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The Normans.

li.

Formation and character of Feudalism..

The Norman invasion ; character of the Normans-Contrast with the Saxons-

The Normans are French-How they became so-Their taste and architecture

Their spirit of inquiry and their literature-Chivalry and amusements

Their tactics and their success...

III. Bent of the French genius-Two principal characteristics; clear and consecutive

ideas—Psychological form of French genius-Prosaic histories ; lack of

color and passion, ease and discursiveness-Natural logic and clearness,

soberness, grace and delicacy, refinement and cynicism-Order and charm--The

nature of the beauty and of the ideas which the French have introduced....

Iv.

The Normans in England-Their position and their tyranny—They implant their

literature and language-They forget the same-Learn English by degrees

-Gradually English becomes gallicised...

V. They translate French works into English-Opinion of Sir John Mandeville-

Layamon, Robert of Gloucester, Robert de Brunne-They imitate in English
the French literature-Moral manuals, chansons, fabliaux, Gestes-Brightness,
frivolity, and futility of this French literature-Barbarity and ignorance of
the feudal civilization-Geste of Richard Ceur de Lion, and voyages of Sir
John Mandeville--Poorness of the literature introduced and implanted in

England-Why it has not endured on the Continent or in England....

The Saxons in England-Endurance of the Saxon nation, and formation of the

English constitution, Endurance of the Saxon character, and formation of the

English character..

VII-IX. Comparison of the ideal hero in France and England-Fabliaux of Reynard,

and ballads of Robin Hood-How the Saxon character makes way for and
supports political liberty-Comparison of the condition of the Commons in
France and England-Theory of the English constitution, by Sir John
Hortescue.How the Saxon constitution ecakes way fore and supports political
liberty-Situation of the Church, and precursors

the Reformation in Eng-

land-Piers Plowman and Wycliffe-How the Saxon character and the situ-

ation of the Norman Church made way for religious reform-Incompleteness

and importance of the national literature-Why it has not endured...

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scholastic philosophy-Why poetry failed-Comparison of civilization and

decadence in the middle age, and in Spain-Extinction of the English literature

- Translators-Rhyming chroniclers-Didactic poets-Compilers of moralities

-Gower-Occleve-Lydgate-Analogy of taste in costumes, buildings, and

literature--Sad notion of fate, and human misery-Hawes Barclay-Skelton

-Elements of the Reformation and of the Renaissance..

V.

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The Pagan Renaissance.

§ 1. MANNERS OF THE TIME.

PAG.

[ Idea which men had formed of the world, since the dissolution o the old

society–How and why human inventiveness reappears—The form of the spirit

of the Renaissance—The representation of objects is imitative, characteristic,

and complete....

103

1 Why the ideal changes-Improvement of the state of man in Europe-In England

--Peace Industry-Commerce-Pasturage- Agriculture-Growth of public

wealth-Buildings and furniture--The palace, meals and habits-Court

pageantries-Celebrations under Elizabeth-Masques under James I.......... sog

IT: Manners of the people-Pageants-Theatres-Village feasts-Pagan development. 112

IV Models—The ancients-Translation and study of classical authors-Sympathy for

the manners and mythology of the ancients—The moderns-Taste for Italian

writings and ideas-Poetry and painting in Italy were pagan-The ideal is the

strong and happy man, limited by the present life...

.. 13

§ 2. POETRY

1.

The English Renaissance is the Renaissance of the Saxon genius..

116

JI. The forerunners-The Earl of Surrey-His feudal and chivalrous life--His English

individual character-His serious and melancholy poems-His conception of

inward love......

116

III. His style-His masters, Petrach and Virgil- His progress, power, precocious

perfection-Birth of art-Weaknesses, imitation, research-Art incomplete.... 118
Growth and completion of art-Euphues and fashion-Style and spirit of the Re-

naissance-Copiousness and irregularity-How manners, style, and spirit corres-
pond-Şir Philip Sydney–His education, life, character-His learning, gravity,
generosity, forcible expression-The Arcadia-Exaggeration and mannerism of
sentiments and style --Defence of Poesie-Eloquence and energy-His sonnets
-Wherein the body and the passions of the Renaissance differ from those of

the moderns-Sensual love-Mystical love....

V.

Pastoral poetry. The great number of poets-Spirit and force of the poetry-State

of mind which produces it-Love of the country-Reappearance of the ancient

gods-Enthusiasm for beauty-Picture of ingenuous and happy love-Shak-

speare, Jonson, Fletcher, Drayton, Marlowe, Wamer, Breton, Lodge, Greene

-How the transformation of the people transforms art......

VI

Ideal poetry-Spenser--His life-His character–His platonism-His Hymns of

love and beauty--Copiousness of his imagination-How far it was suited for

the epic-Wherein it was allied to the "faèrie"-His tentatives-Shepherd's

Calendar-His short poems-His masterpiece-- The Faërie Queene-His epic

is allegorical and yet life-like-It embraces Christian chivalry and the Pagan

Olympus-How it combines these...

VII. The Faërie Queene-Impossible events-How they appear natural-Belphæbe and

Chrysogone-Fairy and gigantic pictures and landscapes-Why they must be so

The cave of Mammon, and the gardens of Acrasia-How Spenser composes

.-Wherein the art of the Renaissance is complete....

...... 139

$ 3. PROSE.

1 Limit of the poetry-Changes in society and manners-How the return to naturo

becomes an appeal to the senses-Corresponding changes in poetry-How agree-
ablenesss replaces energy-How prettiness replaces the beautiful-Refinements

-Carew, Suckling, Herrick -Affectation - - Quarles, Herbert, Babington,

Donne, Cowley--Begininng of the classic style and drawing-room life.

IL Hew poetry passed into prose-Connection of science and art-In Italy-In

England - How the triumph of nature develops the exercise of the natural reason

-Scholars, historians, speakers, compilers, politicians, antiquaries, philoso-

phers, theologians—The abundance of talent, and the rarity of fine works-

Superfluousness, punctiliousness, and pedantry of the style-originality, preci-

sion, energy, and richness of the style-How, unlike the classical writers, they

represent the individual, not the idea...

147

III. Robert Burton-His life and character-Vastness and confusion of his acquirements

-His subject, the Anatomy of Melancholy-Scholastic divisions—Medley of

moral and medical science..

143

IV Sir Thomas Browne-His talent-His imagination is that of a North-man-

PAOL

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Shakspeare.

Lite and character of Shakspeare-Family-Youth--M: rriage-He becomes an

actor, Adonis Sonnets--Loves-Humor-Conversation-Melar choly – The
constitution of the productive and sympathetic character-Prudence-For

une

- Retirement.......

style-Images-Excesses-Incongruities--Copiousness - Difference between the

creative and analytic conception..

PAGL

210

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III. Manners-Familiar intercourse-Violent bearing-Harsh language--Conversation

and action-Agreement of manners and style.
IV. The dramatis persona-All of the same family-Brutes and idiots-Caliban, Ajax,

Cloten, Polonius, the Nurse--How the mechanical imagination can precede

or survive reason....
Y. Men of wit-Difference between the wit of reasoners and of artists,Mercutio,

Beatrice, Rosalind, Benedict, the clowns-Falstaff.
Women Desdemona, Virginia, Juliet, Miranda, Imogen, Cordelia, Ophelia,

Volumnia-How Shakspeare represents love-Why he bases virtue

instinct or passion....
VII. Villains-lago, Richard Ill.-How excessive lusts and the lack of conscience are
the natural province of the impassioned imagination.....

234

VIII. Principal characters-Excess and disease of the imagination-Lear, Othello, Cleo-

patra, Coriolanus, Macbeth, Hamlet-Comparison of Shakspeare's psychol.

ogy with that of the French'tragic authors....

229

IX

Fancy-Agreement of imagination with observation in Shakspeare-Interesting

nature of sentimental and romantic comedy-As you like it-Idea of exist

encer Midsummer Night's DreamIdea of love, Harmony of all parts

of the workthe artist

CHAPTER V.

The Christian Renaissance.

1. Vices of the pagan Renaissance-Decay of the Southern civilizations.............. 839
II The Reformation-Aptitude of the Germanic races, and suitability of Northern

climates-Albert Durer's bodies and souls-His martyrdoms and last judg-
ments-Luther-His idea of justice-Construction of Protestantism-Crisis
of the conscience-Renewal of heart-Suppression of ceremonies--Transfor-

mation of the clergy

241

III. Reformation in England-Tyranny of the ecclesiastical courts-Disorders of the

clergy.-- Irritation of the people-The interior of a diocese-Persecutions and

convulsions-The translation of the Bible-How biblical events and Hebraic

sentiments are in accordance with contemporary manners and with the English

character-The Prayer Book-Moral and manly feeling of the prayers and

church service-Preaching-Latimer-His education-Character, Familiar and

persuasive eloquence-Death-The martyrs under Mary-England thenceforth

Protestant....

246

IV. The Anglicans-Close connection between religion and society-How the religious

sentiment penetrates literature-How the sentiment of the beautiful subsists in
religion-Hooker–His breadth of mind and the fulness of his style-Hales
and Chillingworth-Praise of reason and tolerance-Jeremy Taylor-His
learning, imagination, and poetic feeling. ...

256

y.

The Puritans–Opposition of religion and the world-Dogmas-Morality-

Scruples-Their triumph and enthusiasm-Their work and practical sense..... 263

VI

Bunyan--His life, spirit, and poetical work-The Prospect of Protestantism in

England.....

271

Milton.

L General idea of his mind and character-Family-Education-Studies, Traveler

Return to Englana...

871

II. Effects of a concentrated and solitary character-Austerity-Inexperience
Marriage Children-Domestic Troubles...

280

III. Combative energy-Polemic against the bishops Against the king-Enthusiasm

und sternness-Theories on government, church, and education--Stoicism

and virtue-Old age, occupations, person.

........ 281

IV Milton's residence in London and the country-General appearance..

284

Mütor as a prose-writer-Changes during three centuries in countenances and

ideas-Heaviness of his logic-The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorca.
Heavy Humor-Animadversions upon the Remonstrant's Defence-Clumsi-
ness of discussion-Defensio Pofuli Anglicani-Violence of his animosities
The reason of Church Government-Éikonoklastes-Liberality of Doctrines
Of Reformation-Areopagitica-Style-Breadth of eloquence-Wealth of
imagery-Lyric sublimity of diction...:

285
N. Milton as a poet-How he approaches and is distinct from the poets of the Renais-

sance-How he gives poetry a moral tone-Profane poems--L'Allegro and Il
Perseroso-Comous— Lycidas Religious poems-Paradise Lost-Conditions

IA

eta genuine epic-They are not to be met with in the age or i: he poet-Com
parison of Adam and Eve with an English family-Comparison of God and the
angels to a monarch's court-The rest of the poem-Comparison between the
sentiments of Satan and the republican passions--Lyrical and moral character
of the scenery-Loftiness and sense of the moral ideas-Situation of the most
and the poem between two ages-Composition of his genius and his work...... en

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324

7. THE WORLDLINGS.

1. Appearance of the worldly life in Europe-Its conditions and causes- How It was

established in England-Etiquette, amusements, conversations, manners, and

talents of the drawing-room..

339

II. Dawn of the classic spirit in Europe-Its origin-Its nature-Difference of conver-

sation under Elizabeth and Charles II.
III. Sir William Temple-His life, character, spirit, and style...

332

IV. Writers of fashion-Their correct language and gallant bearing-Sir Charles Sed-

ley, the Earl of Dorset, Edmund Waller-His opinions and style-Wherein

consists his polish-Wherein he is not sufficiently polished-Culture of style-

Lack of poetry-Character of monarchical and classic style....

335

Sir John Denham-His poem of Cooper's Hill-Oratorical swell of his verse-

English seriousness of his moral preoccupations-How people of fashion and
literary men followed then the fashions of France..

....... 339

VI. The comic-authors-Comparison of this theatre with that of Molière-Arrange-

ment of ideas in Molière-General ideas in Molière-How in Molière the odious

is concealed, while the truth is depicted-How in Molière the honest map is

still the man of the world-How the respectable man of Molière is a French

type .........

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VII. Action-Complication of intrigues--Frivolity of purpose-Crudeness of the charac-

ters--Grossness of manners-Wherein consists the talent of Wycherley, Con.

greve, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar-Kind of characters they are able to produce. 344
VIII. Natural characters-Sir John Brute, the husband; Squire Sullen-Sir Tunbelly,

the father-Miss Hoyden, the young lady-Squire Humphry, the young

gentleman-Idea of nature according to this theatre.
IX. Artificial characters-Women of the world-Miss Prue, Lady Wishfort, Lady

Pliant, Mrs. Millamant-Men of the world - MirabellIdea of society ac,
cording to this theatre-Why this culture and this literature have not produced
durable works-Wherein they are opposed to the English character-Transfor-
mation of taste and manners...

344

The continuation of comedy-Sheridan-Life-Talent-The School for Scandal-

How comedy degenerates and is extinguished-Causes of the decay of the

theatre in Europe and in England...

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