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roots in the innermost folds of her making jellies, wmats, sweetmeats, heart. Her young master thinks of marmalades, cordials, and to pot, and marrying her now, and wishes to be candy, and preserve," * to get up the sure that she loves him. She dares linen; she will look after the break not say so, being afraid to give him a fast and dinner, especially when there hold upon her. She is greatly troubled are guests; she knows how to carve ; by his kindness, and yet she must an- she will wait for her husband, who swer. Religion comes to veil love in a perhaps will be so good as now and sublime half-confession: “I fear not, then to give her an hour or two of his sir,the graos of God supporting me, that “ agreeable conversation,”. “and will any acts of kindness would make me be indulgent to the impertinent overforget what I owe to my virtue ; but flowings of my grateful heart.” | In

my nature is too frank and open his absence she will read~"that will to make me wish to be ungrateful ; help to polish my mind, and make me ar d if I should be taught a lesson í worthier of your company and convernever yet learnt, with what regret sation ;” 1 and she will pray to God, should Í descend to the grave, to think she says, in order “ that I may be enthat I could not hate my undoer; and abled to discharge my duty to my husthat, at the last great day, I must stand band.” s Richardson has sketched here up as an accuser of the poor unhappy the portrait of the English wife-a good soul, that I could wish it in my power housekeeper and sedentary, studious to save !"* He is softened and van-, and obedient, loving and pious—and quished, descends from that vast height Fielding will finish it in his Amelia. where aristocratic customs placed him, Pamela's adventures describe a con and thenceforth, day by day, the letters test: the novel of Clarissa Harlowe of the happy child record the prepara represents one still greater. Virtue, tions for their marriage. Amidst this like force of every kind, is proportriumph and happiness she continues tioned according to its power of resist humble, devoted, and tender; her heart ance; and we have only to subject it is full, and gratitude fills it from every to more violent tests, to give it its

“This foolish girl must be, greatest prominence. Let us look in after twelve o'clock this day, as much passions of the English for foes capa. his wife as if he were to marry a duch- ble of assailing virtue, calling it forth, ess.”+ She “had the boldness to kiss and strengthening it. The evil and the his hand.” I “My heart is so wholly good of the English character is a too yours, that I am afraid of nothing but strong will.ll When tenderness and that I may be forwarder than you lofty reason fail, the native energy be wish.” § Shall the marriage take place comes sternness, obstinacy, inflexible Monday, or Tuesday, or Wednesday? tyranny, and the heart a den of malevo She dare not say Yes; she blushes and lent passions, eager to rave and tea, trembles: there is a delightful charm each other. Against a family, having in this timid modesty, these restrained such passions, Clarissa Harlowe hasti effusions. For a wedding present she struggle. Her father never would be obtains the pardon of the wicked crea- “controuled, nor yet persuaded.”T HI tures who have ill-treated her: “I never "did give up one point be c.asped my arms about his neck, and thought he had a right to carry.”** He was not ashamed to kiss him once, and has broken down the will of his wife, twice, and three times, once for each and degraded her to the part of forgiven person." || Then they talk dumb servant: he wishes to breal over their plans: she shall remain at down the will of his daughter, and ti home; she will not frequent grand give her for a husband a coarse an! parties; she is not fond of cards; she heartless fool. He is the head of the will keep the "family accounts," and distribute her husband's charities ; she

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Ibid. ii. 63.


o See in Pamela the character of Squire B * Pamela, i. 390.

Ibid. ii. 167. and Lady Davers. Ibid. ii. 78.

Ibid. ü. 148. 1 Clarissa Harlower, 4th ed. 1751, 7 vola i i Ibid. ii. 194.

# Ibid. č. 62.



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family, master of all his people, des- | knees, faints, makes them weep. It is potic and ambitious as a Roman patri- all useless. The indomitable, crushing cian, and he wishes to found a house. will oppresses her with its daily in. He is stern in these two harsh resolves, creasing mass. There is no example and inveighs against the rebellious of such a varied moral torture, so indaughter. Above the outbursts of his cessant, so obstinate. They persist in voice we hear the loud wrath of his son, it, as if it were a task, and are vexed to a sort of plethoric, over-fed bull-dog, find that she makes their task so long. excited by his greed, his youth, his fiery They refuse to see her, forbid her to temper, and his premature authority'; write, are afraid of her tears. Her the shrill outcry of the eldest daughter, sister Arabella, with the venomous

coarse, plain-looking girl, with "a bitterness of an offended, ugly woman, plump, high-fed face, exactingly tries to make her insults more stinging jealous, prone to hate, who, being neg.

“The witty, the prudent, nay the dutiful lected by Lovelace, revenges herself on her beautiful sister; the churlish words Clarissa Harlowe, should be so strangely

and pi-ous (so she sneeringly pronounced the growling of the two uncles, narrow- fond of a profligate man, that her parents were minded old bachelors, vulgar, pig- forced to lock her up, in order to hinder her headed, through their notions of male you, my dear, said she, “ how you now keep

from running into his arms. authority; the grievous importunities your account of the disposition of your time? of the mother, the aunt, the old nurse, How many hours in the twenty-four do poor timid slaves, reduced one by one

vote to your needle ? How many to your to become instruments of persecution. Brayers. How many to letter-writing? And

how many to love? I doubt, I doubt, my little The whole family have bound them- dear, the latter article is like Aaron's rod, and selves to favor Mr. Solmes' proposal to swallows up all the rest. You must theremarry Clarissa. They do not reason,

fore bend or break, that is all,

child.' *

" What, not speak yet? Come, my sullen, they simply express their will. By dint silent dear, speak one word to me. You must of repetition, only one idea has fixed say two very soon to Mr. Solmes, I can tell you itself in their brain, and they become averted face with her handkerchief) :

Well, well (insultingly wiping my furious when any one endeavors to

you think you may be brought to speak the two “ Who at the long run

words.'” † inust submit?” asks her mother; "all of us to you, or you to all of us p»* She continues thus : Clarissa offers to remain single, never “ This, Clary, is a pretty pattern enough. to marry at all; she consents to give up But this is quite charming ?- And this, were I her property. But her family answered: Clary, won't you have a velvet suit It would

you, should be my wedding night-gown.-But, “They had'a right to her obedience cut a great figure in a country church, you upon their own terms; her proposal know. Crimson velvet suppose ? Such a fine was an artifice, only to gain time; noth- complexion as yours, how it would be set off ing but marrying Mr. Solmes should by it! And do you sigh, love? Black velvet,

so fair as you are, with those charming eyes, do; .. they should not be at rest till gleaming through a wintry cloud, like an April it was done.”+ It must be done, they sun.

Does not Lovelace tell you they are have promised it; it is a point of charming eyes?!1 honor with them. A girl, a young, in. Then, when Arabella is reminded that, experienced, insignificant girl, to resist three months ago, she did not find men, old men, people of position and Lovelace so worthy of scorn, she zonsideration, nay, her whole familynearly chokes with passion; she wants nonstrous ! So they persist, like brutes to beat her sister, cannot speak, and as they are, blindly, putting on the says

to her aunt, “with great vio screw with all their stupid hands to lence;" “ Let us go, madam ; let us gether, not seeing that at every turn, leave the creature to swell till she they bring the child nearer to madness, bursts with her own poison.” It redishonor, or death. She begs them, im- minds us of a pack of hounds in full plores them, one by one, with every cry after a deer, which is caught, and argument and prayer; racks herself to discover concessions, goes on her

* Clarissa Harlow, i. Letto zlü, 298.

1 lbid. i. Letter xliii. 295. Clarissa Harlow, i. Letter 2. 125. 1 Ibid. i. Letter Ulv. 308. | Ibid. i. Letter wix. 253.

§ Ibid. i. Letter xlv. 309



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wounded; whilst the pack grow more friend of Lovelace, "tricked a farmer's eager and more ferocious, because they daughter, a pretty girl, up to town, have tasted blood.

drank her light-hearted, then to At the last myment, when she thinks the play, then to the bagnio, tc escape them, a new chase begins, ruined her; kept her on a fortnight or more dangerous than the other. Love three weeks ; then left her to the mercy lace has aïl the evil passions of Har- of the people of the bagnio (never pay lowe, and in addition a genius which ing for any thing), who stript her of all sharpens and aggravates them. What her cloaths, and because she would not a character ! How English! how take on, threw her into prison, where di ferent from the Don Juan of Mozart she died in want and in despair." ; or of Molière! Before every thing he The rakes in France were only rascals, 1 wishes to have the cruel fair one in his here they were villains; wickedne v power : then come the desire to bend with them poisoned love. Lovelace others, a combative spirit, a cravirg for hates Clarissa even more than he loves aiumph, only after all these come the her. He has a book in which he sets

He spares an innocent, young down, he says, "all the family faults girl, because he knows she is easy to and the infinite trouble she herself has conquer, and the grandmother “has given me. When my heart is soft, and besought him to be merciful to her.” all her own, I can but turn to my mem. “The Debellare superbos should be my oranda, and harden myself at once.” 1 motto," * he writes to his friend Bel- He is angry because she dares to de ford ; and in another letter he says, “I fend herself, says that he'll teach her to always considered opposition and re- vie with him in inventions, to make sistance as a challenge to do my plots against and for her conqueror. It worst.” 1 At bottom, pride, infinite, is a struggle between them without insatiable, senseless, is the mainspring, truce or halting. Lovelace says of him. the only motive of all his actions. He self : “What an industrious spirit have acknowledges" that he only wanted !! Nobody can say that I eat the Cæsar's outsetting to make a figure bread of idleness ; certainly, with. among his contemporaries,” | and that this active soul, I should have made a he only stoops to private conquests out very great figure in whatever station I of mere whim. He declares that he had killed.” Š He assaults and be. would not marry the first princess on sieges her, spends whole nights outside earth, if he but thought she balanced a her house, gives the Harlowes servants minute in her choice of him or of an of his own, invents stories, introduces emperor. He is held to be gay, personages under a false name, forges Erilliant, conversational; but this petu- letters. There is no expense, fatigue, lance of animal vigor is only external; plot, treachery which he will not under. he is cruel, jests savagely, in cool take. All weapons are the same to blood, like a hangman, about the harm him. He digs and plans even when which he has done or means to do. He away, ten, twenty, fifty saps, which all reassures a poor servant who is troubled meet in the same mine. He provides at having given up Clarissa to him in against every thing; he is ready for the following words : "The affair of every thing ; divines, dares every thing, Miss Betterton was a youthful frolick. against all duty, humanity, common

I went into mourning for her, sense, in spite of the prayers of his trongh abroad at the time,--a distinc- friends, the entreaties of Clarissa, his lson I have ever paid to those worthy own remorse. Excessive will, here as creacures who died in childbed by me. with the Harlowes, becomes an iron

Why this squeamishness, then, wheel, which twists out of shape and honest Joseph ?” § The English roy- breaks to pieces what it ought to bend, sterers of those days threw the human so that at last, by blind impetuosity, it Dody in the sewers. One gentleman, a

Ibid. vii. Letter xxxviii. 122. * Clarissa Harlowe, i. Letter xxxiv. 223. See the Mémoires of the Marsbal de Rich | Ibid. ii. Letter xiiii. 315. 1 Ibid. i. Letter xii. 65.

Clarissa Harlowe, üi. Letter xxix 25.4 s Ibid. iii Letter xviii. 89.

Ibid iv. xxiii. 232.


is broken by its own impetus, over the life, has fortified herself on every point ruins it has made,

with maxims, distinctions, and argu. Against such assaults what resources ments. She has set round her, like has Clarissa ? A will as determined as bristling and multiplied ramparts, ; Lovelace's. She also is armed for war, numberless army of inflexible pro cepts and admits that she has much of her We can only reach her by turning ovej father's spirit as of her mother's gentle- her whole mind and her whole past. ness. Though gentle, though readily This is her force, and also her weak driven into Christian humility, she has ness; for she is so carefully defended pride; she “had hoped to be an ex- by her fortifications, liat she is a ample to young persons” of her sex; prisoner ; her principles are a snare she possesses the firmness of a man, her, and her virtue destroys her. She and above all a masculine reflection. * wishes to preserve too much decorum What self-scrutiny! what vigilance ! She refuses to apply to a magistrate, foi what minute and indefatigable observa- it would make public the family tion of her conduct, and of that of quarrels. She does not resist hei others It No action, or word, involun- father openly; that would be against tary or other gesture of Lovelace is un filial humility.

She does not repet observed by her, uninterpreted, un- Solmes violently, like a hound, as he judged, with the perspicacity and clear is; it would be contrary to feminine ness of mind of a diplomatist and a delicacy. She will not leave home with moralist! We must read these long Miss Howe; that might injure the conversations, in which no word is used character of her friend. She reprove without calculation, genuine duels daily Lovelace when he swears,* goor renewed, with death, nay, with dis-Christian ought to protest agains: honor before her. She knows it, is not scandal. She is argumentative and disturbed, remains ever mistress of pedantic, a politician and a preacher : herself, never exposes herself, is not she wearies us, she does not act like a dazed, defends every inch of ground, woman. When a room is on fire, a feeling that all the world is on his side, young girl Aies barefooted, and does no one for her, that she loses ground, not do what Miss Clarissa does--ask and will lose more, that she will fall

, for her slippers. I am very sorry for that she is falling. And yet she bends it, but I say it with bated breath, the not. What a change since Shakspeare ! sublime Clarissa had a little mind; her Whence comes this new and original virtue is like the piety of devotees, idea of woman? Who has encased literal and over-nice. She does not these yielding and tender innocents carry us away, she has always her guide with such heroism and calculation? of deportment in her hand; she does Puritanism transferred to the laity. not discover her duties, but follows in. Clarissa “never looked upon any duty, structions ; she has not the audacity of much less a voluntary vowed one, with great resolutions, she possesses more indifference.” She has passed her conscience and firmness than enthuwhole life in looking at these duties. siasm and genius. t. This is the dis. She has placed certain principles before advantage of morality pushed to an ex. her, has reasoned upon them, applied treme, no matter what the school or them to the various circumstances of the aim is. By dint of regulating man,

we narrow him. * See (vol. vii. Letter xlix.) among other Poor Richardson, unsuspiciously, things her last Will.

+ She makes out statistics and a classification has been at pains to set the thing fortb of Lovelace's merits and faults, with subdivi- in broad light, and has created Sii sions and numbers. Take an example of this Charles Grandison "a man of truo positive and practical English logic: “That such a husband might unsettle me in all my own * " Swearing is á most unmanly vice, and principles, and hazard my future hopes. That cursing as poor and low a one, since it pro he has a very immoral character to women. claims the profligate's want of power and bus That knowing this, it is a high degree of im- wickedness at the same time ; for could such a purity to think of joining in wed.ock with such one punish as he speaks, he would be a fiend."

She keeps all her writ.ngs, her mem--Vol. ii. Letter xxxviii. 282. orandums, summaries or analyses of her own + The contrary is the case with the heroina letters.

of George Sand's novela.

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honor." I cannot say whether this happy couple. Tears abound; Har model has converted many. There is riet bemoans the fate of Sir Hargrave nothing so insipid as an edifying hero. Pollexfen, whilst Sir Charles “in a This Sir Charles is as correct as an soothing, tender, and respectful manautomaton; he passes his life in weigh- ner, put his arm round me, and taking ing his duties, and "with an air of my own handkerchief, unresisted, wiped gallantry.”*

When he goes to visit a away the tears as they fell on my sick person, he has scruples about cheek. Sweet humanity! Chaj ming going on a Sunday, but reassures his sensibility! Check not the kindly cor:science by saying, “I am afraid I gush. Dewdrops of heaven! (wiping must borrow of the Sunday some hours away my tears, and kissing the handca my journey; but visiting the sick is kerchief), dew-drops of heaven, from a an act of mercy.”+ Would any one mind like that heaven mild and gra. believe that such a man could fall in cious ?"* It is too much ; we are sur. love? Such is the case, however, but feited, we say to ourselves that these in a manner of his own. Thus he phrases should be accompanied by a writes to his betrothed : “And now, mandoline. The most patient of morloveliest and dearest of women, allow tals feels himself sick at heart when he me to expect the honor of a line, to let has swallowed a thousand pages of this me know how much of the tedious sentimental twaddle, and all the milk month from last Thursday you will be and water of love. To crown all, Sir so good to abate. My utmost Charles, seeing Harriet embrace her gratitude will ever be engaged by the rival, sketches the plan of a little tem condescension, whenever you shall dis- ple, dedicated to Friendship, to be tinguish the day of the year, distin- built on the very spot; it is the triumph guished as it will be to the end of my of mythological bad taste. At the end, life that shall give me the greatest bouquets shower down as at the bleseing of it and confirm me--forever opera; all the characters sing in unison yours, Charles Grandison.” | A wax a chorus in praise of Sir Charles, and figure could not be more proper. All his wife says: “But could he be otheris in the same taste. There are eight wise than the best of husbands, who wedding-coaches, each with four horses; was the most dutiful of sons, who is the Sir Charles is attentive to old people; most affectionate of brothers; the most at table, the gentlemen, each with a faithful of friends: who is good upon napkin under his arm, wait upon the principle in every relation of life !” | ladies; the bride is ever on the point He is great, he is generous, delicate, of fainting; he throws himself at her pious, irreproachable; he has never feet with the utmost politeness: "What, done a mean action, nor made a wrong my love! In compliment to the best gesture. His conscience and his wig of parents resume your usual presence are unsullied. Amen! Let us canonof mind. I, else, who shall glory be-ize him, and stuff him with straw. fore a thousand witnesses in receiving Nor, my dear Richardson, have you, the honor of your hand, shall be ready great as you are, exactly all the wit to regret that I acquiesced so cheer- which is necessary in order to have fully with the wishes of those parental enough. By seeking to serve morality, friends for a public celebration." $ you prejudice it. Do you know the Courtesies begin, compliments fly effect of these edifying advertisements about; a swarm of proprieties flutters which you stick on at the beginning or around, like a troop of little love-cher- end of your books ? We are repelled, abs, and their devout wings serve to feel our emotion diminish, see the black sanctify the blessed tendernesses of the gowned preacher come snuffling out of See Sir Charles Grandison, 7 vols. 1811, sumed for an hour; we are annoyed by

the worldly dress which he had as. iii. Letter xvi. 142: “ He received the letters, standing up, bowing; and kissed the papers the deceit Insinuate morality, but do with an air of gallantry, that I thought greatly not inflict it. Remember there is a became him.”

substratum of rebellion in the human Ibid. vi. Letter Wri. 236. 1 lbid. vi. Letter wüi. aga.

Ibid. vi. Letter xxxi. 333. Ibid. vi. Latter lii. 358.

Ibid. vii. Letter bi. 336

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