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ble rebuke of the other: “ Thou wicked and sition to the church. Nor can they now. slothful servant”-wicked because sloth- But then and now the spirit of these preful—“ thou oughtest to have put my money cepts is divine and vital. In putting before to the exchangers"—to have put thyself to men models to be copied, God always has profitable industry and so be ready to show recognized the beauty and claims of absoa favorable balance at settling day. No lute perfection. “ Aim high!” has always apology for slackness and shiftlessness here! been his motto for his children. He puts
Without extending, then, this line of ob- forward his own moral life for our human servation, the student of Christian social imitation. Ile ever has. He shows us a science is not reduced to the awkward con- millennial, a heavenly state of voluntary, clusion that he has in hand a doctrine of affectional intercourse, and bids us reprostagnation and obstruction to the proper and duce not so much the methods as the results necessary progress of mankind: that is, that of this, in our present lives. The object we must uncivilize humanity in order to aimed at is a condition of humanity relieved Christianize it. Our religion has to carry as far as possible of friction, waste, anxiety, no such impossible load on its shoulders. everything hostile to purity and peace. The They are not broad enough for a burden vista reaches from paradise to paradise; and like this. But we are not forced to rest in the social and the spiritual law of both these so negative a defence. The true understand- paradises is that which all this intermediing of these precepts which are so confidently ate stretch of worrying, colliding, impure arrayed against the Gospel authority, puts and passionate existence needs to make it its friends on a bold vantage ground of pos- what it was designed to be, and to-day ought itive triumph in this debate. It is true to be, wherever God has a human child. that these questionable passages may be Nor is there any contradiction to this in his vindicated from much of this detraction by special legislation for the Hebrew race saying that their instruction was very ap- which often appears to have gone upon a propriate to the condition of the early Chris- low and unrighteous policy, not at all justifitians; in fact, that they could not have kept able by Christian standards. For here comes any footing at all among those persecuting in a principle that has been little regarded ; Pagans and Jews, except on these terms, namely: that a defective morality is not and that people so situated might well have necessarily a positive immorality: therefore, as little to do as possible with worldly affairs. that (as Mozley has so ably shown in his But, if this be true, it is not the whole truth Ruling Ideas in Early Ages") the Lord did here, nor the best part of it. The right not command men to sin when he did coinclue to the vital and permanent interpreta- mand to be done what we now could not tion of all this teaching of the New Testa- innocently and virtuously do. There was a ment is — that it is to be taken as the vast amount of inexcusable wickedness perexpression of what essentially is and prac- petrated all along those ages, as ever since, tically ought to be the spirit, temper, in direct disobedience to the Divine orders; disposition of men and communities, the between which thus discriminated classes of ideal toward which they should ever be conduct the line must be carefully drawn. looking and aiming—the grosser form and The problem has always been the upward clothing thus pictured of a high and pure and education and training of the world. This benevolent life in individuals and nations. can only take effect on the material existThus construed, Christianity is a liveable ing in any period. Men never could be possibility, and socially and politically is hoisted, by any sort of moral derrick, upon not at war with civilizing forces, but a higher level than they had attained. Our actually their most efficient helper.
Maker has worked the race upwards by the We have seen that those early instruc- most available means at his disposal, rough tions could not be strictly carried out, and as these may sometimes have been, through were not designed to be, even under the successive eras; this or nothing was the alterenormous pressure of the surrounding oppo native. But while slowly, and often almost,
to mortal view, despairingly doing this, forms would easily take care of themselves ; through all the tedious, dilatory process demonstrating to every one's mind the fact, there has ever run the golden cord of perfect which is as true now as it would be then, requirement; there has ever gleamed the that the innermost laws and the outmost vision of the towers of the New Jerusalem, working of Civilization and Christianity are the perpetual type of a world of men and as thoroughly and permanently in harmony
a women worthy, in their individual and asso- as are the light and heat of the solar ray. ciated excellence, of Him from whom they We were beating, near nightfall, on an sprung.
outward-bound Boston ship, and with an Put this key into the wards of the intri- angry sky, around one of those dark, jagged cate lock in hand, and its wards will answer promontories which notch like saw teeth the to it every time. Not a word that Jesus southern coast of Greece, when the master spoke ever had a lower purpose than that of the vessel, with his hand on the helin, now indicated. The thought of all his teach- muttered to a passenger beside him on the ings and of his apostles after him is the quarter deck, “A lighthouse would be a good same; the clothing of that thought must, deal more useful thing along a shore like in the nature of things, be shaped and fash- this than an old ruin like that perched up ioned variously as time moves onward. there on yonder headland.” It was just the Here is both a mental and moral discipline place where an enlightened government for us to translate the unchanging essence would have set one of the brightest of these of the Christian precept into other forms, lights—those evening stars even more welwithout losing or wasting its spirit, as social come to the voyager than the stars of heaven. and national life put on new conditions. But there upon that dusky peak no friendly What is wanted is not revolution but per- beam was glimmering; nothing but the meation. The systems of government, the tumbling fragments of an ancient pagan tenure of property, as generally settled in civ- temple-a nest and watch-tower of pirates ilized lands, are theoretically sound enough who, before morning, might be making for human well-being, if they could only be quite too free with our persons and propstruck through and through with the mind erty if we should fail to weather that ugly that was in Christ.' With this proviso, cape. This puts the point sharply which whatever is intrinsically wrong in civil in- has now been treated, as made by the negastitutions would quietly right itself, by the tive in this debate—that Christian social common consent. Without this, spasmodic science, as it lies in the original documents, efforts to make things very much better will is no longer a trusty lighthouse aloug the not produce large returns. Certainly we sea-coast of modern advancement, but prehave proof enough that republican forms of cisely and only that antique, tumbling-down government do not ensure universal happi- ruin of an old system; necessary, perhaps,
Neither would the abolition of all as a former stage in the world's developpersonal and corporate property, and the in- ment, but useful no longer, and rather injuauguration of communistic equality. Why? rious as a lurking-place of foes instead of Because in this nation, and in all others, the friends of man. Unquestionably, the primsocial and business life is too much inocu- itive Christianity, as so transmitted to our lated with selfishness. But replace this as times, is just one or the other of these two generally and controllingly with a genuine things-a superstition in ruins, or a quenchbenevolence; make the permanent spirit less illuminator for the safe sailing of careand significance of Christ's teachings, rather ful navigators till there shall be no more than the bare letter of them, dominant in seas of this kind to be coasted. the people, and all needful changes and re
J. T. Tucker.
ST. ANSELM AS A CHRISTIAN.
CATHOLIC Protestantism is not ungener- dently a product of the mediæval notion of ous and exclusive. It does not regard itself the Eucharist. as a something new under the sun and crea- Thus passed the tender years of this ardent, ted for the first about three centuries ago; noble youth. Ermenberge held him embut it recognizes its vital roots as organically braced in the arms of her love and her faith. connecting it with the whole course of the It was a tender delicate plant from which past. It believes in a Holy Catholic Church the breath of rude minds and temptations which has really existed, radiant and mili- had been fondly warded off. But before tant, in all times and in all nations; and in his twentieth year Ermenberge was taken a great “ cloud of witnesses,” true witnesses away; and the young Anselm fell into the and true saints, who have never failed even hands of the world. The tender, sentimentin the darkest and most barbarous ages, al piety of his mother was not equal to the boldly and heroically to honor Christ. strain now brought upon it. Ile declined
St. Anselm of Canterbury is known to into extravagance and vice. Protestants chiefly as a great theologian and Ilis rude father now conceived against as the constructor of a theory of the atone- him a cruel aversion. At last Anselm determent which has passed for orthodox for mined to throw himself upon the world, and more than eight hundred years. But of let come of him what might. his personal Christianity little or nothing With a single servant and a donkey the is known. And yet this personal life was young nobleman bade adieu to the grave of no less rich and beautiful than his intellect- his mother and to the beautiful valley of ual life. May it not be well to glance at Aosta, and turned his face toward the setting it?
Within a few weeks he had passed Anselm's career lies like a silver cloud Mt. Cenis, and entered into the plains of upon the blackest period of the Middle France. France was all astir at this time Ages,-between A. D. 1031 and 1109. Born with the fame of Lanfranc, the philosopher of a noble family of Aosta, Italy, he grew priest at the abbey of Pec in Normandy. up under the prayers and love of a very his fame attracted Anselm.
Thus were gifted mother, Ermenberge by name. From brought casually together these two men her lips he received with implicit faith that who were afterwards to win such wide fame magnificent conception of the spiritual as successive arehbishops of ('anterbury. world which was afterwards embalmed in But the motive of Anselm was as yet far the great Epic of Dante. To his childish from distinctively Christian or even ecclesiimagination the four parts of the Catholic astical. lle came to Bec to study philosouniverse, earth, purgatory, heaven, hell, were phy. But he had not heard Lanfranc many almost as vivid and real as the four corners months before his intense desire for study of the garden from which he gathered flow- had quieted the tumult of his passions. A ers and butterflies. He coulltalk with God period of meditation ensued. Finally the and Christ and the Holy Martyrs, almost bright ideals of his pious childhood became assimilarly as with his dear old grandfather, to him beautiful and vital again. The and lis uncles and cousins. And he did of- Christian philosophy of Lanfranc endowed ten converse with them, in dreams. Once them with rationality and truth. They took he thought he had climbed to the top of an hold now upon both his heart and his intelAlp, and enjoyed a talk with God. After ligence. The young student of philosophy the great King had said to him many beau- determined to return to his mother's and to tiful things, he placed his hand upon the Lanfranc's God. But how could he do this? little boy's head and blessed him. Then The cloud of his sins stood between. Ilow giving him a piece of bread of “exquisite could he get back to God? The ecclesiasticism taste and whiteness,” he permitted him to of his day knew of only one way-the way descend to his mother. This dream is evi- of self-abnegation and consecration. This
meant that he was to flee from the world, ing the virtues into the external ones of fastassume the vows of ascetic holiness, and re- ing, almsgiving, etc., and the internal ones tire to a cloister. It was thus, at about the of love, humility, patience, kindness, etc., age of twenty-seven, that Anselm became a he says that “even as the body cannot Benedictine monk at Bec.
long exist without the soul, though the soul At once he became a model in all the rig- can without the body, so the external virors and austerities of the monastic life. He tues cannot long exist without the internal had the one quality which is never lacking to One may indeed love God without great souls, good or bad: he was in earnest. fasting; but one will not long fast out of But his monastic routine did not bring him obedience to God, if one does not really love peace. The memory of his sins constantly him.” stared him in the face. He was at times at So soon as Anselm was thoroughly conthe brink of despair. Finally his great soul verted in the evangelical sense, he entered opened a passage through the clouds by at once upon that career of practical serthe penitent's prayer,--the simple way that vice to the church, and of profound study of every sinner must find before he rises to Christian truth, which led him, almost in God and to peace. In his earnest weeks and spite of himself, to the highest rank among months of return to God his prayers assum- Christian philosophers, and to the most ed fixed types in his memory. Ile after- august position in the hierarchy of the wards threw them upon manuscript, and church. many of them have thus come down to us. The impulse to his theological works was
These prayers are an impressive illustra- his burning, restless desire to draw nearer tion of the identity of piety in all ages. All and nearer to the absolute truth as it is in of us, all penitents in all ages, can readily Christ. “Come unto me,” he cried out, unite in the soul-anguish of this young "come unto me, O God whom I love! I monk of the Dark Ages. “O my Savior,” cherish thee; I praise thee; I adore thee. exclaimed he, “I know too well that I am My soul thirsts for thee; it burns with thy unworthy of thy love. But thou art worthy, love. Thee only do I adore; in thee is all thou art worthy of all my love. I am but my joy. I desire to think only of thee, to a poor sinner, unworthy and impure; but hear only of thee, to speak only of thee, and yet I cannot do without thee. O blessed to treat only of thee !” “ ( Jesus,” exJesus, I cannot turn away. O turn not me claims he elsewhere, “O Jesus, my soul away; and turn not thou away, until thou longs to gaze upon thee in thy beauty. It hast taken away all my sins.”
burns to hear thee speak. O come thou, But the poor monk did not know the se- desired of my heart; how long shall I wait? cret of that simple, direct faith which brings Where shall I find thee? Where dost thou peace at once. He often passed whole nights dwell? Where is thy palace of light and of in agonizing prayer. At last the transition glory? O Jesus! what is there in heaven came. It came with the gift of tears. His but thee?” heart began to melt. The name of Jesus So devoted a soul as Anselm could not became inexpressibly sweet to him. The remain in obscurity. Three years after he mere casual hearing of it would often make became a monk he was promoted to the his
eyes overflow. Now his sweetest employ- mastership of the cloister, on the removal of ment was to think of the love of Ermen- Lanfranc. His office of prior he held for berge, to study divine truth, and to pray to fifteen years, until 1078, when he was raised Christ. Henceforth and throughout his life, to the less cloistral and more elevated digChrist and the church had no more loyal ser- nity of abbot. These fifteen years were the vant than him whom history knows as St. period of Anselm's greatest theological proAnselm.
ductiveness, and of his greatest influence as That Anselm understood religion in its teacher of young theologians. It was then genuine Christian sense is clear from many that he had the most quiet and leisure for of his preserved Meditations. After divid- impressing great truths upon his pupils in
the privacy of the lecture-room, and for fifteen as chief spiritual guide and teacher soaring to the heights of Christian specula- of the monks and secular scholars, and tion.
about the same period in the less secluded From the very beginning of his career as and more temporal duties of an abbotteacher, " he laid," said Eadmer, his com- were passed by in the most ardent and earnpanion and biographer, “very great stress est Christian work. During this period, the upon the sacred Scriptures. He regarded fame of his learning and Christian character the Bible as the infallible fountain of truth. spread throughout Christendom. Noblemen Hence, he made the utmost endeavors to and prelates, kings and statesmen, came to comprehend the storehouse of truths which do him honor, and to obtain copies of his are there revealed.” His great literary writings. work, the Proslogium, was begun and ended While on a visit to a dying nobleman in with a fervent prayer. “Come, feeble mor- England, in 1092, the body of English bishtal,” says he, on the opening page, “come, ops laid hold upon him, almost by violence, let us turn aside a little from the busy din and proclaimed him Archbishop of Canterof the world. Cast aside that burden that bury as successor of Lanfranc, who had died wearies and clogs thee. Come, look up to in 1089. . With the reluctant conseift of the God and find rest in him. Enter into the avaricious William Rufus he was solemnly secret chamber of thy heart, and shut the consecrated to his office in the following door upon all but God. Say unto God: year. The sixteen years of his archbishopLord, thy face I seek. Yea, Lord, I would ric were the stormiest of his life. And behold thy countenance. Teach my heart more than once he was forced to sigh for where thou art, and how to find thee. If the peaceful halls and gardens of Bec. It thou art not here, where shall I search for was a rude age. It was the period of tyrthee? But thou art here. Why do I not anny and rapacity which followed the Norbehold thee? Is it because thou dwellest in man Conquest. The upright archbishop had light inaccessible? But where is this light? a fourfold task of herculean difficulty. First, And how shall I approach even unto il ? to civilize, if not Christianize, the immoral, Who can guide me? who can lead me? brutal, violent mixture of Saxon populace How shall the poor exile get back to thy and Norman landlords who made up the house? Ile sighs for thee. lle hopes in people of England. Second, to reform the thee. lle thirsts for thee. Ile burns to be- lives of the lower clergy. Third, to preserve hold thee in thy glory. Guide me, guide the integrity of the English Church as me, guide me.” Ilow could a man begin- against the growing assumptions of the ning a work in such a spirit, fail to write Papal court. Fourth, to guard it against truths which would serve as guiding stars the mercenary influence of the Norman to all subsequent ages?
court. It was a task of the greatest magniAnd at the end of the work he lays aside tude. While Anselm was determined to his perr in the same spirit in which he began use the machinery of the Church to the it: “O God, reveal thyself to me more and Christian end of elevating the people of the more. May I love thee more deeply and re- nation, William Rufus and llenry I. enjoice in thee more fervently. If I may not deavored to make it simply a means of fillattain to thee fully in this life, oh, let me at ing their treasury, by the sale of pastoral least make constant advances. Let thy full- offices to the highest bidder, and by the ness be the subject of my thoughts and the exaction of donations from the higher prefood of my heart. My soul longs for thee. lates. My heart is athirst for thee. May my whole In this struggle, Anselm exhibited the soul desire only thee and thee alone, until most heroic courage and the most incorthe day when I arrive at the fullness of thy ruptible integrity. More than once he dijoy, thou triune God, my Savior and my rectly declined obedience to the king. For Lord, who art blessed forever!”
several years he had to retire to the ContiThe thirty years of Anselm's life at Bec nent. Early in the reign of Henry I. the