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sessed of as large resources. The young in debt as long as there is a human being people this spring are anxious to put in on the earth poorer in body or soul than we. costly windows, a new organ, velvet carpet- We owe him education, civilization, the ing, etc., and to hire a noted soprano and Gospel—that help, in short, which is to basso for the choir.
make a man of him instead of a brute. But Mr. Patton has opened a new Mission Until we have met this great and terrible chapel and a Workingman's club-room, and obligation which rests upon us, every dollar is now contriving an association by means spent in luxury in our place of worship is of which unemployed laborers will be helped simply defrauding our creditors. Beauty is to buy land in the waste districts of the a help to devotion, eh? Oh, children, the state and to colonize there. The church, he sight of a single man whom we have helped says, ought to set an example as to the out of misery and vice to a clean, honest proper outlay of money. No honest man, life, is a better help to devotion than all the with the times as hard as they are now, if red glass or velvet carpeting in the city ! ” he is in debt to his poorer neighbor, is going But Mr. Paton by most people is looked to treat himself to fine furniture in his upon as an extremist in his views. house, or even to noble music.”
So St. Mark's and St. Matthew's work, “But St. Matthew's is not in debt ?” each in its own way, for the honor of their cried his hearers. “We do not owe a dol- Master. Each is a type of a large class lar!”
of churches throughout this country. “My friends,” said the old man,
Rebecca Harding Davis.
Darlings of June and brides of Summer sun,
Chill pipes the stormy wind, the skies are drear;
What do you here?
We looked to see your gracious blooms arise
'Mid soft and wooing airs in gardens green, Where venturesome brown bees and butterflies
Should hail you queen.
Here is no bee nor glancing butterfly;
They fled on rapid wings before the snow;
Long, long ago.
And here amid the slowly dropping rain
We keep our Easter feast, with hearts whose care
Each thankful prayer.
But not a shadow dims your joyance sweet,
No baffled hope or memory darkly clad ;
And are all glad.
Oh coward soul, arouse thee and draw near,
Led by these fragrant acolytes to-day!
Thy cold delay.
Come with thy bitter, which shall be made sweet !
SCIENCE AND THE EXODUS.
REPHIDIM AND SINAI.
position of the enemy. They must conquer,
or return to perish in the thirsty desert We left the Hebrew host toiling upward through which they had been marching. from the maritime plain of the Gulf of Suez, Accordingly the biblical narrative informs along the Wady Feiran, and approaching us that on reaching this place, where they the defile where Amelek had mustered all his had no doubt expected to find rest and wawild desert rangers to oppose their farther ter, the Israelites “ chode with Moses," and progress; and may now more particularly gave way to the utmost alarm and irritation. mark the circumstances which preceded the It was here that the rock was smitten to contest of Rephidim. The lower part of give water to the people, and surely there the Wady Feiran is dry and desert, but its
never was greater need of a miraculous inupper part above the entrance of the lateral tervention. Refreshed and strengthened, a valley of Wady Aleyat is comparatively well chosen band under Joshua attacked the powatered and verdant, and was no doubt very sition of the Amalekites, and after a provaluable to the native tribes. At the com- tracted fight extending throughout the day, mencement of this fertile portion there is a and apparently after several repulses, sucstrong position, flanked by hills and afford- ceeded in storming the position and putting ing good means of retreat in case of defeat. them to flight. Moses watched the fight The defenders of such a position would also from a neighboring hill, and prayed to God have the advantage of water and pasturage, for the success of Israel ; and when the batwhile their assailants must march for three tle was decided he raised an altar to Jehodays through an arid waste. On the one vah, calling it Jehovah Nissi (The Lord my hand the Amalekites were here defending banner), and he is said to have written a the frontier of the habitable country under memorial of it in the book "—that book of favorable circumstances. On the other the records which we now have in Exodus and Israelites, after the dreary march through Numbers. The explorers identify a hill, the wilderness of Sin and the lower stretches Jebel et Tahûneh as the “Gibeah " of Feiran, would hope when they reached which Moses must have stood to witness the upper part of the valley, to enjoy com- the fight, and not far below the field of parative ease and plenty. How bitter then battle is one of those rocks which the Arab would be their disappointment, when arriv- traditions indicate as the smitten rock from ing faint and thirsty, they found the pass which the water flowed. occupied by their enemies, ready to bar their
It is worthy of note that before reaching entrance, and so situated that defeat or re- Rephidim the Israelites would have passed treat would be equally fatal to their assail- over the outcrop of the cretaceous limestone ants. There was no way of flanking the and of the underlying sandstone, now
known to be of carboniferous age, and to buoyancy and even to enthusiasm.” would have entered on the much older (Here occurs Hery el Khattatin, according gneiss and slate underlying the sandy and to Bedouin tradition the scene of the miragravelly bed of the wady, and flanked on cle of water in Rephidim, where is a large either hand by the high granitic or syenitic block of fallen granite covered with pebbles masses of Serbál and Banát, the whole con- placed there by the Bedouins in commemostituting a wild and alpine scenery alto- ration of the event. In this neighborhood gether strange to the greater part of the are also many of the Sinaitic inscriptions, people, and fitted to impress them with awe which however the explorers do not believe and terror. On the other hand, the walk- to be of great antiquity). Above this place ing is now good, and generally over a clean the scenery of the pass becomes so wild and granitic gravel, the deeper colors of the old grand as almost to overwhelm the mind; rocks are less glaring in the sunlight, and here and there stupendous cliffs rise perpenthere are many high cliffs giving the “shad- dicularly above the path, elsewhere the ow of a great rock in a weary land.” The slopes are covered with immense slides of scenery of this first of the battles of the disintegrated rocks, and the devastating Lord's host is so vividly sketched by Cap- effects of winter torrents are plainly seen tain Palmer that it would be wrong not to in the main valley and its tributary glens. quote a part of his description.
The rocks from the hill tops to the valley's “The road now lies wholly among the level are to all appearance absolutely bare. older rocks, whose somber lines and varied At the mouth of Wady Umfús the traveler outlines afford a pleasant change and relief halts to enjoy a glimpse of Jebel el Banát, a to the eye after the glare and sameness towering ridge of red granite of matchless of chalk, and the somewhat overrich color- depth of color, and the yet more magnifi
ng of the sandstone cliffs. The ranges, cent view of Jebel Serbál now near at hand. especially on the left, here take fanciful A mile further on we come to the little oasis forms and rise in long serrated ridges now of El Hesweh-palms, water and Bedouin and then surmounted by graceful cones.” dwellings—a bright spot of living green in (He then describes the banded appearance of the midst of stern desolation and just where a the higher hills, caused by dark red, purple wide rugged valley, "Wady Aleyat, descend and olive green dykes of dolerite and diorite ing from the Eastern slopes of Serbál comes traversing the dull brownish gneissic rocks in from the South-east, we get our first of the hills.) From a point almost a mile view of the great palm-grove of Wady Feifurther on, the character of the route grad- ran, a rich mass of dark green foliage windually changes and the scenery increases in ing through the hills.” grandeur at
We are now en- It was in front of this Eden of the Sinai tering the intricate labyrinths of the Sinai desert, that the Amalekites are supposed to mountains, approaching the huge clusters of have posted themselves, and we may imagwhich Mount Serbál forms the crowning ine the discouragement of the people when feature; the hills draw closely in on either they found the sword of the desert ranger hand, the wady becomes more and more excluding them from this paradise and winding the higher you advance, and its threatening to drive them back into the bed ere long contracts to but half or even wilderness, and the earnestness of Moses less of its former width. High banks of in his prayer that success might be granted alluvial deposits cut through by the passage to the arms of Joshua. of torrents guard the mouths of tributary The battle of Rephidim opened to the valleys; chalk debris disappears and gives Israelites a comparatively fertile and waplace to boulders of gneiss and granite; tered country leading to the great plain beshade is now abundant, the air cool and fore Sinai. Farther, it enabled them to bracing, and the spirits of the scorched open communication with the Midianites traveler, half depressed it may be by the dwelling on the East side of the peninsula, fatigue and exposure of his march, now rise on the gulf of Akabah, and who were
« abundant water near
friendly to Moses and his people. Accord- mountain overlooking a plain in which ingly we find that immediately after the the millions of Israel could be assembled. battle, Jethro, the priest-chief of the Midian- (2) Space for the people to “remove and ites, was able to meet Moses and to bring to stand afar off ” when the voice of the Lord him his wife and sons, who for safety had was heard, and yet to hear that voice. (3) remained in Midian. This brings up some A well defined peak distinctly visible from interesting questions respecting the Midian- the plain. (4) A mountain so precipitous ites of the Sinaitic peninsula and their re- that the people might be said to “stand unlations to the Hebrews, for which, however, der it" and to touch its base. (5) A mountreference must be made to the work itself. ain capable of being isolated by bounda
The whole route traversed, with the local- ries. () A mountain with springs and ities of water, may be reviewed as follows: streams of water in its vicinity. Suez to Ain Mousa, 8 miles, good water. turage to maintain the flocks of the people Ain Hawarah,
saline water. for a year.
By these criteria the surveyors at once
and Jebel Umm-alawi, as destitute of Shebakah to Sufsafeh the
sufficient water and pasturage. Jebel " Mount of the Law," 82
Katharina, whose claims arise from a stateTotal from Suez to Sufsafeh or Sinai, 108 miles.
ment of Josephus that Sinai was the highThe actual position of Mount Sinai has est mountain of the district, which this been a subject of keen controversy, which peak actually is, with the exception of a may be reduced to two questions: 1st, Was neighboring summit 25 feet higher, they reMount Sinai in the peninsula of that name ject because of the fact that it is not visible or elsewhere? 2d, Which of the mountains from any plain suitable for the encampof the peninsula was the Mount of the Law? ment of the Israelites. Mount Serbál has
As to the first of these questions, the in modern times had some advocates, but claims of the peninsula are supported by an the surveyors allege in opposition to these , overwhelming mass of tradition and of au- that they do not find, as has been stated, thority, ancient and modern; and though Dr. the Sinaitic inscriptions more plentiful Beke has adduced very plausible reasons in there than elsewhere, that the traces of favor of a position east of the Gulf of Aka- early Christian occupancy do not point to bah, our explorers show conclusive geo- it any more than early tradition, and that it graphical evidence against this view. They does not meet the topographical requirethink however that his suggestion that some ments in presenting a defined peak, a conportion of the forty years' wandering took venient camping-ground, or a sufficient place in the great Arabian desert, merits amount of pasturage. consideration, and that this extensive desert There only remains then the long-estabregion deserves careful exploration in this lished and venerated Jebel Musa——the orconnection.
thodox Sinai; and this in a remarkable and If this question be considered as settled conspicuous manner fulfills the required then it remains to inquire which of the conditions, and besides illustrates the narramountain summits of that group of hills in tive itself in unexpected ways. This mountthe Southern end of the peninsula which ain has however two dominant peaks, that seem to be designated in the Bible by the of Jebel Musa proper, 7,363 feet in height, general name of Horeb, should be regarded and that of Ras Sufsafeh, 6,937 feet high; as the veritable “Mount of the Law.” Five and of these the explorers do not hesitate at of the mountain summits of this region once to prefer the latter. This peak or have laid claims to this distinction; and ridge is described as almost isolated, as detheir relative merits the explorers test by scending precipitously to the great plain of seven criteria which must be fulfilled by the district, Er Rahah, which is capable of the actual mountain. These are: (1) A accommodating two millions of persons in
full view of the peak, and has ample camping place for some time, in order that their ing-ground for the whole host in its tribu- religious and social institutions might be tary valleys. Magnificent photographs of fully organized before their march norththis plain and the mountain are given in ward to Canaan. For this purpose the plain the work, which leave no reason to doubt of Er Rahah and the region in its vicinity that it is just such a theatre of the giving of were admirably fitted. It is in the very the Law as the most sanguine and vivid im- heart of the peninsula, and approached only agination would conceive. "From the time by passes easily defended, one of which the when the traveler enters the plain, the peak of Israelites themselves had to force at RephiSufsafeh stands out sharp and clear against dim. It was too remote to be attacked by the sky," and he never loses sight of it for a Egyptian expeditions, had these been sent moment till “he crosses the dry wady bed against it, and the Amalekites after their at its foot and gazes up at the tremendous chastisement at Rephidim were not likely to cliff in front of him, and which is suffi- assault a place whose strength was so well ciently steep to be described as a mountain known. It was on the borders of the territhat may be touched.” Farther, it is so tories of the friendly Midianites, with whom completely separated from the neighboring Moses had sojourned so long and was conmountains that a short and easily intelli- nected by marriage. It would thus give a gible description would define its limits, secure abode, with supplies of water and paswhich could be easily marked out.
ture; and after the hardships already endured Another remarkable feature is that we by the people, would appear to them a haven have here the brook descending out of the of comparative rest; while on the other hand mount referred to in the Exodus, and be- it was sufficiently a wilderness to wean them sides this five other perennial streams in from Egyptian habits and train them to the addition to many good springs. The coun- hardihood of a desert life. try is by no means desert, but supplies In geological character the Sinai mountmuch pasturage; and when irrigated and ains, including the Mount of the Law, are of attended to forms good gardens, and is in- great antiquity and simple structure. They deed one of the best and most fertile spots consist of a red syenitic granite associated of the whole peninsula. The explorers with other ancient crystalline rocks, and on show that the statements of some hasty which rest mica schists and gneisses much travelers who have given a different view are older than the sandstone of the region, which quite incorrect, and also that there is reason is known to be of the age of our Coal-formato believe that there was greater rainfall tion rocks. Thus the syenite of Sinai, though and more verdure in ancient times than at a rock of igneous origin, must have been present in this part of the country. They cooled down in the far back Palæozoic age further indicate the Wady Shreick in which of Geology. This effectually and forever is the stream descending from the mount, disposes of the theory held by some interas the probable place of the making and de- preters of Exodus, that Sinai was a volcanic struction of the golden calf, and a hill mountain, and that the terrific phenomena known as Jebel Moneijeh, the mount of which accompanied the giving of the law conference, as the probable site of the tab- were those of an eruption. It is to be obernacle. They think it not improbable that served also that “the thunders and lightwhile Ras Sufsafeh was the Mount of the nings and thick clouds" of the Mosaic narLaw, the retirement of Moses during his rative, rather resemble the appearances of an sojourn on the mount may have been be- atmospheric disturbance than of a volcanic hind this peak, in the recesses of Jebel Mu- eruption. sa, which thus might properly bear his Lastly-for the benefit of those who love name.
to consider the purely human element in reOther interesting considerations are of a ligion, Moses had sojourned in the region, political and military nature. It was neces- and knew perfectly the way by which he was sary for the Israelites to have a secure dwell. leading his people ; a way which he had fully