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Formation and character of Feudalism..
The Norman invasion ; character of the Normans-Contrast with the Saxons-
The Normans are French-How they became so-Their taste and architecture
Their spirit of inquiry and their literature-Chivalry and amusements
Their tactics and their success...
III. Bent of the French genius-Two principal characteristics; clear and consecutive
ideas—Psychological form of French genius-Prosaic histories ; lack of
color and passion, ease and discursiveness-Natural logic and clearness,
soberness, grace and delicacy, refinement and cynicism-Order and charm--The
nature of the beauty and of the ideas which the French have introduced....
The Normans in England-Their position and their tyranny—They implant their
literature and language-They forget the same-Learn English by degrees
-Gradually English becomes gallicised...
V. They translate French works into English-Opinion of Sir John Mandeville-
Layamon, Robert of Gloucester, Robert de Brunne-They imitate in English
the French literature-Moral manuals, chansons, fabliaux, Gestes-Brightness,
frivolity, and futility of this French literature-Barbarity and ignorance of
the feudal civilization-Geste of Richard Ceur de Lion, and voyages of Sir
John Mandeville--Poorness of the literature introduced and implanted in
England-Why it has not endured on the Continent or in England....
The Saxons in England-Endurance of the Saxon nation, and formation of the
English constitution, Endurance of the Saxon character, and formation of the
VII-IX. Comparison of the ideal hero in France and England-Fabliaux of Reynard,
and ballads of Robin Hood-How the Saxon character makes way for and
supports political liberty-Comparison of the condition of the Commons in
France and England-Theory of the English constitution, by Sir John
Hortescue.How the Saxon constitution ecakes way fore and supports political
liberty-Situation of the Church, and precursors
the Reformation in Eng-
land-Piers Plowman and Wycliffe-How the Saxon character and the situ-
ation of the Norman Church made way for religious reform-Incompleteness
and importance of the national literature-Why it has not endured...
The New Tougue.
Chaucer-His education-His political and social life-Wherein his talent was
serviceable-He paints the second feudal society...
How the middle age degenerated- Decline of the serious element in manners,
books, and works of art-Need of excitement-Analogies of architecture and
Wherein Chaucer belongs to the middle age-Romantic and ornamental poems-
Le Roman de la Rose - Troilus and Cressida - Canterbury Tales
Order of description and events, The House of Fame- Fantastic dreams
and visions-Love poems-Troilus and Cressida--Exaggerated development
of love in the middle age-Why the mind took this path-Mystic love-The
Flower and the Leaf-Sensual love-Troilus and Cressida....
Wherein Chaucer is French-Satirical and jovial poems-Canterbury Tales The
Wife of Bath and marriage - The mendicant friar and religion-Buffoorery,
waggery, and coarseness in the middle age....
Wherein Chaucer was English and original-Idea of character and individual-Van
Eyck and Chaucer contemporary-Prologue to Canterbury Tales-Portraits
of the franklin, monk, miller, citizen, knight, squire, prioress, the good cierk-
Connection of events and characters--General idea-Iniportance of the same
-Chaucer a precursor of the Reformation-He halts by the way-Tediousness
and Childishness-Causes of this feebleness-His prose, and scholastic notion
-How he is isolated in his age.....
Connection of philosophy and poetry-How general notions failed under the
The Pagan Renaissance.
§ 1. MANNERS OF THE TIME.
[ Idea which men had formed of the world, since the dissolution o the old
society–How and why human inventiveness reappears—The form of the spirit
of the Renaissance—The representation of objects is imitative, characteristic,
1 Why the ideal changes-Improvement of the state of man in Europe-In England
--Peace Industry-Commerce-Pasturage- Agriculture-Growth of public
wealth-Buildings and furniture--The palace, meals and habits-Court
pageantries-Celebrations under Elizabeth-Masques under James I.......... sog
IT: Manners of the people-Pageants-Theatres-Village feasts-Pagan development. 112
IV Models—The ancients-Translation and study of classical authors-Sympathy for
the manners and mythology of the ancients—The moderns-Taste for Italian
writings and ideas-Poetry and painting in Italy were pagan-The ideal is the
strong and happy man, limited by the present life...
§ 2. POETRY
The English Renaissance is the Renaissance of the Saxon genius..
JI. The forerunners-The Earl of Surrey-His feudal and chivalrous life--His English
individual character-His serious and melancholy poems-His conception of
III. His style-His masters, Petrach and Virgil- His progress, power, precocious
perfection-Birth of art-Weaknesses, imitation, research-Art incomplete.... 118
Growth and completion of art-Euphues and fashion-Style and spirit of the Re-
naissance-Copiousness and irregularity-How manners, style, and spirit corres-
pond-Şir Philip Sydney–His education, life, character-His learning, gravity,
generosity, forcible expression-The Arcadia-Exaggeration and mannerism of
sentiments and style --Defence of Poesie-Eloquence and energy-His sonnets
-Wherein the body and the passions of the Renaissance differ from those of
the moderns-Sensual love-Mystical love....
Pastoral poetry. The great number of poets-Spirit and force of the poetry-State
of mind which produces it-Love of the country-Reappearance of the ancient
gods-Enthusiasm for beauty-Picture of ingenuous and happy love-Shak-
speare, Jonson, Fletcher, Drayton, Marlowe, Wamer, Breton, Lodge, Greene
-How the transformation of the people transforms art......
Ideal poetry-Spenser--His life-His character–His platonism-His Hymns of
love and beauty--Copiousness of his imagination-How far it was suited for
the epic-Wherein it was allied to the "faèrie"-His tentatives-Shepherd's
Calendar-His short poems-His masterpiece-- The Faërie Queene-His epic
is allegorical and yet life-like-It embraces Christian chivalry and the Pagan
Olympus-How it combines these...
VII. The Faërie Queene-Impossible events-How they appear natural-Belphæbe and
Chrysogone-Fairy and gigantic pictures and landscapes-Why they must be so
The cave of Mammon, and the gardens of Acrasia-How Spenser composes
.-Wherein the art of the Renaissance is complete....
$ 3. PROSE.
1 Limit of the poetry-Changes in society and manners-How the return to naturo
becomes an appeal to the senses-Corresponding changes in poetry-How agree-
ablenesss replaces energy-How prettiness replaces the beautiful-Refinements
-Carew, Suckling, Herrick -Affectation - - Quarles, Herbert, Babington,
Donne, Cowley--Begininng of the classic style and drawing-room life.
IL Hew poetry passed into prose-Connection of science and art-In Italy-In
England - How the triumph of nature develops the exercise of the natural reason
-Scholars, historians, speakers, compilers, politicians, antiquaries, philoso-
phers, theologians—The abundance of talent, and the rarity of fine works-
Superfluousness, punctiliousness, and pedantry of the style-originality, preci-
sion, energy, and richness of the style-How, unlike the classical writers, they
represent the individual, not the idea...
III. Robert Burton-His life and character-Vastness and confusion of his acquirements
-His subject, the Anatomy of Melancholy-Scholastic divisions—Medley of
moral and medical science..
IV Sir Thomas Browne-His talent-His imagination is that of a North-man-
1. The public--The stage
II. Manners of the sixteenth century-Violent and complete expansion of nature.... 160
III. English manners-Expansion of the energetic and gloomy character..
IV. The poets-General harmony between the character of a poet and that of his age
---Nash, Decker, Kyd, Peele, Lodge, Greene—Their condition and life-Mar-
lowe-His life-His works- Tamburlaine-The Jew of Malta-Edward
11.-Faustus--His conception of man....
Formation of this drama-The process and character of this art-Imitative
sympathy, which depicts by expressive examples--Contrast of classical and
Germanic art-Psychological construction and proper sphere of these two arts. 173
Male characters-Furious passions—Tragical events-Exaggerated characters
The Duke of Milan by Massinger-Ford's Annabella-Webster's Duchess of
Malfi and Vittor ia Corombona-Female characters-Germainic idea of love
and marriage-Euphrasia, Bianca, Arethusa, Ordella, Aspasia Amoret, in
Beaumont and Fletcher--Penthea in Ford-Agreement of the moral and
Lite and character of Shakspeare-Family-Youth--M: rriage-He becomes an
actor, Adonis Sonnets--Loves-Humor-Conversation-Melar choly – The
constitution of the productive and sympathetic character-Prudence-For
style-Images-Excesses-Incongruities--Copiousness - Difference between the
III. Manners-Familiar intercourse-Violent bearing-Harsh language--Conversation
and action-Agreement of manners and style.
IV. The dramatis persona-All of the same family-Brutes and idiots-Caliban, Ajax,
Cloten, Polonius, the Nurse--How the mechanical imagination can precede
or survive reason....
Y. Men of wit-Difference between the wit of reasoners and of artists,Mercutio,
Beatrice, Rosalind, Benedict, the clowns-Falstaff.
Women Desdemona, Virginia, Juliet, Miranda, Imogen, Cordelia, Ophelia,
Volumnia-How Shakspeare represents love-Why he bases virtue
instinct or passion....
VII. Villains-lago, Richard Ill.-How excessive lusts and the lack of conscience are
the natural province of the impassioned imagination.....
VIII. Principal characters-Excess and disease of the imagination-Lear, Othello, Cleo-
patra, Coriolanus, Macbeth, Hamlet-Comparison of Shakspeare's psychol.
ogy with that of the French'tragic authors....
Fancy-Agreement of imagination with observation in Shakspeare-Interesting
nature of sentimental and romantic comedy-As you like it-Idea of exist
encer Midsummer Night's DreamIdea of love, Harmony of all parts
of the workthe artist
L General idea of his mind and character-Family-Education-Studies, Traveler
Return to Englana...
II. Effects of a concentrated and solitary character-Austerity-Inexperience
Marriage Children-Domestic Troubles...
III. Combative energy-Polemic against the bishops Against the king-Enthusiasm
und sternness-Theories on government, church, and education--Stoicism
and virtue-Old age, occupations, person.
IV Milton's residence in London and the country-General appearance..
Mütor as a prose-writer-Changes during three centuries in countenances and
ideas-Heaviness of his logic-The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorca.
Heavy Humor-Animadversions upon the Remonstrant's Defence-Clumsi-
ness of discussion-Defensio Pofuli Anglicani-Violence of his animosities
The reason of Church Government-Éikonoklastes-Liberality of Doctrines
Of Reformation-Areopagitica-Style-Breadth of eloquence-Wealth of
imagery-Lyric sublimity of diction...:
N. Milton as a poet-How he approaches and is distinct from the poets of the Renais-
sance-How he gives poetry a moral tone-Profane poems--L'Allegro and Il
Perseroso-Comous— Lycidas Religious poems-Paradise Lost-Conditions
eta genuine epic-They are not to be met with in the age or i: he poet-Com
parison of Adam and Eve with an English family-Comparison of God and the
angels to a monarch's court-The rest of the poem-Comparison between the
sentiments of Satan and the republican passions--Lyrical and moral character
of the scenery-Loftiness and sense of the moral ideas-Situation of the most
and the poem between two ages-Composition of his genius and his work...... en
1. THE ROISTERERS.
Che excesses of Puritanism-How they induce excesses of sensuality....
II. Picture of these manners by a stranger-The Mémoires de Grammont-Difference
of debauchery in France and England.....
IS Butler's Hudibras-Platitude of his comic style, and harshness of his rancorous
Baseness, cruelty, brutality, debauchery, of the court-Rochester, his life, poems,
Philosophy consonant with these manners-Hobbes, his spirit and his style-His
curtailments and his discoveries-His mathematical method - In how much he
resembles Descartes--His morality, æsthetics, politics, logic, psychology,
metaphysics--Spirit and aim of his philosophy...
The theatre-Alteration in taste, and in the public-Audiences before and after
VII. Dryden-Disparity of his comedies-Unskilfulness of his indecencies-How he
translates Molière's Amphitryon.....
VII Wycherley,Life--Character-Melancholy, greed, immodesty-Love in a Wood,
Country Wife, Dancing Master-Licentious pictures, and repugnant details
-His energy and realism-Parts of Olivia and Manly in his Plain Dealer-
Certain words of Milton's Paradise Lost.....
1. Appearance of the worldly life in Europe-Its conditions and causes- How It was
established in England-Etiquette, amusements, conversations, manners, and
talents of the drawing-room..
II. Dawn of the classic spirit in Europe-Its origin-Its nature-Difference of conver-
sation under Elizabeth and Charles II.
III. Sir William Temple-His life, character, spirit, and style...
IV. Writers of fashion-Their correct language and gallant bearing-Sir Charles Sed-
ley, the Earl of Dorset, Edmund Waller-His opinions and style-Wherein
consists his polish-Wherein he is not sufficiently polished-Culture of style-
Lack of poetry-Character of monarchical and classic style....
Sir John Denham-His poem of Cooper's Hill-Oratorical swell of his verse-
English seriousness of his moral preoccupations-How people of fashion and
literary men followed then the fashions of France..
VI. The comic-authors-Comparison of this theatre with that of Molière-Arrange-
ment of ideas in Molière-General ideas in Molière-How in Molière the odious
is concealed, while the truth is depicted-How in Molière the honest map is
still the man of the world-How the respectable man of Molière is a French
VII. Action-Complication of intrigues--Frivolity of purpose-Crudeness of the charac-
ters--Grossness of manners-Wherein consists the talent of Wycherley, Con.
greve, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar-Kind of characters they are able to produce. 344
VIII. Natural characters-Sir John Brute, the husband; Squire Sullen-Sir Tunbelly,
the father-Miss Hoyden, the young lady-Squire Humphry, the young
gentleman-Idea of nature according to this theatre.
IX. Artificial characters-Women of the world-Miss Prue, Lady Wishfort, Lady
Pliant, Mrs. Millamant-Men of the world - Mirabell—Idea of society ac,
cording to this theatre-Why this culture and this literature have not produced
durable works-Wherein they are opposed to the English character-Transfor-
mation of taste and manners...
The continuation of comedy-Sheridan-Life-Talent-The School for Scandal-
How comedy degenerates and is extinguished-Causes of the decay of the
theatre in Europe and in England...