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melted copper.

shoe-maker, except that it was not hollowed Another large manufactory was at out underneath, to correspond to the sole of Wanwyl, where the floor of one of the buildthe foot. At another settlement near by ings had sunk a good deal, as Dr. Keller supwere found the remains of actual embroi- poses, from the number of people gathered dery, and a kind of cloth resembling a coarse on it for work, and also from the weight of pattern of checked muslin. In the dwell- the raw material heaped up there for makings of the first period but few if any orna- ing stone implements. Another confirmaments for ladies are found, but in those of tion of the extended trade or acquaintance the second, ornamental hair-pins, combs, of these people is found in the weeds of armlets, bracelets, finger and ear-rings occur; their cornfields; for the Cretan catch-fly and Dr. Keller thinks he finds traces of cro- (the Silene cretica of Linnæus), which is not chet work, and of needles adapted to it, even indigenous to Switzerland or Germany, and in the earliest of the ages. There are also also the common blue-bottle (the Centaurea evidences that the use of metals was not un- cyanus of Linnæus), the original home of known, even in the earliest age; crucibles of which is Sicily, are found in the cornfields clay mixed with other materials having been of the lake dwellings, thus indicating the discovered, containing lumps of melted source from which the corn must have come bronze, and in one case a lump of pure, un- into their hands.

What has thus far been said of the inEven in the earliest of the periods of habitants of the lake dwellings of the earlier which we are speaking, there is evidence in day applies, to a great extent, to those of the lake dwellings that their occupants the second and third periods, except that must have had quite an extensive inter- there was a gradual though slow advance in course, either direct or indirect, with other their manufactures, and that a growing skill tribes or nations. Many of the celts which and dexterity in flint working, and in have been found are made of nephrite, which some kinds of pottery, are manifest in the occurs only in Egypt, China, and other parts later periods. If the races through all the of Asia. A kind of wheat has been found periods were the same, then from the few among their relics, which is said to be of remains of skeletons that have been found Egyptian origin. And some glass beads, they seem to have been of about the same found in one of the early settlements, are of average height and size, the height being the same form and color with those found in about five feet and nine inches. From the the early Egyptian graves, and in the ancient hilts of the broad-swords, already alluded burial places of the West, thus indicating to, and which are now in the museum at trade either directly, or through intervening Copenhagen, it is plain that their hands people, with the Phænicians or the Egyp- must have been remarkably small

, for few tians--most probably the latter; and, as some men at the present day could use the weapthink, indicating the Egyptian origin of the

ons at all. people themselves. And though many of As to the language of these people, the the flints used in this period are like those relics found give us no information, except of the Swiss Jura, yet all the finer kinds that the three capital letters, C. S. and I., must have been brought from France or found on an old shield at Marin, show that Germany. And a piece of amber found at they were acquainted with and probably Meilen apparently points in the same direc- made use of the Roman characters. As to tion, though it may have come from the their amusements, great numbers of singushores of Lake Constance. One great man- lar disk-shaped stones, like what are called ufactory of flint instruments seems to have sling-stones, seem to indicate that stonebeen on the west side of the Neberlinger hurling was a favorite game with them, as Sea, where pieces of all sizes are so abundant it is among the Indian tribes of this country that it was the main source of the supply of at the present day. Balls, too, from six to flints to all Switzerland, until lucifer matches eight-tenths of an inch in diameter, having and percussion caps abolished their daily about a fourth part of the stone ground

away on one side, are supposed to have been inhabitants themselves have been found, used in some kind of game. The only objects and even these, not under conditions that found supposed to be connected with their enable us to assign them to any particular religion, are some figures of the crescent period. Until lately no traces of burial moon, with zig-zag and line ornaments on grounds had been found, and none even of one side. These, however, are not found in those confused mixtures of bones which are the earlier, but only in the later periods. supposed to be the relics of cannibal feasts in They are supposed to have been used as a Yorkshire and in Denmark. Many have inkind of charm to propitiate the invisible pow- clined to the opinion that the bodies of their ers and to cure diseases and avert evil; and dead were burned, as was the custom of the seem to have been placed in some open space Celts in later times. Others thought they or over the doors of their dwellings, so that were thrown into the lakes, in which case the ornamented side was exposed to the their disappearance would easily be accountview. From the fact that three of them ed for; for when the great lake of Harlem were found in a single small excavation, and was drained, though many a fierce engage quite a number of them in some of the lake ment had taken place on its waters, the only dwellings, it is probable that no house was traces of battle that remained were a few without what they deemed so important a hulks of ships and some coins and arrows; protection.

everything like bones having been dissolved As to the nationality of the lake settlers in the water. But quite recently a remarkthere have been two theories ; one that the able burial place has been discovered near races of the earlier periods were conquered Neuchâtel, in which the bodies were buried and driven out by those of the latter; the very much as among ourselves, except that other, that they were all of the same race, they were in the sitting posture, which was the only changes being those of the gradual much practiced in pre-historic days. The advance which might be expected from the skulls are very similar to those of the Swiss progress of time and the improvement it of the present day, which would seem to might bring. Though in some things wide show that the lake dwellers were ancestors differences are found between the produc- of the present inhabitants. But even these tions of the various periods, yet when care- discoveries, which have been made since the fully examined the points of agreement are date of Dr. Keller's publication, do not found to be so many and striking that they make plain the origin or the nationality of can only be accounted for by the existence the occupants of these singular dwellings. of kindred feelings and habits and tastes. As to the date of the dwellings themselves, The similarity of the dwellings through all the though various theories have been advanced, periods; the gradual intermixture of bror.ze nothing seems certainly settled. Some would and iron; the shape of the celts and other make the earliest of them two or three thouimplements of stone and bronze, so alike in sand, and some as much as six or seven their style and form, and the various articles thousand years old. But on such points we of pottery, all show only such differences as have no sure grounds of conclusion. Like might naturally mark the gradual develop the inhabitants of early Egypt, or those of ment of one and the same race, and not the Central America, or the people that condifferent civilizations of different peoples. structed the mounds of our own Western Dr. Keller's opinion is that the builders of States, the occupants of the lake dwellings the lake dwellings were an early branch have lived, and died, and passed away, leavof the Celtic population of Switzerland, ing the ruins and relics of their singular though he thinks the earliest settlements abodes as the only history of their origin, or belonged to the pre-historic period, and had numbers, or destiny. They formed one of already fallen into decay before the Celts the many links of our race that have served took their place in the history of Europe. to connect the past with the present, and But it is difficult to settle this question, their work being done, they have disappearfrom the fact that very few remains of the ed, and the places that once knew them

shall know them no more forever. Who ments that remain to speak. And the few were their friends, or who their enemies; traces that we find upon and about them do what their social or civil or religious state; but suggest a thousand inquiries to which what their knowledge of art or science or we can expect no satisfying answer till we arms? As to all these things they have left pass, like the departed occupants, to the unno chronicles to teach us. The ruins of

seen world. their frail dwellings are the only monu

Tryon Edwards



For creating, for doing first things, An- twenty years, and at the time of his death dover has a genius. She founded the first in 1802 the Lieutenant Governor of the temperance society, the first missionary State. From his desire of enlarging the association, the first educational society, boundaries of human knowledge, and of and the first tract society formed in Amer- strengthening the moral and religious sentiica. She aided in establishing the first re- ment of the community, sprang his purpose ligious newspaper. She laid on her own of founding a school fitted to instruct youth “ Hill ” the corner-stone of the first theo- “not only in English and Latin grammar, logical seminary; and she is also the mother writing, arithmetic, and those sciences of the first academy incorporated in the new wherein they are commonly taught, but world.

more especially to learn them the great end Previous to the Revolutionary war but and real business of living.” Interesting few schools designed to fit students for his father and his uncle, John Phillips of college had been established in America. Exeter, in his plan, it was after mature deThe Latin School in Boston, the Dummer liberation decided that a school of this Academy in Byfield, the Grammar Schools character be established. in Cambridge, New Haven, Hartford, and a Trustees were selected, bequests of cerfew other towns had been of great service tain pieces of land in Andover and of about in teaching the little Latin and less Greek $8,000 in currency by the elder Samuel required for admission to Harvard and Phillips and his brother John were made, Yale, and in training young men for active and on the morning of Thursday, the 30th life. But these schools were to a large ex- of April, 1778, Phillips Academy was opened. tent local schools. A majority of their The act of incorporation followed in 1780, teachers belonged to the towns in which and preceded by a brief interval the grantthey were situated, and students from these ing of the similar instrument to the Phillips towns were granted privileges not allowed Exeter and the Dummer Academies. those dwelling beyond the stone post that In considering the work of an academy marked the township’s limits. It was not which has for a century been the most imtill the year 1778, at a time apparently most ortant school for secondary instruction in opposed to the establishment of new schemes the country, and whose pupils number ten of education, that a design was conceived thousand, the first point for examination is of founding a “Public Free School or Acad- its course of study. The character of its emy” whose advantages were intended to be course of study for the years succeeding its as extensive as they should be lasting. The organization is involved in much obscurity; noble honor of conceiving this design be- but it is evident that instruction was given longs to Judge Samuel Phillips, a graduate in the classical and the English languages, and overseer of Harvard University, the with the chief design of admittance to colPresident of the Massachusetts Senate for lege. If, however, Mather may be regarded



Mather says:

as authority for the middle of the eighteenth But throughout the steady extension in century, the conditions of admission to col- the curriculum, the emphasis that has been lege were not severe. In his “Magnalia,” laid upon mental discipline has been most

“ When scholars had so far marked. The acquisition of knowledge profited at the Grammar schools that they has been constantly subordinated to the discould read any classical author into English cipline of the mind. The aim has been and readily make and speak true Latin, and rather to fit men to think clearly, deeply, write it in verse as well as in prose, and and accurately than to fit them for college. perfectly decline the paradigms of nouns Her graduates, therefore, have not been and verbs in the Greek tongue, they were specially distinguished at Harvard, Yale or judged capable of admission to Harvard Dartmouth for the brilliancy of their enCollege.” It is probable, however, that the trance examinations. During the Freshman course of study during the last quarter of year, also, they have often failed to manithe last century was in the Academy some- fest the best elements of their academic what more extended than Mather indicates. training. But in the last years of their For as early as 1810–11 the Latin course college course, in which the demands upon included Virgil, the Colloquies of Corderius, the thinking powers are most urgent, the Cicero's Select Orations and Sallust; and thoroughness, the accuracy, the clearness in the Greek course, the New Testament and which they had been trained by Pemberton a sort of first book known as Collectanea or by Taylor advanced them far beyond Græca Minora. The methods, however, those apparently brighter lads who had surand principles of instruction were most la- passed them in the Freshman or Sophomore mentably superficial and disastrous to the year. By the emphasis, therefore, that she attainment of the highest scholarship. “I has laid upon the importance of intellectual

I well remember," writes to me one who was discipline, Phillips Academy has not only a pupil in the Academy in 1811, “that the given able scholars and thinkers to the general object sought was to grind into us Yales and the Harvards, but she has also and ground us in a knowledge of the Greek given to the whole country citizens who, and Latin languages. All other knowledge whether college men or not, are better fitted was of minor consequence, this being at- to exercise the rights of citizenship by reatained by a severe course of the most per- son of her training. sistent gerund-grinding; an exclusive mem- The large majority, however, of 'her stuorizing, first of all, of the entire Latin or dents she has sent to college ; and of the Greek grammar, before entering upon any six thousand to whom she has furnished practical application of its forms or rules. the foundation of a classical education, The whole business, and it was about the about three thousand are college gradusame all over the land, was a melancholy ates. Before the opening of the present misunderstanding and sorrowful miscon- century she sent about two hundred of her ception of the function of education.” boys to Harvard; and for seventy-five years

But within the last sixty years the methods she has provided Dartmouth, Yale, Amherst, of teaching in Phillips Academy, as in every as well as Harvard, with an annual quota preparatory school, have improved as much of from five to twenty-five men. as the course of study has broadened and The work of Phillips Academy, also, in widened. The scheme of study for college the early training of college presidents and now covers four years, and embraces the professors is signally distinguished. Fifclassics, the mathematics, a general knowl- teen presidents of colleges and one hundred edge of one or two of the natural sciences, professors in colleges and professional and of at least one modern language. All schools received the first classical knowlthe critical apparatus of scholarship, too, is edge from her teaching. Presidents Stearns so simplified that Master Pearson or Master of Amherst, Woods of Bowdoin and DuAdams would have no need of his birch rod rant of the California University, all memfor helping his boys to learn Greek. bers of her class of 1822, and Presidents


Kirkland and Quincy of Harvard, were her Loring, a decade since, manifested those
students. To Professor Short and Professor talents which make his early death so lam-
Putnam the eminent Grecians; to Professor entable.
Young, the astronomer; to Dr. Aiken, the The financial history of the school is, also,
Princeton metaphysician; to Professor J. D. one of the most interesting and suggestive
Whitney of Harvard, and to Dr. Wells, the features of her first century. Though she
organizer of Chicago's school system, she is not as richly endowed as several institu-
gave instruction and discipline. For the tions of a similar character in New England,
Quincys of Boston, for Worcester, the lexi- her work has seldom been impeded by a
cographer, and for Clark, the Cambridge lack of funds. Four members of the Phil-
telescope-maker (who made his first tele- lips family are her largest, as they were her
scope while a member of the school from a earliest, benefactors, and their bequests ag-
dinner bell), she laid the foundation of their gregate $60,000. George Peabody included
subsequent work and renown.

the school among the objects of his munifi-
The history of Phillips Academy in re- cent generosity, and endowed a professor-
gard to the literary work, both of her stu- ship of the national sciences with a founda-
dents and graduates, is most distinguished. tion of $25,000. The gifts of 'Squire Farrar,
The course of study of the school, designed the treasurer, and whose benefactions ex-
to fit for college, has afforded only narrow tend through sixty years, amount to some-
opportunities for instruction in composi- what over $15,000; and about $5,000 have
tion; but in their literary societies the been given as a fund for aiding needy stu-
students have constantly done literary work dents of merit. The Acadeiny, however,
that compares very favorably with the work has never possessed productive property of
of similar college organizations. The “So- a sufficient amount to be free from depend-
cial Fraternity,” a secret organization, stilling to a certain degree upon her tuition
remembered by the older graduates, flour- charges for support. Though these charges
ished in the first quarter of the present are remitted to indigent students, only a
century; and the Philomathean Society, small proportion of the whole number in the
founded in 1825 by Dr. Ray Palmer, Pro- school avail themselves of the privilege.
fessor H. B. Hackett and others, has been At the present time, the Academy annually
for more than fifty years, by its weekly de- derives about $9,000 from the tuition fees,
bates and orations, an excellent gymnasium and somewhat over $6,000 from her produc-
for the training of writers and speakers. tive funds. These funds amount to $95,000,
But the Academy itself, holding that the and with the real estate, valued at $125,000,
best discipline for young men between the constitute her principal assets.
ages of ten and sixteen is the thorough During her first twenty-five years, and
study of the Latin and Greek authors, has in the interval between 1845 and 1860, the
devoted but a small portion of her work to school attracted a wealthy class of students,
instruction in either rhetoric or composition. but in the other periods of her history, the
Under this wise arrangement, not a few of few wealthy boys from New York and Bos-
her graduates have won distinction in the ton have usually been outnumbered by the
world of letters. Nathaniel P. Willis was penniless ones from the country towns of
her student in 1821. Oliver Wendell Holmes Maine and Vermont. The thought of the
was one of her members for a year in 1824– founders that while wealthy students would
25; and is described by a school-mate as a come to her, poor ones could, has in general
“beautiful boy .. bright, cheerful and un- been realized. The large majority, however,
sophisticated, and brilliant in every depart- of her members, have belonged to the vast
ment of his study." The Honorable George middle class—the third estate of the nation;
P. Marsh also laid in the Academy the and have satisfied the wise man's desire in
foundation of that varied learning which possessing neither poverty nor riches. The
has made him distinguished in the world of school has, therefore, never been supported
letters and science; and here young Fred by a constituency of graduates, as is Har-

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