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the preacher, the poet; but the word of “Now God be with him, quoth our king, Whittier is the true one, that “the man is

Sith it will no better be,

I trust I have within my realm greater than the author.” It is the life of

Five hundred as good as he." a soldier of Christ, who in a time of struggle, when the church and nation needed We may have an historian like Arnold, great hearted leaders, chose for himself the a thinker like Maurice, a preacher like Rob. front of the battle, who never gave up for ertson, a writer and leader like Kingsley, great bribes or small one honest conviction, but such an apostolic succession of men is and whose influence has been more than rare in one generation. The church that his books, or all books, in the manhood he has given them birth will not die; and it has bequeathed. And it is happier yet for will be time enough in another thirty years, England, that she can say even in such a when they who come after have gathered in loss, with stout Henry over the body of the harvest, to understand the sowers and Percy :

the sowing.

E. A. Washburn.

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“Bend to thy burden! awhile for thee
The weight and the wear of toil must be.

Eternity! Eternity
From care and carking shall set thee free.”

If the ways of man my spirit vex,
And the ways of God my soul perplex,
When He hath taken my life's desire,
And molten my heart in his fining fire;
When the dearest eyes I cannot see,
And the voice I longed for is dead to me:
“Wait! for thy longing shall find the key;

Eternity! Eternity!
There shall the dayspring come back to thee,”
Softly singeth the dark fir tree.

When I shall sleep in my quiet grave,
Oh kindly fir tree, above me wave!
Utter thine anthems to one who grieves
Under thy shining, singing leaves:
“Keep thy faith like the fadeless tree !
Tender and true let memory be.

Eternity! Eternity!
There thy lost love is waiting for thee!”
Blest be thy music, oh dark fir tree!
And blessed the Maker who fashioned thee!

Rose Terry Cooke.


Conscience is a great embarrassment. ing human opinions. The better class of Its vexatious meddling with matters of prac- "advanced scientists,” agree with the most tice is familiar to everybody. According rigid Christian moralists in emphasizing to Shakespeare, “It makes a man a coward. this point. There are, indeed, some men, A man can not steal but it accuses him. notably in Germany, who clamor in the

It beggars any man that keeps name of science to be freed from the moral it. It is turned out of towns and cities for law; but the prevailing sentiment about a dangerous thing; and every man that them, even in scientific quarters, is that means to live well endeavors to trust to they should be met, not with argument, but himself and live without it.” In addition with rebuke. Certainly the advanced scito these serious practical inconveniences, entists of England and America are in no conscience has of late years become a great mood to listen to the obsolete brutalities of obstacle to scientific speculation; indeed it Hobbs and D’Holbach, who denied any natseems likely that much of current specula- ural distinction between right and wrong. tion can not go on, unless measures are Morals must be upheld; and any system taken to abate the nuisance. In other which seeks acceptance from men must words the validity of moral distinctions, make some provision for morals, if not for and the unconditional duty of right living, religion. The need of religion is not so are foregone conclusions with all men who universally admitted ; and yet Comte's “Reare worthy to have any voice in determin- ligion of Humanity,” Strauss's “Worship of

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the Cosmos,” and Professor Clifford's “Cos- tism in mind and morals, and they have mic Emotion” indicate that advanced scien- repeatedly assured us that life and mind tists regard even religion as a necessity. But result, mysteriously indeed but none the however that may be, it is not to be thought less really, from physical combination. of that moral distinctions should be denied, There is nothing new nor strange about and the sins of the world taken away by a this doctrine, it is simple, old-fashioned mastroke of definition. This is the general terialism; but what amazes the critic is feeling upon the subject, as much among that its holders are unwilling to have it respectable sceptics as among believers. called materialism. Barely to suggest the And here it is that conscience becomes so word is sufficient to call forth passionate troublesome. Science is not at liberty to and even hysteric denial. One is forthwith lay down its premises and trust to logic for charged with finging dirt, and worst of all the conclusion. Whatever the premises, a with resorting to the odium theologicum. fixed point is given which must always be So peculiar a psychological phenomenon taken into account. Conscience is so inter- must have some explanation. It may occur twined with our entire system of beliefs to ill-conditioned minds that we are here that scarcely a speculation can be started dealing with the same mental tendency about which the question does not arise: which leads men to prefer the title of em“But what about conscience?” One man bezzler, defaulter, etc., to that of thief, and concludes that life and thought are only the which leads them to describe their operaoutcome of molecular combinations; and at tions as anything but stealing. But while once the question starts up: “But what this hypothesis would fully explain the about conscience?” Another discovers that facts, we think a better can be found. We there is no freedom and no future life; and believe that the surprising sensitiveness to again the vexatious question arises : “But charges of materialism and atheism which what about conscience?” Some come down the writings of many prominent speculators from the observatory or out of the labora- show, is due not to a fear of public opinion tory, and announce that there is no God, or but to a fear of themselves. They are not that if there be a God we can know nothing sure that they have left any sufficient about Him; but in each case the old question ground for the moral nature. They are not is reëchoed: “But what about conscience?sure that they are not on an inclined plane

Now this is extremely vexatious. Sci- whose bottom lies far beneath them. Hence ence cannot

in peace; but in the they wish to ignore or evade the problem, very moment of a great discovery or gener- and hence when some critic declares that alization this intractable moral nature starts their views lead by logical necessity to a up before the speculator as Elijah did be. denial of morality, they are startled at findfore Ahab when he had killed and taken ing the question forced upon them. Then possession. And what makes it worse is that they cry out, as much to reassure themthis troubler of Israel cannot be ignored. In selves as anything else : "I tell you the popular mind morals stand or fall with not a materialist; I am not an atheist. I the beliefs in theism, freedom and a future believe in moral distinctions as well as you. life. This may be a mistake; but unfortu. It is a wicked slander to call me an atheist!” nately the opposite doctrines have produced To which the critic responds by asking little but evil fruit. Materialistic and them if there is any word in the language atheistic saints are extremely rare appears which rightly describes their views; and ances, and this serves to support the popu- especially he asks them to forego hysterics lar view. Here, too, we find the explana- and show that their declared views are not tion of a peculiar sensitiveness which ad- inconsistent with the moral nature. Until vanced thinkers manifest at being charged this is done the common sense of mankind with atheism or materialism. Various is against them. prominent speculators have lately made us Plainly this showing is a necessity; and acquainted with the doctrine of automa- so far as assurances go, the work has already



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been done. Hardly an essay or an address and earth to quake. His plans embrace only is produced by the other side which does the man of large culture and established not assure us that in any case the interests self-control; and we do not believe that his of morality are safe, and that a high moral system would work well even here for any ideal is just as consistent with atheism length of time. Our thesis is that moral as with theism. Some, like Mr. Frederic distinctions vanish, exhortation becomes Harrison, even carry the war into Africa, an impertinence, and punishment becomes and declare that a belief in a future life is brute violence when God, freedoin and the so far from vecessary to morals that it is future life are denied. But let no one say really incompatible with the highest moral that we are taking refuge in sentiment; for development. These assurances we propose we are not arguing against such denial, but to examine. Personal inconsistencies may only pointing out what it implies. Indeed be allowed; but a system stands or falls by sentimental arguments on this point have its logic. An inconsistent system is no sys- not come of late years from the side of tem. Our speculators pride themselves es- Christian theism. It is the other side which pecially upon their consistency; we demand has deluged the subject with floods of sentithat they be consistent here. We do not ment concerning impersonal immortality, deny that the sense of right and wrong and cosmic emotion, cosmic worship and the of the beauty of right living may be very religion of humanity. We only demand strong in men who think themselves atheists that there shall be no paltering, no attempts and without any immortal destiny. Ernest to sew the new cloth on the old garment. Naville says:

There are men all of whose If we are to accept the teachings of advanced convictions have fallen into ruins while their scientists, we wish to do it with our eyes conscience remains standing, sole remaining open.; to kuow just where we are going and witness of a demolished building.” It would what we are giving up. This is desirable be strange if there were no cases of this on all accounts, for clearness as well as for kind. God, the Eternal Love, is not to be safety. The moral aspects of advanced sciabolished by any one's unbelief. The Holy ence need to be more accurately determined. Spirit, the Light and Life of men, is not ex. The question has been suffered to drag tinguished even if man's faith does falter along like a chronic disease which has power and die. And human love, too, abides in to undermine life, but whose onset is not the human heart, burning up baseness and sufficiently sharp and decided to rouse the spreading its flaming wings for illimitable energies of the system to resistance. flight. It is not strange, then, that a sense But what do we mean by advanced sciof moral beauty should remain even after ence? We do not mean science, by any its logical supports have fallen. But every- means. We believe that morality, religion body knows that this is not often the case. and human welfare in general have no truer In the history of philosophy, the denial of friend than genuine science. But recent God has quickly and invariably led with it speculations have made us familiar with the the denial of duty. The dream of the ad- denial first of freedom, second of a future life vanced scientist that morality is safe in any and third of God. The last denial is some case is due to his ignorance of history. He times replaced by what is called agnostic does not know how often in the history of theism. This is only a longer way of writspeculative thought the theoretic denial has ing atheism, as the two doctrines are quite involved conscience and duty in ruin. He indistinguishable so far as either science or also takes a too rosy view of man himself. niorality is concerned. Its only advantage He forgets that to the mass of men, duty is is that it enables one to have the game witha hateful yoke and a heavy burden. He for- out the name. Now these views are not gets both the revelations of iniquity which science, but they claim to be; and the dogconstantly startle the commercial world, matists who hold them are extremely fond and the selfish and anarchic passions whose of giving them out as the latest and most mighty struggles make the social heavens advanced science. Hence the name. Our

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claim is that any one of these doctrines science are in debate the same eloquent leads logically to the destruction of moral- writers are quite sure to tell us that conity.

science has a very earthly origin. Then we At the very outset we are struck by a pe- learn that there is no absolute right; everyculiar inconsequence on the part of the ad- thing depends on custom and circumstance. vanced scientist with regard to the moral The moral nature has its roots in physical nature in general. The believers in the desire. Love of pleasure, fear of pain, a mythical origin of Christianity used to ex- bit of sympathy and a large amount of selfplain the notions which the early Church ish expectation will produce a conscience, held about Christ by referring to the Old when thrown together in the same being Testament teachings concerning the Mese and worked over by the chemistry of assosiah; but when the question of prophecy ciation. Our distinctions of right and wrong was in debate, they found it convenient to rest upon no eternal nature of things, but deny any distinctively Messianic prophecies. merely express the way in which we were A similar piece of str is fashionable in brought up. Had the "environment” been this debate. When one suggests that athe- different, both truth and righteousness would ism or materialism is fatal to morals, the have been different. One cannot help feeladvanced thinker invariably treats us to a ing surprise when he remembers that the homily conceived in the spirit of the highest expounder of this doctrine is the same supeintuitional morality. God or no God, we rior being who before made such a glowing are told, there is an eternal distinction be- defence of absolute truth and right. Now tween right and wrong. Whether there be we should be justified in calling a halt here, a future life or not, it is still an imperative and insisting upon a choice between these duty to live nobly here. In particular the two views. Both cannot be held at once. eternal sanctity of truth and its supreme If conscience have the genesis just described, value for the seeking soul are largely dwelt it is absurd to speak of any obligation higher upon. Christians are even twitted at times than that of common prudence; but if conwith believing immorally, that is with pre- science has any true right to rule, it cannot ferring the rest of unfounded beliefs to the have had this origin. To hold now one noble disqniet of absolute loyalty to truth. view and now the other, according to the The advanced thinker must have no other exigencies of the argument, impresses one motto than the heroic words, “I covet truth;” with the same feeling of awe which invaded and he must resign all the comforts, all the the minds of William Nye and Truthful joys, all the hopes of his heart, if they seem James at the wonderful play of Ah Sin. to conflict with the eternal veracities. The Common honesty and that supreme truthfulhomily is apt to close with a whispered ness which has been set up as the chief virprayer, just loud enough to be overheard, tue demand that a choice be made here. that he “may join the choir invisible of We say it deliberately and with emphasisthose immortal dead who live again in souls this fundamental inconsistency can be resmade better by their presence.” By this cued from the charge of knavery only by time the objector is heartily ashamed of postulating an ignorance equally dense and himself; and as he gazes upon this noble profound. being in whom self is overcome and duty is We pass to the specific denials mentioned; all and in all he wonders how he could ever and first we consider the denial of freedom. have made his unfortunate suggestion that when we object to physical fatalism that it any conceivable change of opinion could re- denies morality, the scientific speculator is move from duty the seal of inviolable obli- very fond of using the great Calvanistic gation. This moral enthusiasm on the part theologians to screen himself from attack. of advanced thinkers is extremely gratify- When Professor Huxley made his address, ing, no doubt; but our satisfaction and ap- “Are Animals Automata?” he warned his preciation are partly obscured by the fact critics in advance that if he were to be sumthat when the origin and nature of con- moned to answer for his doctrine of autom

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