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quirements are thought much more of in Britain and France. In Germany they are esteemed very inadequate to improve the mind or morals. Indeed, so universal are these branches of knowledge, that in Bohemia, beggar children are commonly found versed in them. In all the free schools, arithmetic and general learning, together with religion, must be taught. There are several hundred infant schools, for the reception of destitute and vagrant children, and of those detected in venial offences, where all these instructions are enjoined. In most of the States, education is not limited to the legal course and period of the fourteenth year: it then takes another form, the religious training by pastors in the churches on the Sabbath and the Festivals.

What is taught of religion ?

This is considered the first thing in the universal system. Its matter and vehicle will differ according to the faith of the country. In the Protestant division of the country, the Bible is explained, Luther's Catechism is adopted, and generally a particular catechism belonging to each State. But the catechetical method is almost invariable.

Which are the States of the Confederation most, or least, advanced in the science and diffusion of education ?

Prussia, perhaps, may take the first place: some will contend for Wurtemburg, still more will urge the claims of Saxony, as its rival. Then we may arrange whatever we may think of its basis, without admiring its arrangement and acknowledging its influence. To this apparatus may be added a higher order of education, - in 46 Royal Colleges, having 18,697 students; in 287 Communal Colleges, with 26,854 students; while £80,000. were paid in 1842 towards their expenses. It is calculated, however, that the third of the population, at present, can neither read nor write.*

In Germany, education has found its favourite theatre, and throughout the compass of that great country it has advanced with gigantic strides. The cradle of the Reformation, that true vra of popular knowledge, it might be expected to furnish specimens of mental power and culture. And there is an earnestness, a heart, an inborn life, in all it does. A closer examination may sometimes disappoint, - like the ShadowSpectre of its Hartz, the wild and the romantic of its intellect may disappear. It still retains the wonderful; and there is a course of development which points to a glorious future. Its Scholarly Burschdom is itself a great type and influence. It is a confederacy, a fascis, against tyranny. It is an adolescence of mind bursting out against prejudice and prescription. It is the sacred youth which guards its country and would hasten its age. Its folly and fanaticism is often suf

* See the Public and Domestic Economy in France, by the Editor of Galignani's New Paris Guide. Also, Chambers’ Information for the People, 1835.

ficiently apparent. Yet there is strength in such a sodality. There is certain success in such a cause. The enthusiasm cannot be lost. While it exists, woe to the traitor and to the spoiler! Invasion and perfidy cannot live before it! It is knowledge incited by patriotism, warmed by bravery, and refined by sentiment! It is a thermal spring, like those of its own land, which no season nor accident can freeze or diminish! But it is with its humble plans of national education that we must now content ourselves. We will put the statistics of this matter into the form of question and answer :

What proportion of the population can read and write ?

The proportion, in the whole population, of children attending the public or parish schools, is as one in six or seven. In the Roman Catholic states, where they are generally only under instruction from six to twelve years of age, the proportion is less than in the Protestant, where education is carried forward until fourteen and fifteen years. At least, 5,000,000 attend school, about an equal number of boys and girls: in Prussia alone there are 2,000,000 in 22,000 schools. Very few villages can be found without one; and even in mountainous districts, where the inhabitants are necessarily scattered, proper regulations are enforced to prevent any serious neglect. No villages are suffered to have one in common, if distant more than two miles from each other, in a flat country, or than

one mile, in a wold: they cannot consolidate if there be marsh or river impassable at any season : if the number be too great, namely, more than a hundred scholars to a teacher, the union is disallowed. Perhaps in this monarchy, the number of children under instruction reaches the most perfect figure. Take its population at 12,726,823 souls, the report of its last census. Of this number there were, in 1831, 4,767,072 children up to the age of full fourteen years. Now the calculation is, that out of one hundred children, from one day old to fourteen years of age, about fortythree are between seven and fourteen years,—which is the appointed period for attendance. This table gives us the sum of 2,043,030 in course of instruction. The official returns are very complete as to the efficiency of the law: for in that very year, there were, 2,021,421, leaving a deficiency of only 21,609: a deficiency we may easily suppose to be made up of children, imbecile, aristocratic, in foreign schools, or in native private establishments. The number is, therefore, generally taken from the estimates of Prussia, which is deemed the true index, or the just ratio, of instruction to population, -one in six upon the whole. These can all read and write, or are learning to read and write.

Does education in the free schools embrace general elements of knowledge ?

Instruction, except in very particular cases, is not confined to reading and writing, — these humbler acquirements are thought much more of in Britain and France. In Germany they are esteemed very inadequate to improve the mind or morals. Indeed, so universal are these branches of knowledge, that in Bohemia, beggar children are commonly found versed in them. In all the free schools, arithmetic and general learning, together with religion, must be taught. There are several hundred infant schools, for the reception of destitute and vagrant children, and of those detected in venial offences, where all these instructions are enjoined. In most of the States, education is not limited to the legal course and period of the fourteenth year: it then takes another form, the religious training by pastors in the churches on the Sabbath and the Festivals.

What is taught of religion ?

This is considered the first thing in the universal system. Its matter and vehicle will differ according to the faith of the country. In the Protestant division of the country, the Bible is explained, Luther’s Catechism is adopted, and generally a particular catechism belonging to each State. But the catechetical method is almost invariable.

Which are the States of the Confederation most, or least, advanced in the science and diffusion of education ?

Prussia, perhaps, may take the first place: some will contend for Wurtemburg, still more will urge the claims of Saxony, as its rival. Then we may arrange

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