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The Normans.

I. Formation and character of Feudalism.
II. the Norman invasion ; character of the Normans-Contrast with the Saxons-

The Normans are French-How they became so-Their taste and architecture
-Their spirit of inquiry and their literature-Chivalry and amusements-

Their tactics and their success..
III. Bent of the French genius-Two principal characteristics; clear and consecutive

ideas-Psychological form of French genius-Prosaic histories ; lack of
color and passion, ease and discursiveness-Natural logic and clearness,
soberness, grace and delicacy, refinement and cynicism-Order and charm-The

nature of the beauty and of the ideas which the French have introduced...
IV. The Normans in England-Their position and their tyranny-They implant their

literature and language-They forget the same-Learn English by degrees

-Gradually English becomes gallicised...
They translate French works into English-Opinion of Sir John Mandeville-

Layamon, Robert of Gloucester, Robert de Brunne-They imitate in English

the French literature-Moral manuals, chansons, fabliaux, Gestes—Brightness,

frivolity, and futility of this French literature-Barbarity and ignorance of

the feudal civilization-Geste of Richard Cour de Lion, and voyages of Sir

John Mandeville-Poorness of the literature introduced and implanted in

England-Why it has not endured on the Continent or in England...

VI. The Saxons in England-Endurance of the Saxon nation, and formation of the

English constitution-Endurance of the Saxon character, and formation of the

English character.

VII-IX. Comparison of the ideal hero in France and England-Fabliaux of Reynard,

and ballads of Robin Hood-How the Saxon character makes way for and

supports political liberty-Comparison of the condition of the Commons in

France and England-Theory of the English constitution, by Sir John

Fortescue-How the Saxon constitution makes way for and supports political
liberty-Situation of the Church, and precursors of the Reformation in Eng-

land-Piers Plowman and Wycliffe-How the Saxon character and the situ-

ation of the Norman Church made way for religious reform-Incompleteness

and importance of the national literature-Why it has not endured....

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The Mebo Tongue.

Chaucer-His education-His political and social life-Wherein his talent was

serviceable-He paints the second feudal society...

How the middle age degenerated-Decline of the serious element in manners,

books, and works of art–Need of excitement-Analogies of architecture and


Wherein Chaucer belongs to the middle age-Romantic and ornamental poems-

Le Roman de la Rose Troilus and Cressida - Canterbury Tales

Order of description and events—The House of Fame-Fantastic dreams

and visions-Love poems-Troilus and Cressida-Exaggerated development

of love in the middle age--Why the mind took this path-Mystic love-The

Flower and the Leaf-Sensual love-Troilus and Cressida...

Wherein Chaucer is French-Satirical and jovial poems-Canterbury Tales The

Wife of Bath and marriage -The mendicant friar and religion-Buffoorery,

waggery, and coarseness in the middle age...
Wherein Chaucer was English and original- Idea of character and individual-Van

Eyck and Chaucer contemporary-Prologue to Canterbury Tales-Portraits
of the franklin, monk, miller, citizen, knight, squire, prioress, the good cierk-
Connection of events and characters--General idea-Importance

the same
--Chaucer a precursor of the Reformation-He halts by the way-Tediousness
and Childishness-Causes of this feebleness-His prose, and scholastic notion

-How he is isolated in his age.....
Connection of philosophy and poetry-How general notions failed under the


scholastic philosophy-Why poetry failed—Comparison of civilization and
decadence in the middle age, and in Spain-Extinction of the English literature
- Translators-Rhyming chroniclers-Didactic poets-Compilers of moralities
-Gower-Occleve-Lydgate-Analogy of taste in costumes, buildings, and
literature--Sad notion of fate, and human misery-Hawes-Barclay-Stelton
-Elements of the Reformation and of the Renaissance...



The Pagan Renaissance.



[ Idea which men had formed of the world, since the dissolution o the old

society - How and why human inventiveness reappears.

The form of the spirit
of the Renaissance-The representation of objects is imitative, characteristic,

and complete....


1 Why the ideal changes- Improvement of the state of man in Europe-In England

--Peace-Industry-Commerce-Pasturage-Agriculture-Growth of public
wealth-Buildings and furniture--The palace, meals and habits-Court

pageantries-Celebrations under Elizabeth- Masques under James I......


Manners of the people-Pageants—Theatres–Village feasts- Pagan development. 112


Models—The ancients-Translation and study of classical authors-Sympathy for

the manners and mythology of the ancients—The moderns-Taste for Italian

writings and ideas-Poetry and painting in Italy were pagan—The ideal is the

strong and happy man, limited by the present life...

§ 2. POETRY.

The English Renaissance is the Renaissance of the Saxon genius......


JI. The forerunners-The Earl of Surrey-His feudal and chivalrous life-His English

individual character-His serious and melancholy poems-His conception of

inward love..

III. His style-His masters, Petrach and Virgil-His progress, power, precocious

perfection-Birth of art-Weaknesses, imitation, research-Art incomplete.... 118

IV. Growth and completion of art-Euphues and fashion-Style and spirit of the Re-

naissance-Copiousness and irregularity-How manners, style, and spirit corres-

pond-Şir Philip Sydney-His education, life, character-His learning, gravity,

generosity, forcible expression-The Arcadia-Exaggeration and mannerism of

sentiments and style --Defence of Poesie-Eloquence and energy-His sonnets

-Wherein the body and the passions of the Renaissance differ from those of

the moderns-Sensual love-Mystical love......


Pastoral poetry: The great number of poets-Spirit and force of the poetry-State

of mind which produces it-Love of the country-Reappearance of the ancient
gods-Enthusiasm for beauty-Picture of ingenuous and happy love-Shak-
speare, Jonson, Fletcher, Drayton, Marlowe, Warner, Breton, Lodge, Greene

- How the transformation of the people transforms art.....
Ideal poetry-Spenser--His life-His character–His platonism–His Hymns of

love and beauty-Copiousness of his imagination - How far it was suited for
the epic-Wherein it was allied to the "faërie"-His tentatives--Shepherd's
Calendar-His short poems-His masterpiece-The Faërie Queene-His epic
is allegorical and yet life-like-It embraces Christian chivalry and the Pagan

Olympus-How it combines these...


VII. The Faërie Queene- Impossible events-How they appear natural-Belphæbe and

Chrysogone-Fairy and gigantic pictures and landscapes-Why they must be so
- The cave of Mammon, and the gardens of Acrasia-How Spenser composes

.-Wherein the art of the Renaissance is complete....

..... 135

$ 3. PROSE.

1 Limit of the poetry-Changes in society and manners-How the return to naturo

becomes an appeal to the senses-Corresponding changes in poetry--How agree
ablenesss replaces energy-How prettiness replaces the beautiful-Refinements

-Carew, Suckling, Herrick - Affectation - Quarles, Herbert, Babington,

Donne, Cowley-Begininng of the classic style and drawing-room life..

Hew poetry passed into prose-Connection of science and art-In Italy-In

England-How the triumph of nature develops the exercise of the natural reason
-Scholars, historians, speakers, compilers, politicians, antiquaries, philoso-
phers, theologians-The abundance of talent, and the rarity of fine works-
Superfluousness, punctiliousness, and pedantry of the style-Originality, preci-
sion, energy, and richness of the style-How, unlike the classical writers, they

represent the individual, not the idea..

Robert Burton-His life and character-Vastness and confusion of his acquirements

-His subject, the Anatomy of Melancholy-Scholastic divisions-Medley of
moral and medical science..

IV Sir Thomas Browne-His talent-His imagination is that of a North-man-

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Hydriotaphia, Religio Medici-His ideas, curiosity, and doubts belong to the
age of the Renaissance-Pseudodoxia-Effects of this activity and this direction

the public mind..
Francis Bacon-His talent-His originality--Concentration and brightness of his

style-Comparisons and aphorisms—The Essays---His style not argumentative,
but intuitive-His practical good sense-Turning-point of his philosophy, The
object of science is the amelioration of the condition of man--New Atlantis
The idea is in accordance with the state of affairs and the spirit of the times
-It completes the Renaissance-It introduces a new method - The Organum
-Where Bacon stopped-Limits of the spirit of the age--How the conception
of the world, which had been poetic, became mechanical --How the Renaissance
ended in the establishment of positive science..

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creative and analytic conception..



III. Manners-Familiar intercourse-Violent bearing—Harsh language Conversation

and action-Agreement of manners and style.
IV. The dramatis persona-All of the same family-Brutes and idiots-Caliban, Ajax,

Cloten, Polonius, the Nurse - How the mechanical imagination can precede

or survive reason..
V. Men of wit-Difference between the wit of_reasoners and of artists-Mercutio,

Beatrice, Rosalind, Benedict, the clowns-Falstaff..
Women- Desdemona, Virginia, Juliet, Miranda, Imogen, Cordelia, Ophelia,

Volumnia-How Shakspeare represents love-Why he bases virtue

instinct or passion....
VII. Villains Iago, Richard III.-How excessive lusts and the lack of conscience are
the natural province of the impassioned imagination......

VIII. Principal characters-Excess and disease of the imagination-Lear, Othello, Cleo

patra, Coriolanus, Macbeth, Hamlet-Comparison of Shakspeare's psychol-

ogy with that of the French tragic authors...


Fancy Agreement of imagination with observation in Shakspeare-Interesting

nature of sentimental and romantic comedy-As you like it-Idea of exist

ence-Midsummer Night's Dream-Idea of love - Harmony of all parts

of the work-Harmony between the artist and his work....

... aga


The Christian Renaissance.
1. Vices of the pagan Renaissance-Decay of the Southern civilizations......


II The Reformation-Aptitude of the Germanic races, and suitability of Northern

climates--Albert Durer's bodies and souls-His martyrdoms and last judg-

ments-Luther–His idea of justice--Construction of Protestantism--Crisis

of the conscience-Renewal of' heart-Suppression of ceremonies-Transfor-

mation of the clergy


III. Reformation in England-Tyranny of the ecclesiastical courts-Disorders of the

clergy-Irritation of the people-The interior of a diocese-Persecutions and

convulsions—The translation of the Bible-How biblical events and Hebraic

sentiments are in accordance with contemporary manners and with the English

character-The Prayer Book-Moral and manly feeling of the prayers and

church service-Preaching-Latimer-His education-Character-Familiar and

persuasive eloquence-Death-The martyrs under Mary-England thenceforth




The Anglicans-Close connection between religion and society --How the religious

sentiment penetrates literature-How the sentiment of the beautiful subsists in

religion-Hooker-His breadth of mind and the fulness of his style-Hales

and Chillingworth-Praise of reason and tolerance-Jeremy Taylor-His

learning, imagination, and poetic feeling.



The Puritans-Opposition of religion and the world-Dogmas-Morality,

Scruples—Their triumph and enthusiasm-Their work and practical sense..... 263

VI Bunyan-His life, spirit, and poetical work-The Prospect of Protestantism in




of genuine epic-They are not to be met with in the age or i: he poet-Com
parison of Adam and Eve with an English family-Comparison of God and the
angels to a monarch's court-The rest of the poem-Comparison between the
sentiments of Satan and the republican passions-Lyrical and moral character
of the scenery-Loftiness and sense of the moral ideas--Situation of the post
and the poem between two ages-Composition of his genius and his work......

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1. Appearance of the worldly life in Europe-Its conditions and causes- How It was

established in England-Etiquette, amusements, conversations, manners, and

talents of the drawing-room.


II. Dawn of the classic spirit in Europe--Its origin-Its nature-Difference of conver-

sation under Elizabeth and Charles II..
III. Sir William Temple-His life, character, spirit, and style..



Writers of fashion-Their correct language and gallant bearing-Sir Charles Sed-

ley, the Earl of Dorset, Edmund Waller-His opinions and style-Wherein

consists his polish-Wherein he is not sufficiently polished-Culture of style-

Lack of poetry-Character of monarchical and classic style....


v. Sir John Denham-His poem of Cooper's Hill-Oratorical swell of his verse-

English seriousness of his moral preoccupations-How people of fashion and

literary men followed then the fashions of France...

....... 339

VI. The comic-authors-Comparison of this theatre with that of Molière-Arrange-

ment of ideas in Molière-General ideas in Molière-How in Molière the odicus
is concealed, while the truth is depicted—How in Molière the honest man is
still the man of the world-How the respectable man of Molière is a French


VII. Action-Complication of intrigues--Frivolity of purpose-Crudeness of the charac-

ters-Grossness of mannersWherein consists the talent of Wycherley, Con.

greve, Vanbrugh, and Farquhar-Kind of characters they are able to produce. 344

VIII. Natural characters-Sir John Brute, the husband ; Squire Sullen-Sir Tunbelly,

the father-Miss Høyden, the young lady-Squire Humphry, the young

gentleman-Idea of nature according to this theatre.


IX. Artificial characters--Women of the world-Miss Prue, Lady Wishfort, Lady

Pliant, Mrs. Millamant-Men of the world - Mirabell—Idea of society ac

cording to this theatre-Why this culture and this literature have not produced

durable works—Wherein they are opposed to the English character-Transfor-

mation of taste and manners..


The continuation of comedy-Sheridan-Life-Talent-The School for Scandal-

How comedy degenerates and is extinguished-Causes of the decay of the

theatre in Europe and in England...


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