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I. Formation and character of Feudalism.
The Normans are French-How they became so-Their taste and architecture
Their tactics and their success..
ideas-Psychological form of French genius-Prosaic histories ; lack of
nature of the beauty and of the ideas which the French have introduced...
literature and language-They forget the same-Learn English by degrees
-Gradually English becomes gallicised...
Layamon, Robert of Gloucester, Robert de Brunne-They imitate in English
the French literature-Moral manuals, chansons, fabliaux, Gestes—Brightness,
frivolity, and futility of this French literature-Barbarity and ignorance of
the feudal civilization-Geste of Richard Cour de Lion, and voyages of Sir
John Mandeville-Poorness of the literature introduced and implanted in
England-Why it has not endured on the Continent or in England...
VI. The Saxons in England-Endurance of the Saxon nation, and formation of the
English constitution-Endurance of the Saxon character, and formation of the
VII-IX. Comparison of the ideal hero in France and England-Fabliaux of Reynard,
and ballads of Robin Hood-How the Saxon character makes way for and
supports political liberty-Comparison of the condition of the Commons in
France and England-Theory of the English constitution, by Sir John
Fortescue-How the Saxon constitution makes way for and supports political
land-Piers Plowman and Wycliffe-How the Saxon character and the situ-
ation of the Norman Church made way for religious reform-Incompleteness
and importance of the national literature-Why it has not endured....
Chaucer-His education-His political and social life-Wherein his talent was
serviceable-He paints the second feudal society...
How the middle age degenerated-Decline of the serious element in manners,
books, and works of art–Need of excitement-Analogies of architecture and
Wherein Chaucer belongs to the middle age-Romantic and ornamental poems-
Le Roman de la Rose — Troilus and Cressida - Canterbury Tales
Order of description and events—The House of Fame-Fantastic dreams
and visions-Love poems-Troilus and Cressida-Exaggerated development
of love in the middle age--Why the mind took this path-Mystic love-The
Flower and the Leaf-Sensual love-Troilus and Cressida...
Wherein Chaucer is French-Satirical and jovial poems-Canterbury Tales The
Wife of Bath and marriage -The mendicant friar and religion-Buffoorery,
waggery, and coarseness in the middle age...
Eyck and Chaucer contemporary-Prologue to Canterbury Tales-Portraits
-How he is isolated in his age.....
scholastic philosophy-Why poetry failed—Comparison of civilization and
[ Idea which men had formed of the world, since the dissolution o the old
society - How and why human inventiveness reappears.
The form of the spirit
1 Why the ideal changes- Improvement of the state of man in Europe-In England
--Peace-Industry-Commerce-Pasturage-Agriculture-Growth of public
pageantries-Celebrations under Elizabeth- Masques under James I......
Manners of the people-Pageants—Theatres–Village feasts- Pagan development. 112
Models—The ancients-Translation and study of classical authors-Sympathy for
the manners and mythology of the ancients—The moderns-Taste for Italian
writings and ideas-Poetry and painting in Italy were pagan—The ideal is the
strong and happy man, limited by the present life...
The English Renaissance is the Renaissance of the Saxon genius......
JI. The forerunners-The Earl of Surrey-His feudal and chivalrous life-His English
individual character-His serious and melancholy poems-His conception of
III. His style-His masters, Petrach and Virgil-His progress, power, precocious
perfection-Birth of art-Weaknesses, imitation, research-Art incomplete.... 118
IV. Growth and completion of art-Euphues and fashion-Style and spirit of the Re-
naissance-Copiousness and irregularity-How manners, style, and spirit corres-
pond-Şir Philip Sydney-His education, life, character-His learning, gravity,
generosity, forcible expression-The Arcadia-Exaggeration and mannerism of
sentiments and style --Defence of Poesie-Eloquence and energy-His sonnets
-Wherein the body and the passions of the Renaissance differ from those of
the moderns-Sensual love-Mystical love......
Pastoral poetry: The great number of poets-Spirit and force of the poetry-State
of mind which produces it-Love of the country-Reappearance of the ancient
- How the transformation of the people transforms art.....
love and beauty-Copiousness of his imagination - How far it was suited for
Olympus-How it combines these...
VII. The Faërie Queene- Impossible events-How they appear natural-Belphæbe and
Chrysogone-Fairy and gigantic pictures and landscapes-Why they must be so
.-Wherein the art of the Renaissance is complete....
1 Limit of the poetry-Changes in society and manners-How the return to naturo
becomes an appeal to the senses-Corresponding changes in poetry--How agree
-Carew, Suckling, Herrick - Affectation - Quarles, Herbert, Babington,
Donne, Cowley-Begininng of the classic style and drawing-room life..
Hew poetry passed into prose-Connection of science and art-In Italy-In
England-How the triumph of nature develops the exercise of the natural reason
represent the individual, not the idea..
Robert Burton-His life and character-Vastness and confusion of his acquirements
-His subject, the Anatomy of Melancholy-Scholastic divisions-Medley of
Hydriotaphia, Religio Medici-His ideas, curiosity, and doubts belong to the
the public mind..
style-Comparisons and aphorisms—The Essays---His style not argumentative,
II. Manners of the sixteenth century-Violent and complete expansion of nature. ... 160
III. English manners-Expansion of the energetic and gloomy character....
IV. The poets-General harmony between the character of a poet and that of his age
-Nash, Decker, Kyd, Peele, Lodge, Greene-Their condition and life-Mar-
lowe-His life-His works—Tamburlaine-The Jew of Malta-Edward
11.-Faustus-- His conception of man...
V. Formation of this drama-The process and character of this art-Imitative
sympathy, which depicts by expressive examples-Contrast of classical and
Germanic art-Psychological construction and proper sphere of these two arts. 173
Male characters-Furious passions—Tragical events-Exaggerated characters
The Duke of Milan by Massinger-Ford's Annabella-Webster's Duchess of
Malfi and Vittoria Corombona-Female characters-Germainic idea of love
and marriage-Euphrasia, Bianca, Arethusa, Ordella, Aspasia Amoret, in
Beaumont and Fletcher-Penthea in Ford-Agreement of the moral and
I. The masters of the school, in the school and in their age--Jonson-His mood-
Character-Education-First efforts-Struggles - Poverty-Sickness-Death. 186
II, Learning-Classical tastes–Didactic characters-Good management of his plots
-Freedom and precision of his style-Vigor of his will and passion......
III. Dramas-Catiline and Sejanus How he was able to depict the personages and
the passions of the Roman decadence...
IV. Comedies-His reformation and theory of the theatre-Satirical comedies-
Volpone-Why these comedies are serious and warlike-How they depict the
passions of the Renaissance-His farces—The Silent Woman-Why these
comedies are energetic and rude-How they conform with the tastes of the
V. Limits of his talent-Wherein he is inferior to Molière-Want of higher poilusophy
and comic gayety-His imagination and fancy-The Staple of News and
- His smaller poems-His masques—Theatrical and picturesque manners of
the court-The Sad Shepherd-How Jonso: remains a poet to his death...... 20%
VI. General idea of Shakspeare--The fundamental idea in Shakspeare-Conditions of
human reason-Shakspeare's master faculty-Conditions of exact represed.
Lite and character of Shakspeare-Family-Youth-Me rriage-He becomes an
actor-Adonis Sonnets--Loves-Humor-Conversation-Melar choly – The
constitution of the productive and sympathetic character-Prudence-For une
style-Images-Excesses-Incongruities–Copiousness Difference between the
creative and analytic conception..
III. Manners-Familiar intercourse-Violent bearing—Harsh language Conversation
and action-Agreement of manners and style.
Cloten, Polonius, the Nurse - How the mechanical imagination can precede
or survive reason..
Beatrice, Rosalind, Benedict, the clowns-Falstaff..
Volumnia-How Shakspeare represents love-Why he bases virtue
instinct or passion....
patra, Coriolanus, Macbeth, Hamlet-Comparison of Shakspeare's psychol-
ogy with that of the French tragic authors...
Fancy Agreement of imagination with observation in Shakspeare-Interesting
nature of sentimental and romantic comedy-As you like it-Idea of exist
ence-Midsummer Night's Dream-Idea of love - Harmony of all parts
of the work-Harmony between the artist and his work....
The Christian Renaissance.
II The Reformation-Aptitude of the Germanic races, and suitability of Northern
climates--Albert Durer's bodies and souls-His martyrdoms and last judg-
ments-Luther–His idea of justice--Construction of Protestantism--Crisis
of the conscience-Renewal of' heart-Suppression of ceremonies-Transfor-
III. Reformation in England-Tyranny of the ecclesiastical courts-Disorders of the
clergy-Irritation of the people-The interior of a diocese-Persecutions and
convulsions—The translation of the Bible-How biblical events and Hebraic
sentiments are in accordance with contemporary manners and with the English
character-The Prayer Book-Moral and manly feeling of the prayers and
church service-Preaching-Latimer-His education-Character-Familiar and
persuasive eloquence-Death-The martyrs under Mary-England thenceforth
The Anglicans-Close connection between religion and society --How the religious
sentiment penetrates literature-How the sentiment of the beautiful subsists in
religion-Hooker-His breadth of mind and the fulness of his style-Hales
and Chillingworth-Praise of reason and tolerance-Jeremy Taylor-His
learning, imagination, and poetic feeling.
The Puritans-Opposition of religion and the world-Dogmas-Morality,
Scruples—Their triumph and enthusiasm-Their work and practical sense..... 263
VI Bunyan-His life, spirit, and poetical work-The Prospect of Protestantism in
L. General idea of_his mind and character-Family-Education-Studies—Traveler
11. Effects of a concentrated and solitary character-Austerity-Inexperience
III. Combative energy-Polemic against the bishops Against the king-Enthusiasm
und sternness—Theories on government,
and virtue-Old age, occupations, person...
Mücor as a prose-writer-Changes during three centuries in countenances and
ideas-Heaviness of his logic— The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce.
Heavy Humor-Animadversions upon the Remonstrant's Defence-Clumsi-
ness of discussion-Defensio Populi Anglicani-Violence of his animosities
The reason of Church Government- Erkoroklastes-Liberality of Doctrines
Of Reformation-Areopagitica-Style--Breadth of eloquence-Wealth of
imagery–Lyric sublimity of diction....
n. Milton as a poet-How he approaches and is distinct from the poets of the Renais-
sance How he gives poetry a moral tone-Profane poems--L'Allegro and 1!
Che cxcesses of Puritanism-How they induce excesses of sensuality...
II Picture of these manners by a stranger–The Mémoires de Grammont-Difference
of debauchery in France and England....
IS Butler's Hudibras-Platitude of his comic style, and harshness of his rancorous
Baseness, cruelty, brutality, debauchery, of the court-Rochester, his life, poems,
Philosophy consonant with these manners--Hobbes, his spirit and his style--His
curtailments and his discoveries-His mathematical method-In how much he
resembles Descartes-His morality,, æsthetics, politics, logic, psychology,
metaphysics-Spirit and aim of his philosophy...
VI. The theatre-Alteration in taste, and in the public-Audiences before and after
VII. Dryden-Disparity of his comedies–Unskilfulness of his indecencies-How he
translates Molière's Amphitryon...
VII) Wycherley—Life-Character-Melancholy, greed, immodesty-Love in a Wood,
Country Wife, Dancing Master-Licentious pictures, and repugnant details
-His energy and realism-Parts of Olivia and Manly in his Plain Dealer
Certain words of Miltou's Paradise Lost.......
1. Appearance of the worldly life in Europe-Its conditions and causes- How It was
established in England-Etiquette, amusements, conversations, manners, and
II. Dawn of the classic spirit in Europe--Its origin-Its nature-Difference of conver-
sation under Elizabeth and Charles II..
Writers of fashion-Their correct language and gallant bearing-Sir Charles Sed-
ley, the Earl of Dorset, Edmund Waller-His opinions and style-Wherein
consists his polish-Wherein he is not sufficiently polished-Culture of style-
Lack of poetry-Character of monarchical and classic style....
v. Sir John Denham-His poem of Cooper's Hill-Oratorical swell of his verse-
English seriousness of his moral preoccupations-How people of fashion and
literary men followed then the fashions of France...
VI. The comic-authors-Comparison of this theatre with that of Molière-Arrange-
ment of ideas in Molière-General ideas in Molière-How in Molière the odicus
VII. Action-Complication of intrigues--Frivolity of purpose-Crudeness of the charac-
ters-Grossness of mannersWherein consists the talent of Wycherley, Con.
greve, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar-Kind of characters they are able to produce. 344
VIII. Natural characters-Sir John Brute, the husband ; Squire Sullen-Sir Tunbelly,
the father-Miss Høyden, the young lady-Squire Humphry, the young
gentleman-Idea of nature according to this theatre.
IX. Artificial characters--Women of the world-Miss Prue, Lady Wishfort, Lady
Pliant, Mrs. Millamant-Men of the world - Mirabell—Idea of society ac
cording to this theatre-Why this culture and this literature have not produced
durable works—Wherein they are opposed to the English character-Transfor-
The continuation of comedy-Sheridan-Life-Talent-The School for Scandal-
How comedy degenerates and is extinguished-Causes of the decay of the
theatre in Europe and in England...