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posal of this money that I wanted to see you treatment and future prospects. Our earnthis afternoon."

est and prayerful conference ended by his “Why does he not come to me?” asked going home with me to see Robert and if Tom, lifting his head.

possible to persuade him to become a memIt was best to be thoroughly honest with ber of his own family. If an interest in him, and I answered: “I do not quite under some one or something besides himself could stand. It seems to be a mixture of fear and be stimulated into action, if his affections shame that keeps him away.”

could be drawn out and fostered, and a selfTom's dark face flushed to the roots of respect built upon a solid basis, his chances his hair. He was grieved, pained and cha- of salvation here and hereafter would be grined. “I thought Bob knew me better,” greatly improved. All this could be done he said to himself; and turning away he put in Tom's family if anywhere. He had an a question infinitely harder than all the rest: excellent wife and three or four young “What is he, Doctor?

daughters, and the sweetest and most help“A man to be saved.”

ful influences abode in that home. The ex“ Then he is not wholly lost ?”

periment would have been one of doubtful “I trust no man is wholly lost while the propriety if there had been sons in that breath of life remains within him. Tom,– family. reaching him my hand which he instantly I entered first and found Robert still grasped,—“my interest in your poor brother sleeping, and proposed to Tom to look at has grown to be second only to yours; and Robert in his sleep, that he might not behowever painful it may be to you or to me, tray his painful surprise at the great change it is better to talk this matter up thoroughly, that had taken place in him when he should and see what we can do for him."

see him awake. Tom went in and I closed A long consultation followed, in which I the door after him. told Tom all that I knew of Robert's past What took place in that room was known or present, withholding only the name of only to themselves and to Him who knowthe broker in whose interest the successful eth all. search had been prosecuted. Some day he Some hours later Tom and Bob came out, would know. Till then let it rest. I dwelt arm in arm, and without speaking to any upon Robert's present condition, necessary one went lovingly home together.


STILL shines that Sabbath morn for me,

Its breeze still whispers low;
'Twas yesterday; it cannot be

'Twas thirty years ago,
A little girl, in broad-brimmed hat,
In the old meeting-house I sat;
The south wind through the doorway blew,
And the old deacon, in the pew
In front, looked back and gave to me,
Full blown, a crimson peony.

What sudden sense of wealth was mine!

To my delighted eyes,
It seemed a blossom such as might

Have grown in Paradise ;

So wide its silken petals spread,
So rich its robe of royal red,
Pinks, roses, lilies, violets, all
My garden blossoms, great and small,
Seemed poor, pale, common things to me,
By that resplendent peony!
In what serene content I spent

That ofttimes weary hour,
My little head in rapture bent

Above that matchless flower!
The prayer and hymn were both unheard ;
I lost the sermon, every word ;
But, O, what charms, unseen before,
For me, that gray, old deacon wore !
The best of men I thought must be
The giver of that peony.
Time flies with swallow's wings away;

I count the years, and know
That Sabbath was not yesterday,

But thirty years ago ;
The very meeting-house is gone,
We gathered in that summer morn;
The preacher's voice is hushed, and wave
The daisies o'er the deacon's grave;
But, fresh and fragrant, still for me
Unfading, blooms that peony-
Still bright, as when, above its breas:

That happy day I smiled ;
O, blest, for aye the gift is blest

Bestowed upon a child !
It has a worth beyond its own,
A charm to all things else unknown!
How perfect is the joy it gives !
How long in memory it lives !
And childhood's spell yet makes for me
A flower of flowers, the peony !

Marian Douglas.

THE LAKE DWELLINGS OF SWITZERLAND. The more thoroughly the surface of our great cities of Bashan, the researches of Di globe is explored, the more the wonders of Cesuola in Cyprus, and the discoveries of the past are unveiled to our view. The un- Schliemann at Troy, all unfold stories of covering of Pompeii and Herculaneum, the deep interest and full of instruction to us. excavations at Nineveh, the researches of As the Pyramids of Egypt speak in their Stephens in Central America, and more re- silence of a nation that was cently the accounts given by Porter of the splendor and knowledge and power even be

magnificent in fore the days of Abraham, so these and sim- may be interesting to condense some acilar discoveries tell us of the numbers and count of these “ Lake Dwellings,” as the arts and social life of generations that have original works are not accessible to the long since passed away, and of whom we great body of ordinary readers. might have had no knowledge but for these These dwellings of past generations in the mute and yet eloquent relics of their past lakes of Switzerland are of two classes : those existence and history.

resting on piles, and those supported on fasThe lake dwellings of Switzerland are cines, or large bundles of rods and poles. among the wonders of modern discovery. With the first kind, which is much the most The existence of such dwellings in the past common, piles, consisting generally of whole was, indeed, known to classical students. trunks of trees, such as oak, birch, fir, wilHerodotus tells us of settlements of this low, etc., but sometimes of split stems sharpkind on Lake Prasias or Bolbe (the modern ened either by fire or by crude instruments Takhyno), where he says, “men lived on plat- of bronze or stone, were driven into the shalforms, supported on tall piles standing in the low parts of the lakes. On these, platforms middle of the lake, and approached from were laid on which the huts of the people the land by a narrow bridge. * * * Each,” were built. The platforms were for the he adds, “has his own hut, with each a most part of the rudest kind, consisting of trap-door giving access to the lake beneath; layers of unbarked stems, though occasionand they tie their very small children by the ally, as in one of the Italian lake dwellings, foot with a string, to keep them from falling they were composed of boards split out of into the water. They feed their horses and the trunks of trees and joined with some other animals upon fish, which are so abund- care and accuracy. In some cases the piles ant in the lake that they have only to open were strengthened and braced by large stones the trap-door and let down a basket by a thrown down between them. But in the rope into the water, when in a little while it case of the fascine dwellings, which belong


full of fishes.” And skep to the earliest age and are found chiefly in tical though we may be as to the material for the smaller lakes, the erections consisted of feeding their horses, the other parts of the layers or bundles of sticks or small stems of account are doubtless reliable.*

trees piled upon each other from the bottom Dr. B. F. Keller, in his account of the of the lake to above high water mark; and lake dwellings of Switzerland and of other on these the platforms for the huts were parts of Europe, translated and arranged by laid. These are said very much to resemble I. E. Lee, F. S. A., and published by the the crannoges, or “wooden-islands," that Longmans of London, has given us very full have been found both in Scotland and Ireaccounts of this class of dwellings in Europe, land. some of them constructed far back in the When the platform for the dwelling was ages of antiquity (he suproses thousands of completed, a bed of mud, loam and gravel years ago), and some of more modern origin. was laid upon it and beaten down firmly The details, both as to the structures and either by the feet or with wooden mallets; also their inhabitants, are minute and won- several of the latter have been found in the derful, and the abundance of materials for vicinity. Sometimes layers of large pebbles the narrative is astonishing, between three are found near the top ; probably to give and four thousand relics having been found strength and compactness to this kind of on the eastern shore of the Uberlinger Sea floor. The frame-work of the huts was alone. From the statements in Dr. Keller's made of small piles or stakes, between which work and in one or two reviews of it, it rough boards were forced in, forming the

*An inbabitant of Capo Cod tells the writer that he "skirting boards” of the dwelling; and the has now and then seen cows eating fish; and if this rest of the walls consisted of wattle-work, is so, we may, perhaps, incline to believe Herodotus. covered inside and out with loam or clay to His wonderful accuracy, as more and more made evi- the thickness of two or three inches. The dent by the progress of time and discovery, makes us willing to believe all that we can of his statements. huts, so far as discovered, were in all cases

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rectangular, though huts of the same early gen, which covers twenty-three acres. The age and of kindred races when built on the quantity of piles used was enormous. At land were usually circular in shape. In size Robenhausen alone, it is estimated that they vary from twelve by twenty to twenty- there must have been at least a hundred two by twenty-seven feet; and in some cases thousand. The dwellings are of various are very much larger. Sometimes they are dates, which, for convenience sake, may be in groups of five or six, standing closely to- classed as the earlier, middle and later, or gether; while sometimes they are separated as some have named them, those of the by spaces of two or three feet. They were stone, the bronze, and the iron ages respectthatched with straw, reeds and the bark of ively. Not that there is any definite and trees. In addition to the huts for families, sharp line of demarcation between the there were also on the platforms stalls for buildings or their periods; but, like geologcattle and places for fodder and for winter ical strata, though they are plainly different, stores. Each hut had its hearth near the they gradually and almost imperceptibly center, consisting of three or four slabs of melt into each other. The settlements in stone; and from the clay weights for weav- Eastern Switzerland were the earliest, and ing found in the huts, it is supposed that for the most part ceased to be used before most if not all of them were furnished with the second or bronze period, or at its very looms. Portions of young trees with the beginning; while those in the Western part, branches partly lopped off, are not uncom- though beginning in the earliest age, did mon in the dwellings, used apparently for, not reach their full development till the secsuspending mats, tools, nets and earthen ond period. Centuries apparently elapsed vessels, some of which seem to have had between the earliest and the latest of these handles of rope or bark.

settlements. In some cases, as at Nidan The platforms are generally at some dis- Steinberg, the erections were evidently going tance from the edge of the lake; and when on, and the dwellings were occupied through near the main land were approached by nar- all the different periods. Some of the setrow wooden bridges. Some of these were tlements seem to have been abandoned; and fortified by palisades. The platforms of the in some cases it is evident they were delater periods are built much further out into stroyed by fire. In Bienne and Neuchâtel the lake than those of the earlier; and the they seem to have been in use longer than huts themselves are always at the farthest anywhere else, not being abandoned till point from the land. As security against after the Romans occupied the country; enemies was, doubtless, the reason for mak- while the Irish crannoges were more or ing and living in such dwellings, those that less used as late as the seventeenth cenwere thatched were located as far as possi- tury. ble from the reach of burning missiles. The inquiry has very naturally been raised, And the fact that the bones of the wild “What was the degree of civilization posswan, which comes to the Swiss lakes only sessed by the people of the earlier lake in December and January, have been found dwellings?” And fortunately for our curiamong other relics, shows that the huts osity, there are ample materials for replying were occupied all the year round, and that to the question. The men of the earliest they differed in this respect from the Irish ages were agriculturists and also keepers or crannoges which were used only as places of breeders of cattle. They sowed wheat and refuge in times of danger.

millet and the double-rowed barley, which The number of the lake dwellings in vari- is still cultivated in the East. Nearly one ous localities must have been very great. hundred bushels of grain of various kinds, In Lake Neuchâtel alone, no less than fifty were found in a single place. All the crops stations have been found. These vary much seem to have been spring crops, and the tillin size and extent, from the eastern settle- ing of the ground was of the simplest kind, ment of Moosseedorf, which covers only consisting in tearing up the surface with the fifty-five by seventy feet, to that at Sipple- most crude and inefficient instruments; such,

for example, as the horns of the stag, or the the settlers consisted of fish, as is evident crooked branches of trees. The people also from the immense quantities of scales that cultivated extensively what is known as the have been discovered, and which seem to short flax, though no traces of hemp have have been scraped off with broad and sharp been found in their dwellings. Corn was flints or flint knives. The skeletons of large sometimes ground for food, the stones used pikes have been found, and in some of the for grinding it being frequently found in settlements the actual fishing nets that they the dwellings; while, in other cases, it was used and the fishing hooks made from the crushed and roasted, being made into small tusks of the wild boar. There are, also, relcakes that were baked on hot stones covered ics of the darts or javelints on which, it is with glowing embers. Barley was used in supposed, they in part relied for taking fish. the same way, while wheat and millet were Fruit, too, was by no means neglected. both ground and crushed. Corn was also Large quantities of water-chestnuts have used for porridge; and some remains of this been found in the ruins of their dwellings; mixture are supposed to have been found in also raspberries, from which the juice had pipkins which must have fallen into the lake been pressed, elder-berries, blackberries, and at Meilen when the settlement there was now and then strawberries; both crab and burned.

large apples, pears, plums, sloes and cherries This ancient people, however, were not of several kinds. Grape-stones have been only agriculturists, but also cattle-keepers. found only at Castione near Parma, though They had cows, sheep, pigs and goats; the sickle-like pruning-knives, apparently for dog, too, was then, as now, the companion pruning vines, have been met with in two or and servant of the shepherds and herdsmen. three places. The only product of the “ And cats," says Dr. Keller, “purred by the kitchen garden as yet found, are peas, and hearth, and killed rats and mice, while their those only at a single place. kittens played with balls or strings, just as The occupants of these early lake dwellif they belonged to the nineteenth century.” ings were not unskilled in the various handiRemains of the horse have been found in craft arts connected with their everyday life. most of the settlements, and the people also At Waugen, where the implements and tools had cows of a small species; the original of bone, stone and wood, are of the most stock, probably, of the brown cow which is miserable kind, cloth, both platted and still found in the mountainous parts of woven, was manufactured in an excelent Switzerland. At Auvernier and other manner; while in other places the stone places, a horn-shaped vessel of coarse-grained celts exhibit great skill in workmanship, black clay has been found, having five small some of them being highly ornamental in holes in it, one above another, exactly simi- form and appearance. The carpenters of lar to the vessels now used in the valleys of the second period were, of course, superior Jura for making cheese ; and this is sup- to those of the first; but the latter were far posed to have been used by the occupants of from being unskilled or inefficient. The the lake dwellings for the same purpose in early pottery was rude and coarse, though their day.

sometimes finer materials and greater finish Swine seem to have been abundant, espe- are discovered; but there are no traces of cially toward the close of the earlier age. vessels with long, narrow necks, like the botAnd in addition to the domestic animals tles, flasks and jugs which were so abundant which they used for food, they also supplied in Roman times. Linen, thicker or thinner, themselves, by hunting, with the flesh of the was the principal article of dress and clothelk or moose, the wild boar, the hare, the ing. At Robenhausen a portion of fringe stag (the horns of which were utilized for was found, with several specimens of cloth, tools and for ploughing, or breaking up the some of complicated pattern, and all evincground), and some suppose with that of the ing some refinement of taste and even a tenbison. Poultry does not seem to have been dency to luxury. Here, too, was found a kept or used. A large part of the food of last, precisely like those used by the modern

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