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ers, who preach the gospel of gold; men,* without work, live upon public we have gentlemen, dandies, lords, whó charity. The formidable masses, given preach the gospel of manners. We up to the hazards of industry, urged by overwork ourselves to heap up guineas, lust, impelled by hunger, oscillates beor else make ourselves insipid to attain tween the fragile cracking barriers ; we an elegant dignity. Our hell is no are nearing the final breaking-up, which longer, as under Cromwell
, the dread will be open anarchy, and the demoe of being found guilty before the just racy will heave amidst the ruins, until Judge, but the dread of making a bad the sentiment of the divine and of duty speculation, or of transgressing eti- has rallied them around the worshif quette. We have for our aristocracy of heroism ; until it has discovered the greedy shopkeepers, who reduce life to means of calling to power the must a calculation of cost and sale-prices; and virtuous and the most capable ; t unti idle amateurs, whose great business in it has given its guidance in their hands, life is to preserve the game on their instead of making them subject to its estates. We are no longer governed. caprices ; until it has recognized and Our government has no other ambition reverenced its Luther and its Cromwel: than to preserve the public peace, and its priest and its king. to get in the taxes. Our constitution lays it down as a principle, that, in
VII. order to discover the true and the good, Nowadays, doubtless, in the whole we have only to make two million im- civilized world, democracy is swelling beciles vote. Our Parliament is a great or overflowing, and all the channels in word-mill, where plotters out-bawl each which it flows are fragile or temporary. other for the sake of making a noise.* But it is a strange offer to present for
Under this thin cloak of convention its issue the fanaticism and tyranny of alities and phrases, ominously growls the Puritans. The society and spirit the irresistible democracy. 'England which Carlyle proposes, as models perishes if she ever ceases to be able for human nature, lasted but an hour, to sell a yard of cotton at a farthing and could not last longer. The ascetiless than others. At the least check cism of the Republic produced the dein the manufactures, 1,500,000 work- bauchery of the Restoration; Harrison
* “It is his effort and desire to teach this and preceded Rochester, men like Bunyan the other thinking British man that said finale, raised up men like Hobbes; and the he advent namely of actual open Anarchy, can- sectaries, in instituting, the despotism not be distant, now when virtual disguised Ans of enthusiasm, established by reaction archy, long.continued, and waxing daily, has got to such a height; and that the one method the authority of the positive mind and of staving off the fatal consummation, and the worship of gross pleasure. Ex: steering towards the Continents of the Future, altation is not stable, and it cannot be lies not in the direction of reforming Parlia- exacted from man, without injustice ment, but of what he calls reforming Downing and danger. The sympathetic gener; Street ; a thing infinitely urgent to be begun, and to be strenuously carried on. To find a osity of the French Revolution ended Parliament more and more the express
image in the cynicism of the Directory and of the People, could, unless the People chanced the slaughters of the empire. The to be wise as well as miserable, give him no sa isfaction, Not this at all ; but to find some
chivalric and poetic piety of the great sort of King, made in the image of God, who Spanish monarchy emptied Spain of could a little achieve for the People, if not their men and of thought. The primacy of spoken wishes, yet their dnmb wants, and what they would at last find to have been their
in. genius, taste and intellect in Italy re stinctive will, which is a far different matter duced her at the end of a century to usually, in this babbling world of ours.”—Par- voluptuous sloth and political slavery liamento, in Latter-Day Pamphlets.
“ What makes the angel makes the " A king or leader, then, in all bodies of men, beast ;” and perfect heroism, like all there must be ; be their work what it may, there is one man here who by character, faculty, posi- excesses, ends in stupor. Human tion, is fittest of all to do it.
nature has its explosions, but with in"He who is to be my ručer, whose will is to tervals : mysticism is serviceable but be higher than my will, was chosen for me in when it is short. Violent circumstances Heaven. Neither, except in such obedience to the Heaven-chosen, is freedom so much as * Official Report, 1842: conceivable.”
f Latter-Day Pamphlets ; Parliament.
produce extreme conditions ; great whom I became intimate. He took me evils are necessary in order to raise in the evening to the New Museum, great men, and you are obliged to look well filled with specimens. Here short for shipwrecks when you wish to be lectures were delivered, new models of hold rescuers. If enthusiasm is beauti- machinery were set to work; ladies ful, its results and its originating cir. were present and took an interest in cumstances are sad ; it is but a crisis, the experiments; on the last day, full and a healthy state is better. In this of enthusiasm, God save the Queen was respect Carlyle himself may serve for sung. I admired this zeal, this solidity a proof. There is perhaps less genius of mind, this organization of science, in Macaulay than in Carlyle; but when these voluntary subscriptions, this ap. we have fed for some time on this ex- titude for association and for labor, this aggerated and demoniacal style, this great machine pushed on by so many marvellous and sickly philosophy, this arms, and so well fitted to accumu. contorted and prophetic history, these late, criticise, and classify facts. Bu: sinister and furious politics, we gladly yet, in this abundance, there was a return to the continuous eloquence, to void; when I read the Transactions, I the vigorous reasoning, to the moderate thought I was present at a congress of prognostications, to the demonstrated heads of manufactories. All these theories, of the generous and solid learned men verified details and ex: mind which Europe has just lost, who changed recipes. It was as though I brought honor to England, and whose listened to foremen, busy in communi. place none can fill.
cating their processes for tanning leather or dyeing cotton : general ideas were wanting. I used to regret this to
my friend ; and in the evening, by his CHAPTER V.
lamp, amidst that great silence in
which the university town lay wrapped, Philosopby.-Stuart Mill.* we both tried to discover its reasons. I.
II. WHEN at Oxford some years ago, One day I said to him: You lack during the meeting of the British As-philosophy-I mean what the Gersociation, I met, amongst the few stu- mans call metaphysics. You have dents still in residence, a young Eng learned men, but you have no thinkers. lishman, a man of intelligence, with Your God impedes you. He is the * M. Taine has published this “Study on Supreme Cause, and you dare not
separately, and preceded it by the fol- reason on causes, out of respect foi lowing note, as a preface :-“When this Study first appeared, Mr. Mill did me the honour to not, may be neglected without much harm. write to me that it would not be possible to give Once in a half century, or perhaps in a century in a few pages a more exact and complete no or two centuries, some thinker appears; Bacor tion of the contents of his work, considered as and Hume in England, Descartes and Condil a body of philosophical teaching, 'But," he ad- lac in France, Kant and Hegel in Germany. ded, " I think you are wrong in regarding the At other times the stage is unoccupied, or or. views I adopt as especially English. They dinary men come forward, and offer the public were so in the first half of the eighteenth cen- that which the public likes-Sensualists of ury, from the time of Locke to that of the re- Idealists, according to the tendency of the day, action against Hume. This reaction, begin with sufficient instruction and skill to play ping in Scotland, assumed long ago the German leading parts, and enough capacity to re-set old form, and ended by, prevailing universally. airs, well drilled in the works of their predeces When I wrote my book, I stood almost alone sors, but destitute of real invention--simple ex in my opinions ; and though they have met with ecutant musicians, who stand in the place of a degree of sympathy which I by no means ex
In Europe, at present, the stage pected, we may still count in England twenty & is a blank, The Germans adapt al.: alter effete priori and spiritualist philosophers for every French materialism. The French listen from partisan of the doctrine of Experience.' habit, but somewhat wearily and distractedly,
“ This remark is very true. I myself could to the scraps of melody and eloquent commonhave made it, having been brought up, in the place which their instructors have repeated to doctrines of Scottish philosophy and the writ- them for the last thirty years. In this deep ings of Reid. I simply answer, that there are silence, and from among these dull medioa philosophers whom we do not count, and that rities, a master comes forward to speak. Noth all such, whether English or not, spiritualist or ling of the sort has been seen since Hegel."
him. He is the most important per to experiments in the laboratory. You sonage in England, and I see clearly go culling plants and collecting shells. that he merits his position; for he Science is deprived of its head; but " forms part of your constitution, he is is for the best, for practical life is im the guardian of your morality, he proved, and dogma remains intact. judges in final appeal on all questions whatsoever, he replaces with advantage
III. the prefects and gendarmes with whom
You are truly French, he answered ; the nations on the Continent are still you ignore facts, and all at once find encumbered. Yet, this high rank has yourself settled in a theory. I assure the inconvenience of all official posi- you that there are thinkers amongst us, tor3 ; it produces a cant, prejudices, and not far from hence, at Christ intclerance, and courtiers. Here, close Church, for instance. One of them, by us, is poor Mr. Max Müller, who, in the professor of Greek, has spoken so order to acclimatize the study of San- deeply on inspiration, the creation and scrit, was compelled to discover in the final causes, that he is out of favor. Vedas the worship of a moral God, Look at this little collection which has that is to say, the religion of Paley and recently appeared, Essays and Reviews ; Addison. Some time ago, in London, your philosophic' freedom of the last I read a proclamation of the Queen, century, the latest conclusions of geolforbidding people to play cards, even ogy and cosmogony, the boldness of in their own houses, on Sundays. * It German exegesis, are here in abstract. seems that, if I were robbed, I could Some things are wanting, amongst not bring my thief to justice without others the waggeries of Voltaire, the taking a preliminary religious oath ; misty jargon of Germany, and the pro for the judge has been known to send saic coarseness of Comte; to my mind, a complainant away who refused to the loss is small. Wait twenty years, take the oath, deny him justice, and and you will find in London the ideas insult him into the bargain. Every of Paris and Berlin.—But they will year when we read the Queen's speech still be the ideas of Paris and Berlin. in your papers, we find there the com- Whom have you that is original ?pulsory mention of Divine Providence, Stuart Mill.— Who is he ?-A political which comes in mechanically, like the writer. His little book On Liberty is invocation to the immortal gods on the as admirable as Rousseau's Contral fourth page of a rhetorical declamation; Social is bad.—That is a bold assertion. and you remember that once, the pious -No, for Mill decides as strongly for phrase having been omitted, a second the independence of the individual as communication was made to Parlia. Rousseau for the despotism of the ment for the express purpose of sup: State.-Very well, but that is not plying it.
All these cavillings and enough to make a philosopher. What pedantries indicate to my mind a celes- besides is he ?-An economist who tial monarchy; naturally it resembles all goes beyond his science, and subordi. others; I mean that it relies more will- nates production to man, instead of ingly on tradition and custom than on man to production.-Well, but this is examination and reason. A monarchy not enough to make a philosopher. Is never invited men to verify its creden- he any thing else ?-A logician.- Very tials. As yours is, however, useful, good; but of what school ?-Of his well adapted to you, and moral, you are own. I told you he was original. -Is not revolted by it; you submit to it he Hegelian?-By no means; he is too without difficulty, you are, at heart, at- fond of facts and proofs.-- Does he tached to it; you would fear, in touch- follow Port-Royal ? --Still less; he is ing it, to disturb the constitution and too well acquainted with modern morality. You leave it in the clouds, sciences.-Does he imitate Condillac! amidst public homage. Yod fall back -Certainly not; Condillac has only upon yourselves, confine yourselves to taught him to write well.- Who, then matters of fact, to minute dissections, are his friends ?-Locke and Comte in
* This law has been abrogated by an Act of the first rank; then Hume and Newton. Parliament.-TR.
- Is he a system-monger, a speculativo
reformer ? He has too much sense for like logicians. Mill has written ou that; he only arranges the best the- logic. What is logic? It is a science. ories, and explains the best methods. What is its object? The sciences; for, He does not attitudinize majestically suppose that you have traversed the in the character of a restorer of science; universe, and that
you know it he does not declare, like your Germans, thoroughly, stars, earth, sun, heat, that his book will open up a new era gravity, chemical affinities, the species for humanity. He proceeds gradually, of minerals, geological revolutions, somewhat slowly, often creepingly, plants, animals human events, all that hrough a multitude of particular facts. classifications and theories explain and He excels in giving precision to an embrace, there still remain these classi. dea, in disentanglinga principle, in fications and theories to be learnt. No! discovering it amongst a number of only is there an order of beings, but different facts; in refuting, distinguish- also an order of the thoughts which ing, arguing. He has the astuteness, represent them; not only plants and patience, method, and sagacity of a animals, but also botany and zoology; lawyer.- Very well, you admit that I not only lines, surfaces, volumes, and was right. A lawyer, an ally of Locke, numbers, but also geometry and arithNewton, Comte, and Hume; we have metic. Sciences, then, are as real things here only English philosophy; but no as facts themselves, and therefore, as matter. 'Has he reached a grand con- well as facts, become the subject of ception of the universe ?-Yes.-Has study. We can analyze them as we he an individual and complete idea of analyze facts, investigate their elements, nature and the mind ?-Yes.-Has he composition, order, relations, and obcombined the operations and discover-ject. There is, therefore, a science of ies of the intellect under a single prin- sciences; this science is called logic, ciple which puts them all in a new and is the subject of Mill's work. It light ?-Yes ; but we have to discover is no part of logic to analyze the operathis principle.That is your business, tions of the mind, memory, the associ. and I hope you will undertake it.-Butation of ideas, external perception, etc.; I shall fall into abstract generalities.- that is the business of psychology. We There is no harm in that ?-But this do not discuss the value of such operaclose reasoning will be like a quick-set tions, the veracity of our conscioushedge. We will prick our fingers with ness, the absolute certainty of our eleit.-But three men out of four would mentary knowledge ; this belongs to cast aside such speculations as idle.- metaphysics. We suppose our faculties So much the worse for them. For in to be at work, and we admit their pri. what does the life of a nation or a cen- mary discoveries. We take the instru tury consist, except in the formation of ment as nature has provided it, and we such theories? We are not thoroughly trust to its accuracy. We leave to men unless so engaged. If some dwel- others the task of taking its mechanism ler in another planet were to come to pieces, and the curiosity which critidown here to ask us the nature of our cises its results. Setting out from its race, we should have to show him the primitive operations, we inquire how five or six great ideas which we have they are added to each other ; how formed of the mind and the world. they are combined ; how one is conThat alone would give him the measure vertible into another; how, by dint of of our intelligence. Expound to me additions, combinations, and transforyour theory, and I shall go away better mations, they finally compose a system instructed than after having seen the of connected and developed truths. masses of brick, which you call Lon. We construct a theory of science, as don and Manchester.
others construct theories of vegetation,
of the mind, or of numbers. Such is $1.-EXPERIENCE.
the idea of logic; and it is plain that
it has, as other sciences, a real subject I.
matter, its distinct province, its mani.
fest importance, its spezial method, and Let us begin, then, at the beginning, I a certain future.
nerve. It weighs ten pounds : that is Having premised so much, we ob it would require to lift it an effort less serve that all these sciences which form than for a weight of eleven pounds, and the subject of logic, are but collections greater than for a weight of nine of propositions, and that each proposi- pounds; in other words, it produces a tion merely connects or separates a certain muscular sensation. It is hard subject and an attribute, that is, two and square, which means that, if first names, a quality and a substance; that pushed, and then run over by the hand, is to
a thing and another thing it will excite two distinct kinds of musWe must then ask what we understand cular sensations. And so on. When by a thing, what we indicate by a I examine closely what I know of it name; in other words, what it is we I find that I know nothing else excepi recognize in objects, what we connect the impressions it makes upon me. or separate, what is the subject-matter Our idea of a body comprises nothing of all our propositions and all our sci- else than this: we know nothing of it ence. There is a point in which all but the sensations it excites in us; we our several items of knowledge resem determine it by the nature, number, ble one another. There is a common and order of these sensations; we know element which, continually repeated, nothing of its inner nature, nor whether constitutes all our ideas. There is, as it has one; we simply affirm that it is it were, a minute primitive crystal the unknown cause of these sensations. which, indefinitely and variously re-.When we say that a body has existed peating itself, forms the whole mass, in the absence of our sensations we and which, once known, teaches us be mean simply that if, during that time, forehand the laws and composition of we had been within reach of it, we the complex bodies which it has form- should have had sensations which we ed.
have not had. We never define it save Now, when we attentively consider by our present or past, future or possithe idea which we form of any thing, ble, complex or simple impressions what do we find in it? Take first sub' This is so true, that philosophers like stances, that is to say, Bodies and Berkeley have maintained, with some Minds.* This table is brown, long, show of truth, that matter is a creature wide, three feet high, judging by the of the imagination, and that the whole eye: that is, it forms a little spot in the universe of sense is reducible to an field of vision ; in other words, it pro order of sensations. It is at least so, duces a certain sensation on the optic as far as our knowledge is concerned; * “ It is certain, then, that a part of our no
and the judgments which compose our tion of a body consists of the notion of a num- sciences, have reference only to the imber of sensations of our own or of other sentient pressions by which things are manifest beings, habitually occurring simultaneously.ed to us. My conception of the table at which I am writing is compounded of its visible form and size,
So, again, with the mind. We may which are complex sensations of sight; its tan- well admit that there is in us a soul, gible form and size, which are complex sensatons of our organs of touch and of our muscles; sensations and of our other modes of
an “ego,” a subject or recipient of our its weight, which is also a sensation of touch being, distinct from those sensations and of the muscles; its colour, which is a sengation of sight; its hardness, which is a sensa- and modes of existence; but we know tion of the muscles ; its composition, which is nothing of it. Mr. Mill says: another word for all the varieties of sensation which we receive, under various circumstances, “ For, as our conception of a body is that a from the wood of which it is made ; and so an unknown exciting cause of sensations, so on forth. All or most of these various sensations conception of a mind is that of an unknown frequently are, and, as we learn by experience, recipient, or percipient, of them; and not of always might be, experienced simultaneously, them alone, but of all our other feelings. As or in many different orders of succession, at our body is the mysterious something which excites own choice : and hence the thought of any one the mind to feel, so mind is the mysterious of them snakes us think of the others, and the something which feels, and thinks. It is ver whole becomes mentally amalgamated into one necessary to give in the case of mind, as we mixed state of consciousness, which, in the gave in the case of matter, a particular state language of Locke and Hartley, is termed a ment of the sceptical system by which its exist Complex Idea."-Mill's System of Logic, 4th ence as a Thing in itself, distinct from the erl. 3 yo)s., i. 63.
series of what are denominated its states, is