, was born 1688. His a career of literary toil which re-
called Pythia. The word Python
is now often used as a personifica-
tion of the false, mythical religion
was born in 1802 in London. At QUARRELING or QUARRELLING.
an early age he was placed at Eton, I QUALM (kwähm).
RACINE, JEAN (ră-seen' zhäng), the antiquated abuses was passed by
greatest among French tragic the House of Commons, March i, dramatists, was born in Picardy, 1831; by the House of Lords, June 1639. The most important part of 4, 1832. See Macaulay's remarks, his education was received in the p. 158. school of the Port-Royalists, whose RE'QUI-EM (re'kwi-em or rek'wi-em). earnest piety and severe morality REVERIE or REVERY (revler-re). received no discredit either from REVOLT (re-volt or re-võlt'). the writings or from the conduct of Rift, to rive, to split. their pupil. He began his dra RISE (vb. rīze; n. rise, not rize; so matic career in 1663, and his first Walker, Smart, Worcester, Webster, two plays were unsuccessful; but| Goodrich). Walker, after alluding his fine genius shone out with all | to the fact that the noun rise is its brightness in 1667, when his sometimes pronounced with the s “ Andromaque" (an'dro-mak) was like z, remarks, “ The pure s, howplayed. For ten years more he ever, is more agreeable to analogy, continued to produce, almost an and ought to be scrupulously prenually, plays, constituting a series served by all correct speakers.” of masterpieces, and exbibiting so RIVALED or RIVALLED. little inequality that critical opin ROGERS, SAMUEL,a London banker and ions are still divided as to their poet, was born in 1763, at Stoke comparative merit. Racine died in Newington, a metropolitan suburb. 1699. His last work was his sacred His chief poems are " The Pleasures drama of “Nathalie," of which of Memory" (1792); “ Columbus " Voltaire said, that it comes nearer (1812); “ Human Life,” (1819); and to perfection than any other literary Italy," of which the first part apwork which ever issued from the peared in 1822. A graceful and hands of man. See a translation gentle spirit fills the poetry of Rogof a passage from this work, ers. His love for the beautiful in p. 168.
nature and in art led him to delight RAMPART (răm'pärt).
in “a setting sun, or lake among the RAPHAEL (răf'a-el) SANZIO, the most mountains," and at the same time
celebrated of painters, was born at to fill his house in St. James Place Urbino, in Italy, 1483; died 1520. with the finest pictures wealth In 1508 he was invited to Rome by could buy. The breakfasts he gave Pope Julius II., who employed him in this pleasant home used to draw to paint the “School of Athens” some of the first men in London in the Vatican. In performing this round his table. His “Italy” is the commission, he gave such satisfac poem by which he is most favortion that the Pope ordered all the ably known to the literary world. pictures, already painted in the Never weary of benevolence, espevarious rooms, to be obliterated, cially to the literary struggler, this and the walls prepared for the pro kindly and gifted man lived far into ductions of Raphael alone, who, the present century, dying in 1855. with difficulty, succeeded in sav- | See p. 269. ing from destruction a ceiling, ROTHSCHILD, MAYER ANSELM, foundpainted by his old master Peru er of the banking-house by which gino.
the financial operations of Europe RAVINE (ră-veen' ; but on p. 276, have been controlled since the com
line 10, Coleridge puts the accent mencement of the present century, on the first syllable, thus: rav' was a native of Frankfort, Germany. veens).
He died 1812. His son, Nathan REAL (re'al, not reel).
Mayer Rothschild, removed to EngRECREANT (rec're-ant).
land in 1800, and by the extent of REFORM BILL. Under the old par- | his loan operations acquired im
liamentary system in England, cer mense influence. He died in 1836, tain towns had an old right to send and was succeeded by his eldest son, members to Parliament, irrespective the present Baron Rothschild. The of the number of voters in the family is still celebrated for its place. The possession of certain engrmous wealth. ancient tenements conferred a right Russia (roo'sha or rúsh'a). to vote. The reform bill which SABRE or SABER. swept away this and many other | SACRIFICE (vb. sak'ri-fīze; n. sak'ri.," fise or sak'ri-fize). Smart says that whatever speaks to the immortal the principle of distinguishing“ from part of man. The boon she bestows each other nouns and verbs that! is truth; truth not merely physical, are the same, or almost the same, but truth of moral feeling, truth of in form," by giving " certain con taste. The treasures of literature sonant letters a sharp, hissing sound are thus celestial, imperishable. in the noun, and a vocalized sound beyond all price. Genius, even in in the verb," has, in the verbs to its faintest scintillations, is the insuffice and to sacrifice, “ been allow spired gift of God; a solemn maned to communicate a most irregular date to its owner to go forth and sound to the letter c. This, if not labor in his sphere to keep alive altered in the verb, certainly ought among his brethren the sacred fire not to be adopted in the noun sacri which the heavy and polluted atfice."
mosphere of this world is forever SATRAP (sa'trap or satrap).
threatening to extinguish. Woe to SAVIOUR or SAVIOR.
him if he turn this gift into the SAUNTER (sän'ter or sawn'ter).
servant of his evil or ignoble pasSCAFFOLD (skaf'old or skaf'ŭld). sions; if he offer it on the altar Scar or SCAUR (skär), a detached of vanity, if he sell it for a piece of
protrusion of a rock; a bare, broken money ! *
place on the side of a mountain. SCIPIO (sip'e-o), the name of several SCEPTRE or SCEPTER.
illustrious citizens of ancient Rome. SCIENCE (Latin, sciens, knowing, pres 1. The most celebrated of the name,
ent participle of scio, I know), in its Scipio Africanus the elder, overmost comprehensive sense, knowl came the great Carthaginian genedge, or certain knowledge. The eral, Hannibal, in a decisive battle, knowledge of reasons and their con fought B. C. 262. clusions constitutes abstract, that of SCOTT, WALTER, was born in Edincauses and effects and of the laws burgh, Scotland, Aug. 15, 1771, of of nature natural science. The respectable though not wealthy science of God must be perfect; the parents. Some of his earliest years
science of man may be fallible. were, on account of the delicacy of SCIMITAR or CIMETER.
his health, arising from a malady SCHILLER, FRIEDRICH (Shiller, Fred that caused his lameness, passed
rik), the celebrated German poet, with his paternal grandfather on a was born in Wurtemberg, Novem farm in Roxburghshire. Here he ber 10, 1759, and died May 9, 1805. acquired that taste for border lore In his nineteenth year he began to and chivalric tradition which was write“ The Robbers," an irregularly so strongly developed in after life. impressive monument of youthful He entered the High School of Edfantasy, an exaggerated picture of inburgh in 1779, and passed to the human passion and error, drawn by University in 1783: he did not in one who, in his own words, had either sphere display any shining “presumed to delineate man two ability ; his Latin was little, and his years before he had met one." His Greek less. During these years, greatest dramatic work, the play of however, his health was precarious; Wallenstein, admirably translated and, besides, his favorite studies into English by Coleridge, was pub lay out of the province of schoollished in 1799. See an extract, p. masters and professors. Before his 434. “ The end of literature," says sixteenth year he had run through Thomas Carlyle, " was not. in a vast circle of fiction and miscelSchiller's judgment, to amuse the laneous reading, which contributed idie, or to recreate the busy, by to rear the splendid mass of mateshowing spectacles for the imagina rials from which he struck the rich tion, or quaint paradoxes and epi coinages of his future poetry and grammatic disquisitions for the un novels. derstanding; least of all was it to For a short period, during which gratify in any shape the selfishness he attended the law lectures of the of its professors, to minister to their University, he was initiated in his malignity, their love of money, or father's office into the practice of even their fame. As Schiller viewed | the legal profession ; and in 1792 it, genuine literature includes the he was admitted to practice as adessence of philosophy, religion, art;l vocate. But in this profession ho
was not calculated to rise; he says of it himself, in the language of Slender to Anne Page, “ There was! little love between us at first, and it pleased God to decrease it on better acquaintance." The affluence of his family secured him the means of indulging his favorite tastes; his studies were now incessant and various ; he succeeded in acquiring a general, if not critical, knowledge of the modern languages.
His first serious efforts in composition were some translations from the German ballads of Burger. In 1797 he married Miss Charlotte Carpenter, a young French refugee of great beauty. In 1804 he established himself at a farm on the river Tweed, not far from the Yarrow, and became a literary man by profession. It was here that his first great poem, “ The Lay of the Last Minstrel," was completed. Its pub. lication, in 1805, attracted universal and enthusiastic admiration. This tale was but the first of a series of picturesque romances from his pen, couched in flowing verse of eight syllables, and colored with the brightest hues of Highland and knightly life.
In 1808 “ Marmion" appeared; in 1810, the “ Lady of the Lake,” illustrating the scenery and chivalry of the Highlands in the reign of James V.; these were followed by the “ Vision of Don Roderic, “ Rokeby," and in 1814, “ The Lord of the Isles.” But Scott had reached his culminating point in his poetry. Byron's reputation was fast paling every other fire. Scott now struck into a new vein. He began to penetrate that rich mine in prose fiction the treasures of which astonished the world. In 1814 he wrote “ Waverley," and, for nearly fifteen years, continued anonymously in rapid succession the series of his novels. The secret of the authorship was faithfully kept, till commercial misfortune forced its surrender.
Scott's early wish to connect himself by proprietorship “to his mother-earthi," betrayed him into the purchase, piece by piece, of the bare territory that swelled into the estate of Abbotsford. His contemplated cottage expanded into a " romance in stone and lime,” as his celebrated mansion has been termed; I
and thither he removed in 1812. In 1820 he was created a baronet by the king. But Scott's wealth was illusory; his estate had cost him sums jinmensely above its worth; he became entangled in the responsibilities of the ill-conducted publishing house of Ballantyne & Co.; and the failure of Constable & Co. in 1826 completed his financial ruin. The poet's liabilities amounted to upward of £100,000.
After a life so splendidly laborious he found himself, at fifty-five years of age, without a foot of property he could call his own, and burdened with an enormous debt. But nothing could be more noble than the attitude in which his adversity exhibited him. He sat down in his old age, and in the midst of ruin and of family misfortune, to redeem his fair fame, and to right all whom his imprudence had unintentionally wronged. He would not listen to the offers of compromise generously made to him; he determined to pay his creditors the last farthing.
“ Woodstock" was the first novel he wrote after his great misfortune; and its sale for £8,228 - it was the work of only three months - gave strength to the hopes of the brave old man, that a few years would clear him from his gigantic debt. But his toil was killing him. Before he could reach the goal he sank in the struggle. A paralytic attack in 1831 prostrated the faculties of his overwrought brain. In vain a voyage to Italy was tried for the restoration : of his shattered constitution; returning with haste, that he might die beneath the shade of his own trees, and within hearing of his own Tweed, he expired in unconsciousness, Sept. 21, 1832. See the account of his last moments, p. 71.
The character of Scott's genius was more constructive than creative. The language of his poetry is sometimes careless and diffuse; though some of his minor poems and songs, his “ Lochinvar,” his “ Coronach," &c., show that when he chose to give the proportionate labor and care, he could reach as near to perfection as any poet of the age. His chief work of actual history was a life of Napoleon. He was eminently a painter in words. The picturesque is his forte. But his brilliant