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secure for his writings a more en- / by her grandmother, a believer in
during fame. His sympathies, in the doctrines of Rousseau. Married
depicting men and manners in his at the age of seventeen to a country
own country, are on the right side, gentleman of the name of Dude-
and several of his novels were writ vant, a separation was effected in
ten to promote some popular re 1831, her husband being allowed to
form. See pp. 72, 89, 304.

retain her fortune. She removed
DIAMOND (dila-mond or di'mond). to Paris, and began to write novels,
DIAPA'SON, in music the octave or from the sale of which she derived

interval which includes all the a liberal income. For a time she
tones.

adopted the male attire, and by her
Di'et, an assembly of rulers and del independent eccentricities acquired
egates,

great notoriety. The talent dis-
DISCERN (diz-zern').

played in her writings is incon-
DISMAY' (diz- or dis-).

testable. In an autobiographical
DISPATCH or DESPATCH.

sketch she says: “My religion has
DISSOLVE (diz-zolv').

never changed fundamentally; that
DOLOROUS (dol'or-us).

eternal doctrine of believers, the
DONNELLY, IGNATIUS, member of good God, the immortal soul, the

Congress (1864) from Minnesota. hopes of another life, all this has
He has been Lieut.-Governor of · remained, unshaken by scrutiny,
the State, and is still quite a young by discussion, and even by intervals
man.

of despairing doubt." See an ex-
DORIAN (dore're-an), relating to an tract from her novel of“ Consuelo,”

cient Doris in Greece. The Dorian | p. 173.
or Doric style of music was grave DYNASTY (din'- on di'-).
rather than gay.

ECONOMICAL (ek- or e-).
DRACHMA (drak’ma), an ancient sil- EI'THER (ē- or i'-; the former mode
ver coin.

is preferred by Walker, Worcester,
DRAMA (drā'ma, drăm'a, or drä'ma). Smart, Cooley).
DRY'AD, a wood-nymph in ancient Eld, old times; old age.
mythology. By " the oak-crowned | ENGINE (en'jin).
sisters and their chaste-eyed queen” ENGINERY (en'jin-ry).
(p. 310), Collins means the Dryads EPAMINON'das, a Theban general,
and Diana.

illustrious for his talents and vir-
DRYDEN, John, a celebrated poet, tues, fell in the moment of victory

was born in Northamptonshire, at the battle of Man-ti-ne'a, B. C.
England, 1631, and educated at 363.
Trinity College, Cambridge. At Ere (pronounced air), before.
first a partisan of Cromwell, he E'sill, supposed to be Shakespeare's
subsequently became a strenuous mode of spelling Yesel, one of the
royalist. His veerings in religion, branches of the Rhine nearest Den-
politics, criticism, and taste, mark.
throughout his life, exhibit a mind ELYSIAN (e-lizh'e-an or e-lizh'yan).
under the dominion of mere im- EMMETT, ROBERT, the son of a physi-
pulse. Having to rely on literature cian at Cork, Ireland, was educated
for a support, he wrote poems and for the law. Being implicated in
plays. The latter are foul and exe the Irish rebellion in 1803, he was
crable productions, disgraceful to executed. See his speech p. 219.
the author and to the corrupt social | His brother, Thomas Addis Em-
state which the restoration of mon mett, fled to the United States, and
archy, in the person of Charles II., | died in New York, 1827.
introduced. One of the best of EPAULET (ep'aw-let).
Dryden's minor pieces is his ERASMUS, DESIDERIUS, one of the
“ Alexander's Feast,” an ode in most eminent scholars and theolo-
honor of St. Cecilia's Day, from | gians of his age; was born at
which see an extract p. 68.

Rotterdam, Holland, 1467 ; died
DUDEVANT, MADAME AMANTINE, | 1536.

better known by her assumed name EQUALED or EQUALLED.
of George Sand, was born in Indre, ERRING (ěr'ring or err'ing).
France, in 1804. Left an orphan EU'CLID, a celebrated mathematician
at an early age, she was educatedof Alexandria, who flourished 300

B. C. He immortalized his name | EYRY (ē'ry or â'ry).
by his books on geometry.

FABER, FRED.WM., formerly a clergy-
Eu-REKA (Greek, I have found it). man of the Church of England, but
EUROPEAN (yoo-ro-pe'an).

afterward a Catholic priest. He is
EVERETT, EDWARD, one of the most the author of several volumes of
accomplished of American

poems, one of Catholic hyinns, and
was born in Dorchester, Massachu a number of theological works, pub-
setts, 1794. He entered Harvard lished between 1840 and 1850, all
College at the age of thirteen, and showing high ability and thorough
graduated with distinguished credit / culture. See p. 486.
in 1811. Having studied for the (Fabricius, Caius, a Roman general,
ministry, he was chosen, at the ear-| twice consul. He was a pattern of
ly age of nineteen, to succeed the virtue in his integrity and contempt
eloquent Buckininster at Brattle of riches. He died 250 B. C.
Street Church, Boston. In 1815, he FAIRY (fare'ry).
was elected Greek professor at Har- FALCONER (faw'kn-ur).
vard College. He now visited Eu- Faun, in ancient mythology a wood-
rope, and made the acquaintance of land deity.
Scott, Byron, Campbell, Jeffrey, and FAWKES, GUY (ghi), a native of York,
other distinguished persons. In 1824 England, who was engaged in 1605
he was elected to Congress. He was in a plot for blowing up the House
subsequently Governor of Massa- of Lords with gunpowder. He was
chusetts for four years. In 1841 he executed with seven others, Janu-
was appointed minister to England, ary, 1606.
and resided in London about five FED'ER-AL (from the Latin fædus, a
years. In 1846 he was elected Pres compact), relating to a league or
ident of Harvard College, but re- compact.
signed the post in 1849. On the FICHTE (fik'tā), JOHANN G., a cele-
decease of Daniel Webster, he was brated German plosopher and
appointed Secretary of State of the metaphysician, was born in 1762,
United States, and in 1853 succeed in Upper Lusatia; died 1814. He
ed John Davis as national Senator, led a pure, heroic life; and, in his
but soon resigned his seat, and re theoretic philosophy, amid much
tired from official life. Since that that is erroneous, there is much
period he has been devoted to ob that is noble and good. See p.
jects of public benevolence, and has 272.
given his best energies to the ad. FILICAJA, VINCENZO DE, an eminent
vancement of great national inter | Italian poet, was born at Florence,
ests. On the breaking out of the 1642; died 1707. See p. 422.
Confederate rebellion (1861), he ar- FIXE'LESS, endless, boundless.
rayed himself unhesitatingly on the FELL, a skin or hide.
side of the government, and did FLAMBEAU (flam'bo).
good service by his speeches and FOREHEAD (för'ed or för hed).
writings. Mr. Everett was one of FORUM (fore'um or fo'rum),
the foreinost statesmen of his day. FORWARD (för' ward).
Bringing a generous culture as a FRANCHISE (fran'chiz).
scholar into political discussion, he FRONTIER (front'eer).
stamped his public addresses with FULFILL (W.) or FULFIL.
a value which will not perish with FULLNESS (W.) or FULNESS.
the agitations of the hour. His GAL-I-LE'O, GALILEI, a distinguished
style is elegant, glowing, and unarti- astronomer, was born at Pisa, in
ficial; his sentiments are noble and Italy, 1564. While a child he was
liberal; his patriotism is lofty and very skillful in constructing toys
sincere; his republicanism hearty | and pieces of machinery. At the
and consistent. His works will long age of twenty-four he was a mathe-
be regarded as an honor to Ameri matical professor. Having declared
can literature.

his conviction of the Copernican
EXAGGERATE (egz-aj'er-ate).

system of the universe, he was
Ex'E-UNT (Latin, they go out).

charged with heresy, and compelled
EXHORT (egz-hort').

to recant his notions, but he stamp-
EXQUISITE (eks'kwi-zit).

ed his foot and muttered, “Yet it
EXTRAORDINARY (cks-tror'di-na-ry). I moves!" He died 1642.

best energies.ional inter-

1642; died 110cc boundless.

GALLIARD (găl' yard), a brisk, gay love of a good mother he was in-
man; also, a dance.

debted for a superior education. His
GARRULOUS (går'roo-lus).

life was spent chiefly at the univer-
GASCA, PEDRO DE, born in Castile, sity of Cambridge, amid his favorite

Spain, 1497, was sent to Peru, 1545, studies. Here, like a monk in his
and died in Valladolid, 1567. See cell, he read and wrote untiringly.
p. 163.

He was a man of ardent affections,
Genius (jēne'yus or je'ni-us).

of sincere piety, and practical benev-
GIBBON, EDWARD, the historian of olence. Or his scanty poems the

the decline and fall of the Roman “Elegy in a Country Churchyard”
empire, was born in Surrey, Eng is the most famous. Corrected and
land, in 1737, and died in London, re-corrected line by line, it yet
1794. His style is somewhat ornate, shows no sign of elaboration; its
and his diction gives evidence of a melancholy grace is the perfection
partiality for the French language. of art. There are writers with
His history is hostile to Christianity, whom a slovenly style stands for
but his objections have been well nature, and rude unpruned stanzas
answered by Rev. Dr. Milman in for the fairest growthis of poetry.

his edition of Gibbon's great work. Gray was not of these. His classi-
GILES (pronounced jilez).

cally formed taste was too pure and
GLORY (glore'ry).

too fastidious to be content with
GOETHE (gher'tā), JOHANN WOLF any but carefully polished verses.

GANG vox, was born at Frankfort His chief prose writings are letters,
on-the-Main, in Germany, 1749; written in a clear, picturesque style.
died at Weimar, 1832. His is one He died of gout, 1771. See Elegy,
of the most celebrated names in

names in p. 189.
European literature. As poet, nov- GRIFFIN, GERALD, a novelist and
elist, philosopher, he was alike emi poet, was born in Limerick, Ireland,
nent. See p. 210.

1803. Emigrating to London, hé
GOLDSMITH, OLIVER, the son of an became a reporter for the press, and

Irish curate, was born 1728, died subsequently an author. He wrote
1774. He was the friend of Dr. “ The Collegians," a novel, several
Johnson, and his life has been writ poems, and a tragedy, founded on a
ten by Washington Irving. As a Grecian story. All these works
poet, dramatist, and novelist, he ex display remarkable powers. In
hibited noble talents and gained a 1838 he joined the Christian Broth-
great reputation. Gentle, generous, erhood (Catholic), but in 1840 died
and good-hearted, he was at the of fever. See p. 156.
same time irresolute, vain, and im GROVELING or GROVELLING.
provident.

GUARDIAN (gard'i-an).
GOXE (gon or gawn).

GUIDE (gbide).
GRACCHI (grak'ki). Two brothers, GUIZE (ghize).

frequently mentioned in the history GuizOT (gwo-zo), F. P. G., a French
of ancient Rome. Sprung from the statesman and writer, was born at
aristocracy, they yet nobly devoted Nismes, 1787, of a Protestant family.
themselves to the rescue of popular He is the author of a “ History of
liberty. Tiberius Sempronius Grac- ! the English Revolution," " Shake
chus, the elder brother, was slain speare and his Times," a brief me-
B. C. 133. Caius Sempronius Grac moir of Washington, “ Moral Medi-
chus, nine years younger than Ti tations and Studies," &c. He was
berius, perished B. C. 121, at the a member of the cabinet of king
age of thirty-three.

Louis Phillipe, after whose fall he
GRATTAN, HENRY, an Irish statesman retired from public life. See p. 100.

and orator, was born in Dublin, 1750. | GUTTURAL (gut'ur-al), formed in the
His fiery eloquence, guided by good throat.
taste and strong judgment, gave him HA'BE-AS CORPUS (Latin, have the
a commanding influence. He died body), a writ to a jailer to produce
1820. See Madden's account of his prisoner in court,or for removing
bis oratory, p. 277; extracts from a person from one court to another.
speeches, pp. 56, 70, 144, 310.

See p. 260.
GRAY, THOMAS, the son of a scrivener, HASTINGS, WARREN, was born in

was born in London, 1716. To the England, in 1733. In 1774 he was

appointed governor-general of Ben which took place in Dublin, 1835.
gal. For his conduct in office his Her death-bed was an affecting scene
impeachment wils moved by Burke, of Christian fortitude, resignation,
April 4th, 1786. The trial began in and hope. Mrs. Hemans will be
1788, and did not terminate till 1795. best known by her smaller poems,
He was acquitted, and died 1818. some of which are remarkable for
See extract from Burke's speech, lyrical spirit and beauty. Had she
p. 65.

not been compelled by circumstan-
HAWTHORNE, NATHANIEL, an Ameri ces to write hastily, and for pay, she

can writer of rare and peculiar would probably have done things
genius, was born in Salem, Massa far more worthy of her undoubted
chusetts, about the year 1807, and genius, and leit unwritten much
graduated at Bowdoiu College, in | that will not add to her fame. See
1825. A man of sensitive nature pp. 218, 565, 297, 319.
and secluded habits, one of his first .HENCHMAN, a page, a servant.
productions was a tale, entitled HENRY, PATRICK, an American orator
to The Gentle Boy,” which was pub- and statesman, was born in Virginia,
lished anonymously. His reputa in 1736. His early life was spent in
tion gradually widened, until, in poverty, and his means of education
1850, his “Scarlet Letter” placed were limited. He was one of the
him among the foremost of the im delegates to the first general Con-
aginative writers of his day. This gress of the Colonies, and distin-
work was followed by “ The House guished himself in that body by his
of Seven Gables," " The Blithedale boldness and eloquence. He died
Romance,” “The Marble Faun,” | 1799. His life was written by Wm.
“ Our Old Home,”. and several | Wirt. See pp. 401, 460.
minor productions, all marked by | HERBAGE (herb'- or erb'-).
singular beauty and felicity of HERO (here'ro or he'ro).
style, and by a vigor and originality | HESSIAN, relating to Hesse in Ger-
of invention, which distinguished many.
him signally among contemporary Hoard (hord).
authors. He died in Plymouth, N. HOLMES, OLIVER WENDELL, an emi-
H., May 19, 1864. See p. 315.

nent American poet and humorist,
HEARTH (härth).

was born in Cambridge, Mass., 1809,
HEATHER (hěth'er or hēth'er).

and graduated at Harvard College,
HEAVEN (hey'vn).

1829. Some of his earliest produce
HE'BE, in Grecian mythology, was the tions were published in " The Col-

goddess of youth, whose office it legian," edited by John 0. Sargent
was to hand round the nectar at the and others. Choosing medicine as
banquets of the gods.

a profession, he visited Europe; re-
HECUBA, the wife of Priam, king of turned and distinguished himself as

Troy. On the capture of Troy she a lecturer to medical students. But
was carried away as a slave by the circumstances gradually drew him
Greeks.

back to the exercise of those talents
Height or Hight.

with which he was peculiarly en-
HEL'I-CON, a celebrated range of dowed; and medicine finally had
mountains in Baotia. Here sprang! to give way to literature. "When
the celebrated fountains, Aganippel the “ Atlantic Monthly" was started
and Hippocrene, sacred to the Mu in 1855, Holmes became a leading
ses.

contributor, and his writings did
HELM (not helum).

much to give position and circula-
HEMANS, FELICIA, was born at Liver tion to the Magazine. Here his

pool, 1793, and was the daughter of " Autocrat of the Breakfast Table,"
a merchant. Her maiden name was and his novel of “ Elsie Venner"
Browne. Her youth was spent in first appeared. As a poet, Holmes
Wales. Her marriage with Captain is distinguished by his cleanly cut,
Hemans was far from happy. . Ap sculpturesque style, never vague or
pearing before the public as a poet hazy, by the subtle grace and felicity
ess in her 15th year, she continued of his diction, and by the appropri-
at intervals to produce works of ex ateness and beauty of his poetical
quisite grace and tenderness, until imagery. As a humorist, he stands
some three weeks before her death, first among American writers. He

is a ready and accomplished speak-1 works are “Researches on Light,"
er, and his thorough scientific cul- “The Poetry of Science," " Eleinen-
ture gives added strength to his liter- tary Physics." See p. 283.
ary accomplishments. See pp. 32, HURRAH (hoor-räh').
215, 417.

HY'DRA, the fabulous many-headed
HOMER, the great poet of antiquity, monster, slain by Her'cu-les.

born about B. C. 1044. He appears HYMENEAL (hi-men-e'al).
"to have been an Asiatic Greek. He lago (e-ah'go).
wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey. I'AMB or I-AM'BIC, a poetical foot; in
See an extract from the former, p. Latin, a long and short syllable; in
286.

English, an unaccented and an ac-
Hoon), THOMAS, the son of a book cented.

seller in London, was born there in IDEA (i-de'a, - not i-dee).
1798. He learned the art of engrav- | IMAGERY (im-āje-ry or im'a-jěr-y).
ing ; but in 1821, having already | IM'PROVISE (-vize).
contributed fugitive papers to peri- IND (ind), a contraction of India.
odicals, he became sub-editor of the INDIAN (ind' yan or in'de-an).
London azine, and for the rest INGRATE (in'grāte or in-grāte').
of his life was an author by profes- INFANTILE (in'fant-il).
sion. His career was that of an INHERENT (in-here'ent).
honorable, kindly, industrious man, INQUIRY (in-quire'ry).
who was never able to raise himself INSATIATE (in-sa'sh'āte).
above the necessity

sity of toiling for a IRVING. WASHINGTON, was born in
livelihood; and who, long suffering the city of New York, April 3, 1783.
under ill health, continued bravely, His father was a native of Scotland,
even on his death-bed, his efforts to his mother an English woman. Iry-
provide for his wife and children. ing began his literary efforts by con-
His wild and vigorous “ Song of tributing to a newspaper, edited by
the Shirt " was written shortly be his brother. He visited 'Europe in
fore his death, which took place in 1804 ; returned home, and after
1845. As a punster, Hood was in coquetting with the law, became a
imitable. He could twist language partner in a mercantile house. Mis-
into every comical shape of pun and fortunes ensuing, while on a second
quibble; but wit was not his best visit to Europe, he took up literature
quality: he possessed sterling be as a profession. In 1819 appeared
nevolence and genial philanthropy, “ The Sketch Book," which at once
and could move the best feelings gave him a reputation that enabled
of our nature by genuine tender him to command high prices from
ness and compassion. See pp. 53, publishers. “ Bracebridge Hall,”
410.

* Tales of a Traveller," " The Life
HOSTLER (hos'lur or os'ler).

of Columbus," and other works of a
HOUSEWIFE (huz'wif or hous' wife). sterling character succeeded, the
HOVEL (höv'el, — not huvvl).

sale of which continues large. In
HOWE, SIR WM., commanded the 1842 he was appointed minister to

British forces at the battle of Bun Spain. Returning to his native
ker Hill, but the next spring was country in 1847, he settled at his
compelled by Washington to evacu beautiful little place on the Hudson,
ate Boston. In 1776 he gained the and devoted himself to the life
battle of Long Island, and occupied which Thackeray has so genially
New York. He died 1814.

described (p. 351). His last literary
Hulks, old or dismasted ships, used as production was his admirable “ Life
prisons.

of Washington.” The style of Irv-
Hüll, Isaac, a commodore in the ing is pure, luminous, and graceful;

American navy ; commanded the correct without effort, at once ele-
frigate Constitution in her encounter gant and easy. While in England

with the Guerrière. Died 1843. he enjoyed the greatest considera-
HUMBLE (hum'bl or um'bl).

tion and popularity. Oxford con-
HUMOR (hu'mur or yoo'mur).

ferred on him a doctorate and a
HUNDRED (hun'dred).

public dinner; and George the
Hunt, ROBERT, a self-made man of Fourth's fifty-guinea gold medal,

science, was born' at Devonport, I for eminence in historical com-
England, in 1807. His best known position, was awarded him. Ho

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