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atism, he should not appear alone, but should diseased viscus. The only difference in acbring Edwards and Calvin with him. tions is in the outcome, and not in the inner
In the first place, appeals of this kind spring. When this is clearly seen, remorse misrepresent Calvinism. The Westminster and shame vanish, and with them the sting creed affirms predestination, but it is ex- of sin; for the sting of sin consists not in pressly said to be of such a kind that the being thrown down, but in having voluntaliberty of second causes is not taken away tarily fallen. The fallacy of the fatalist but rather established. To the average consists in taking the outer form of action mind this is equivalent to denying predes- for the inner life, and in the failure to pertination, but the Calvinist thinks otherwise. ceive that he has lost all that makes action Considered as a philosophical notion, there moral. is all the difference in the world between The morals of fatalism, therefore, must physical fatalism and Calvinistic predesti- be purely external. It must classify acts by nation. But in the second place, this is not results only. The only thing to fear is exa question of great names, in any case, but ternal penalty; and to ward it off we have of simple logic. For our own part, we should our wits. In a multitude of cases what we be quite unconcerned if Edwards and Cal- now consider the most infamous sins against vin did appear as Mr. Huxley's supporters. the soul could be rendered harmless by No more is the question whether theoretic proper sanitary measures. Prudence would deniers of liberty have practically admitted still be necessary; but if only the inner it. No system can be saved by the incon- shame were gone—and it would go if we sistency of its friends. Let us, then, deny were sure of automatism-it would be easy freedom, what must follow? The fatalist, to reckon with natural laws. Under such appealing this time to Butler, says that a system the same external result might be nothing will follow. If there be any neces- reached as under a free system; but nothsity, we are now living under it, and daily ing short of absolute incapacity could imaglife would remain unchanged if we became ine that there would be any morality in it. conscious of that necessity. But this ap- Another result must be mentioned. Merit plies only to the external form of action and and demerit having disappeared, action not to the inner life. This sameness of ex- would be estimated purely by its outcome. ternal form is probably what Professor Hux- Feeble infants might be exposed; infirm ley means by one of his symposium utter- persons might be knocked on the head; and ances, which says that when it is seen that even advanced scientists, if their doctrines the consequences of moral law are as inex- threatened to disturb the social well-being, orable as those of physical law, men will might be practically dealt with for the genbreak the one no sooner than they will the eral good. Of course, truth would have only other. A fatalist will not put his hand in a practical value; beyond this point, it would the fire any sooner than the believer in free- be insanity to attribute to it any
sacredness dom; and when it is clear that moral law or obligation. Where a lie would serve the has consequences just as fixed, no theory purpose as well as the truth it might be lewill seriously affect conduct. But this again gitimately used; of course in some cases a applies only to the external form; while sin lie would be preferable. That advanced and righteousness, merit and demerit are thinker who so nobly scorned the repose of within. Now these vanish with the denial faith because he coveted truth, could only of freedom. There is no longer any merit be an object of compassion, as being either or demerit. Upon this theory punishment a madman or a fool. Now we hold that becomes not a just retribution but a simple these results follow from the denial of freemeasure of self-defence. The element of dom, and that they do not represent what righteousness has gone out of it; and the common sense understands by morality. Of attack is no more wicked than the defence. course, the advanced scientist will deny our The murdered is as blameworthy as the conclusion, but in default of argument we murderer; both alike are the victims of a leave him to his sentimental indignation.
Let us pass to the second point, the de- consideration of intuitionalists that it is now nial of a future life. Here, too, the denier generally admitted. Christianity gives an takes high ground in favor of intuitional answer. It says that the soul, which is the morality, and repeats the common remarks true man, is to live forever, and that every about the absolute sanctities, etc. If there act of good or evil photographs itself indelibe no life to come, it is still a duty to be no- bly upon its entire future. Hence morality ble and not base. There is a sublime gran- has an infinite, because an eternal signifideur in heroic struggle and sacrifice even if cance. Hence when hand or foot offend, we sink into nothingness the next moment. we should cut them off and cast them from He is also careful not to miss the opportu- us. Hence we are to struggle and agonize nity of expressing his scorn for the selfish. to enter into life, for the gain of the world ness of those who look for a future life. were nothing if the soul were lost.
At once But unfortunately these worthies are com- we see the tremendous significance of action. monly entangled in the doctrines concern- The moral law is no wanton impertinence ing conscience and freedom which we have but the organic law of the soul's life and mentioned; and that leaves us in doubt peace. But if we reject this view, the law, whether this fine talk is due to ignorance or so far as it transcends common prudence, knavery. But we omit to press this difficulty, appears as monstrous injustice. Corscience and point out that struggling, agonizing, etc., itself turns against it. Man has only this are not heroic in themselves, but only when life to live, and the law will not let him enthey have a worthy object. One might joy that. The law no longer appears as struggle, and even agonize mightily, to walk something godlike, but rather as a demon a thousand miles in a thousand hours, but hand thrust enviously up to clutch at the it would not impress any one as especially little happiness which his short life makes heroic. To struggle for nothing is the mark possible. Man is called upon to render jusof a fool and not of a hero. Before we give tice, and shall the universe be unjust to way, then, to sentiment about self-sacrifice him? and agonizing, reason asks what this self- Christianity gives a reason for the moral sacrifice and agonizing are for? The facts law and justifies it to our intelligence. Let upon which this seemingly high-toned mo- us abandon the Christian theory and see rality is based, are these: The moral law as what ground there can be for obeying the revealed in every normal conscience is not moral law beyond the limits of earthly prucut out on the pattern of prudence or self- dence. Much sentiment is poured out at interest. No more is it cut out with su- once; and in particular the selfishness of preme regard to animal or earthly interests; our view is dwelt upon. We will not insist on the contrary, it claims to override them on the fact that this decrier of selfishness is if they collide with it. Anything may and commonly the one who bases the moral namust be sacrificed rather than violate the ture on the most abject selfishness; we only sanctity of conscience. Thus the moral law point out that he mistakes his antagonist. appears in our lives as an unconditional im- It is not the selfish instincts but conscience perative, commanding and giving no rea- itself which protests against a law out of all sons. It is this fact which has led many proportion to the good of its subjects. Nor intuitionists to imagine that the law is able is it the selfish who have insisted upon a to support itself. But this law, like all oth- future life, but Socrates, Plato and Christ. ers, must justify itself to our reason. As a The implied claim of the positivists that simple, opaque fact, disturbing animal hap- they themselves are the only ones who have piness and flouting prudence, we want to emancipated themselves from selfishness know its authority and its meaning. No would be infamous if it were not so ludicrous. amount of sentiment can avail to answer or After such a claim one is not surprised to resist this rational demand; and it is one of see their founder abandoning the wife who the great services of the utilitarian moral- rescued him from the mad-house, nursed ists to have so forced this point upon the him back into sanity and supported him by
her own toil, in order to devote himself to been. Whether happy or unhappy, moral an "affinity.” But, it is urged again, it cer- or immoral, all will have passed away and tainly is selfish to refuse to sacrifice our. left no sign. The difference between right selves for the good of others, unless we see and wrong will have been wiped out; and our own advantage in it. Here again the the righteous and the wicked will have objection fails to touch bottom. There is reached a common goal. Now the holder nothing more abhorrent to the moral nature of this view attempts to preach morality, than just this law of sacrifice except on one and what can he say? Worldly prudence condition. That the one should be essen- every one can understand, but what ground tially and utterly sacrificed to the many is is there for anything more? Of course, we to empty all morality and reason out of the do not mean that everybody would plunge system of things; and the world becomes into beastliness if the belief in immortality the strict parallel of a helpless ship in mid- were gone; differences of taste would still ocean whose crew, driven to cannibalism by remain, but that is all. Duty would be an starvation, kill the weaker one by one in empty word, and taste would give the law order to satisfy their horrid hunger. If such of life. But taste has no law; and every were the case conscience and pity would one must be left to his own devices. Sadly command, not that some should submit to enough the taste of the masses does not lie be eaten, but that all should stand by and in the direction of moral ideas. Men are perish together. Here is an autonomy of the annoyed and vexed at any apparition of conscience which conscience itself cannot re- duty, and they would gladly shut it out of solve. Conscience justifies a rational self- both thought and life. Now how could a love as much as it justifies self-sacrifice. In humane unbeliever in immortality justify the average, my happiness is worth as much himself in disturing a pleasant worldly life as another's. Ought I to sacrifice myself by this nightmare of duty? If it were posfor him? he ought to sacrifice himself for sible to implant in a cow grazing in rich me and prevent my action. Ought we to pasture, unattainable and unreal ideals find our happiness in that of others? then I which should spoil the pasture and produce can make others most happy by doing the only unrest, would the act be humane or best possible for myself and letting them diabolical? Whereupon the objector in his know how well-off I am. Intuitional moral- grand way replies that there is an essential ists have almost invariably overlooked the nobility in duty; but in the assumed cirdualism of conscience upon this subject. cumstances this can only mean that his The New Testament reconciliation is the tastes run in that direction, and that he only possible one-he that Joseth his life, chooses to stigmatize the tastes of others as the same shall save it. Personal good and base and groveling. But what right has he universal good must be identified in a future to do so? His egoisin and self-esteem are life. Without this assumption there is satisfied in one way; but that does not nothing upon which the conscience turns warrant him in interfering with others who more fiercely than upon this law of sacrifice. differ from him. Each must be allowed to Of course, if any one finds delight in self- go his own way free from all interference sacrifice, no one objects. As a refined form and from insolent assumption of superiority of egoism it justifies itself, but it can never on the part of others. If the egoism of one be commanded as a duty.
man delights in certain psychological finerOur claim then, is not merely that selfish- ies, he should be free to choose them. If ness overrides conscience when a future life another is better pleased with more substanis denied, but that conscience itself aban- tial goods, let him be equally free. Above dons its high claims in that case. Here are all, let moral absolutism, which alone is the facts: In a few years it will make no true morality, die the death. The critic difference to me what I have been. In a must allow that if a future life be denied few generations it will make no difference the present life would be more comfortable to the universe what the human race has if the sense of duty were toned down.
It is unnecessary to discuss the effects of has made mighty advances in science and atheism upon morality, as it implies the philosophy. It is becoming fashionable to difficulties already mentioned. We close deride the universe, and the cant of progby pointing out that, upon any theistic the- ress is receding. Our literature is full of it, ory it is impossible to justify the ways of from the magazine article written according God either to the conscience or to reason to the prevailing fashion, to the magnificent without a future life, and without the Chris- but half-crazed utterances of J. S. Mill in tian theory of that life. If we think of a his posthumous essays. Whoever has the period a few thousand years ahead when words of eternal life, it is at last settled the present order shall have passed away that science and philosophy have them not. and the ancient silence and loneliness of From the Indian stand-point, the Indian God shall have returned, we cannot help notion is profoundly true. Conscience and asking the question, “What was it all for? reason are satisfied only as we advance to This meaningless stir of creation which has the Christian doctrine that the full pursunk back again into silence, was it worth pose and magnificence of creation become while ?” It is at this point that we can com- manifest only in eternity. By a necessary prehend the despair of the Indian religions. development of thought, when we abandon We Occidentals have had a childish readi- this stand-point, speculation recedes toward ness to view God as the creator of the finite atheism or unconscious pantheism. All order; but that is precisely what the Ori- speculation is in unstable equilibrium beental mind has found impossible. It did not tween these two extremes. doubt the Infinite, but questioned whether We have not sought to prove that adthe Infinite could connect itself with such a vanced scientists are bad men, but that finite. The finite, as we know it, is unwor- their doctrines lead by logical necessity to thy of the Infinite. He cannot descend from a destruction of morality. Neither senti. his sacred, everlasting calm and silence to ment nor personal character are concerned; take part in this stupid senseless turmoil of but simply and solely logic. Hence appeals the finite. Hence the finite does not exist. to sentiment and charges of misrepresentaIt is a dream only, an illusion. God is not tion are irrelevant in reply. We do not in it, for it is unworthy of Him. Hence, urge the results deduced as any disproof of also, let us too seek to escape from it, and the premises; we only insist that they by reflection on the eternal and by with-flow from the premises; and there is no indrawal from action, let us lose ourselves justice in putting premises and conclusion again in the infinite rest and silence. Until together. We have given the question this very recently this conception was impossible prominence because we believe that misto Western thought. It was a matter of chief has been done by ignoring it. Let it course that God could not want any higher be dragged into the light and kept there, business than to make and maintain our until loose-jointed scepticism sball learn world. And as for the world, it was a great what it is doing, and until speculative success; a little blackened, indeed, by the trickery shall be forced to be consistent Bible, but upon the whole a very excellent and to accept the logical outcome of its thing. All this has changed. Pessimism opinions.
Borden P. Bowne.
BY JOSEPHINE R. BAKER.
Haven. And lastly, Miss Dyer, Maud, Mr.
Dyer, and Northrop Duff, who stopped for VACATION DAYS.
them on his return from California. Early in July Mr. Dyer, by my advice, I found them all improved and changed. resolved to spend the heated term in a Physically they were in excellent condition, clearer atmosphere. After a little hesita- Mr. Dyer excepted, and even he was better tion, he pitched upon Lake George as the than I had supposed he ever could be again. place most likely to suit him. Of course
A change not easily defined was apparent in Agnes went. I was not a little amused to all, and more pronounced in Hal and Maud find, presently, that Hal and Maud needed than in the rest. They were happy enough, a change of air, and that Lake George was for anything that I could see, but thoughtjust the place for them. Northrop Duff ful and quiet, and I missed their former would also take Lake George on his way frolicsome gaiety. Somebody had stolen home. Well, things must drift as they my children and given me men and women would.
instead. Hal, especially, seemed years older. I cannot say that this summer proved as I had failed to credit him with the depth comfortable or satisfactory as previous sum- and earnestness he was manifesting now. mers of my life. Mary's maternal instincts He was home a good part of the time—his insisted upon Lake George, and I begged medical studies allowing him more freedom her to take Jack along too. My solitary than his academic course,
—and I had larger meals and the stillness of the house at night opportunities for observation. To my surimpressed me with a sense of a bachelor's prise he would remain silent for hours, or loneliness as never before. Tom fled also, plunge off into long, lonely walks, returning and I had no resource but my work. There thoroughly wearied; and I often heard him was enough of that, for sickness and death striding up and down his room till nearly took no vacation and made no distinction
morning. Of course there seemed but one between the Lord's poor and the devil's explanation to all this. Contrary to my expoor during those long, sweltering days. A pectation, his violent predilection for Miss man's heart must be hard indeed who could Dyer had settled into dead earnest; and I feel no compassion. I found a certain sat- could not and would not speculate as to the isfaction in spending myself for them, till I issue. But even that explanation, patent as began to get seriously jaded in body and it seemed, was insufficient, as I afterward mind by the suffering I saw and was unable
ascertained. Maud was touched by a to relieve. However, I stoutly resisted the thoughtfulness that made her more beauti
Ι attractions of Lake George, and when the ful than ever. She still sang, but her song heat and my weariness became importunate was no longer the gay trill of a bird. She I ran down to Nahant a few days, failing to fluttered between a smile and a tear, and regain my accustomed serenity even there.
was strangely forgetful. Who had set my September with its cold nights and hot
pet a-dreaming ? days fulfilled the promise of a rainy August.
No one seemed disposed to be communiAn epidemic prevailed in the city and my cative; I got the most out of Jack. It apabsentees were refused permission to return peared that during their absence, when till October. Mary came first with Jack, Maud was not with her mother, she was conscience-stricken, as she averred, for leav- with Miss Dyer, and that wherever Miss ing me so long alone. She was anxious also Dyer was, there could be found Northrop to get Jack into the High School, the term and Ilal. having already commenced. Hal followed,
“I think Miss Dyer liked me best,” exbound for his medical studies at New plained Jack, with becoming modesty, • Copyright, 1877, by Josephine R. Baker.
" though she talked most with Tall