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in the present day. He has that force one way as another.". Application of will, inner enthusiasm, hidden fer and fatigue of head and arms give oco Inent of a violent imagination which cupation to his superfluous activity and formerly produced the sea-kings, and force; the mill-stone must find grist to now produces emigrants and squatters. grind, without which, turning round 'The misfortunes of his two brothers, empty, it would wear itself away.

He the tears of his relatives, the advice of works, therefore, all day and night, at his friends, the remonstrances of his once carpenter, oarsman, porter, hunt reason, the remorse of his conscience, er, tiller of the ground, potter, tailor are all unable to restrain him : there milkman, basketmaker, grinder, baker, was “a something fatal in his nature;" invincible in difficulties, disappoint he had conceived the idea, he must go ments, expenditure of time and tail to sea. To no purpose is he seized Having but a hatchet and an adze, a with repentance during the first storm; took him forty-two days to make a he drowns in punch these “fits” of board. He occupied two months in conscience. To no purpose is he warned making his first two jars; five monins by shipwreck and a narrow escape from in making his first boat; then, " by death; he is hardened, and grows ob- dint of hard labor," he levelled the stinate. To no purpose captivity ground from his timber-yard to the sea, among the Moors and the possession then, not being able to bring his boat of a fruitful plantation invite repose ; to the sea, he tried to bring the sea up the indomitable instinct returns; he to his boat, and began to dig a canal; was born to be his own destroyer, and then, reckoning that he would require embarks again. The ship goes down; ten or twelve years to finish the task, he is cast alone on a desert island; he builds another boat at another place, then his native energy found its vent with another canal half-a-mile long, and its employment; like his descend four feet deep, six wide. He spends ants, the pioneers of Australia and two years over it: “I bore with this. America, he must recreate and re- I went through that by dint of hard master one by one the inventions and labor. . . . Many a weary stroke it had acquisitions of human industry; one by cost. : This will testify that I was one he does so. Nothing represses his not idle. As I had learned not to effort; neither possession nor weari- despair of any thing. I never grudged

my labor.” These strong expressions “I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now

of indomitable patience are ever recur. that ever was laid up, I believe, for one man ; ring. These stout-hearted men are but I was not satisfied still ; for while the ship framed for labor, as their sheep are for sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could.... I slaughter and their horses for racing. got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some Even now we may hear their mighty of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I hatchet and pickaxe sounding in the was fain to dip for it into the water; a work claims of Melbourne and in the log. which fatigued me very much, I believe, verily, had the calm weather held, I should houses of the Salt Lake. The reason o have brought away the whole ship, piece by their success is the same there as here; piece."

they do every thing with calculation and In his eyes, work is natural. When, in method ; they rationalize their energy, order “ to barricade himself, he goes to which is like a torrent they make a ca. cut the piles in the woods, and drives nal for. Crusoe sets to work only aftes them into the earth, which cost a

deliberate calculation and reflection. great deal of time and labor,” he says: When he seeks a spot for his tent, he * A very laborious and tedious work. enumerates the four conditions of the But what need I have been concerned place he requires. When he wishes to at the tediousness of any thing I had to escape despair, he draws up impartial. do, seeing I had time enough to do it ly, "like debtor and crec 'tor," the list in? ... My time or labor was little of his advantages and disadvantages, wurth, and so it was as well employed putting them in two columns, active

• De Foe's Works, 20 vols., 1819-21. The and passive, item for item, so that the Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe ii balance is in his favor. His courage ch, it. 6.

Ibid. 76.



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is only the servant of his common / which the first surge of the sea upon a high wind sense : " By stating and squaring every inconsistent with the thing itself

, and with al

would have defaced entirely. All this seemed thing by reason, and by making the notions we usually entertain of the subtlety d most rational judgment of things, every the devil.” * nan may be in time master of every In this impassioned and uncultivated mechanic art. I had never handled mind, which for eight years had con. a tool in my life, and yet in time, by tinued without a thought, and as it werg labor, application, and contrivance, I stupid, engrossed in manual labor and found at last that I wanted nothing but bodily wants, belief took root, fostered I could have made it, especially if I by anxiety and solitude. Amidst the had had tools."* There is a grave and risks of all-powerful nature, in this deep pleasure in this painful success, great uncertain upheaving, a French and in this personal acquisition. The

man, a man bred as we are, would Bquatter, like Crusoe, takes pleasure in

cross his arms gloomily like a Stoic, or things, not only because they are use would wait like an Epicurean for the ful, but because they are his work. return of physical cheerfulness. As for He feels himself a man, whilst finding Crusoe, at the sight of the ears of bar. everywhere about him the sign of his ley which have suddenly made their aplabor and thought; he is pleased: “I had every thing so ready at my hand, pearance, he weeps, and thinks at first

is that God had miraculously caused that it was a great pleasure to me to this grain to grow.” Another day he see all my goods in such order, and es has a terrible vision : in a fever of expecially to find my stock of all necessa citement he repents of his sins; he ries So at.” | He returns to his

opens the Bible, and finds these words, home willingly, because he is there a which “ were very apt to his case : master and creator of all the comforts “Call upon me in the day of trouble ; he has around him; he takes his meals I will deliver thee, and thou shalt there gravely and “like a king.” Such are the pleasures of home. A lips, true prayer, the converse of the

glorify me.”+ Prayer then rises to his guest enters there to fortify these nat heart with a God who answers, and to ural inclinations by the ascendency of whom we listen. He also read the duty. Religion appears, as it must, in words: “I will never leave thee nor emotions and visions : for this is not a forsake thee.” I “Immediately it occalm soul ; imagination breaks out into curred that these words were to me. it at the least shock, and carries it to Why else should they be directed in the threshold of madness. On the day such a manner, just' at the moment when Robinson Crusoe saw the "

rint when I was mourning over my condi of a naked man's foot on the shore,

tion, as one forsaken of God and he stood “like one thunderstruck,"

man?Thenceforth spiritual life and filed “like a hare to cover ;” begins for him. To reach its very his ideas are in a whirl, he is no longer foundation, the squatter needs only his master of them; though he is hidden Bible; with it he carries about his and barricaded, he thinks himself dis- faith, his theology, his worship; every covered; he intends to throw down evening he finds in it some application the enclosures, turn all the tame cattle to his present condition : he is no wild into the woods dig up the corn- longer alone : God speaks to him, and Zelds.” He has ali kind of fancies; provides for his energy matter for a he asks himself if it is not the devil second labor to sustain and complete who has left this footmark; and reathe first. For hc now undertakes sons upon it:

against his heart the combat which he “I considered that the devil might have has maintained against nature ; he found out abundance of other ways to have ter wants to conquer, transform, amelior.

that, as I lived quite on the ate, pacify the one as he has done witb other side of the island, he would never have the other. Robinson Crusoe fasts, been so simple to leave a mark in a place; observes the Sabbath, three times : where it was ten thousand to one whether i khould ever see it or not, and in the sand too, • Ibid. ch. xi. 184. Ibid. 187. Po 1. ss.

1 Heb. xiii. 5. . Robinson Crusos, ch. iv. 79. 1 Ibid. 8o. Robinson Crusoe, ch. vii. 134.

rified me; ...


acter :

day he reads the Scripture, and says : human medals more vigorously struck “I gave humble and hearty thanks : less worn by friction with the world that he (God) could fully make up to whose uninjured face is more visible me the deficiencies of mv solitary state, than that of others. All these novels and the want of human society by his are works of observation, and spring presence, and the communication of from a moral design. The men of this his grace to my soul, supporting, com- time, having fallen away from lofty im. forting, and encouraging me to depend agination, and being immersed in act: upon his providence, and hope for his ive life, desire to cull from books solid eternal presence hereafter."* In this instruction, just examples, powerful disposition of mind there is nothing a emotions, feelings of practical admira man cannot endure or do; heart and tion, and motives of action. hand come to the assistance of the We have but to look around; the arms; religion consecrates labor, piety same inclination begins on all sides feeds patience; and man, supported on the same task. The novel springs up one side by his instincts, on the other everywhere, and shows the same spirit by his belief, finds himself able to clear under all forms. At this time * appear the land, to people, to organize and the Tatler, Spectator, Guardian, and al: civilize continents.

those agrecable and serious essays which, like the novel, look for readers at home, to supply them with examples

and provide them with counsels; It was by chance that De Foe, like which, like the novel, describe manCervantes, lighted on a novel of char- ners, paint characters, and try to cor

as a rule, like Cervantes, he rect the public; which, finally, like the only wrote novels of adventure; he novel, turn spontaneously to fiction knew life better than the soul, and the and portraiture. Addison, like a deli general course of the world better than cate amateur of moral curiosities, com. the idiosyncrasies of an individual. placently follows the amiable oddities But the impulse was given, neverthe- of his darling Sir Roger de Coverley, less, and now the rest followed. Chiv. smiles, and with discreet hand guides alrous manners had been blotted out, the excellent knight through all the carrying with them the poetical and awkward predicaments which may picturesque drama. Monarchical man- bring out his rural prejudices and his ners had been blotted out, carrying innate generosity ; whilst by his side with them the witty and licentious the unhappy Swift, degrading man to drama.

Citizen manners had been the instincts of the beast of prey and established, bringing with them domes- beast of burden, tortures humanity by tic and practical reading.. Like so- forcing it to recognize itself in the ex ciety, literature changed its course. ecrable portrait of the Yahoo. AlBooks were needed to read by the fire though they differ, both authors are side, in the country, amongst the fami- working at the same task. They only ly: invention and genius turn to this employ imagination in order to study kind of writing. The sap, of human characters, and to suggest plans of con thought, abandoning the old dried-up duct. They bring down philosophy branches, flowed into the unseen to observation and application. They boughs, which it suddenly made to only dream of reforming or chastizing grow and turn green, and the fruits vice. They are only moralists and which it produced bear witness at the psychologists. They both confine sarne time to the surrounding tempera- themselves to the considerati n of vice ture and the native stock. Two fea- and virtue ; the one with calm benev tures are common and proper to them. olence, the other with savage indigna: All these novels are character novels. tion. The same point of view proEnglishmen,

reflective than

duces the graceful portraits of Addi others, more inclined to the melancholy son and the slanderous pictures of pleasure of concentrated attention and Swift. Their successors do the like inner examination, find around them and all diversities of mood and talent • Labins Crusos, ch. vii. 133.

* 170, 1711, 1913.




do not hinder their works from ac- | instruct.” * We can make no mistake, knowledging a similar source, and con- the title is clear. The preachers re curring in the same effect.

joiced to see assistance coming to them Two principal ideas_can rule, and from the very_spot where there was have ruled, morality in England. Now danger; and 'Dr. Sherlock, from his it is conscience which is accepted as a pulpit, recommended the book. Men sovereign ; now it is instinct which is inquired about the author. He was a taken for guide. Now they have re-printer and bookseller, a joiner's son course to grace; now they rely on na. who, at the age of fifty, and in his ture. Now they wholly enslave every leisure moments, wrote in his shof thing to rule ; now they give every parlor : a laborious man, who, by thing up to liberty. The two opinions work and good conduct, had raised have successively' reigned in England; himself to a competency and had ed. and the human frame, at once too vig- ucated himself; delicate moreover, orous and too unyielding, successively gentle, nervous, often ill, with a taste justifes their ruin and their success. for the society of women, accustomed Some, alarmed by the fire of an over- to correspond for and with them, of fed temperament, and by the energy reserved and retired habits, whose only of unsocial passions, have regarded fault was a timid vanity. He was

a dangerous beast, and severe in principles, and had acquired placed conscience with all its auxilia- perspicacity by his rigor. In reality, ries, religion, law, education, proprie conscience is a lamp, a moralist is a ties, as so many armed sentinels to re- psychologist; Christian casuistry is a press its least outbreaks. Others, sort of natural history of the soul. He repelled by the harshness of an inces. who through anxiety of conscience sant constraint, and by the minuteness busies himself in drawing out the good of a morose discipline, have over- or evil motives of his manifest actions, turned guards and barriers, and let who sees vices and virtues at their loose captive nature to enjoy the free birth, who follows the gradual progress air and sun, deprived of which it was of culpable thoughts, and the secret being choked. Both by their excesses confirmation of good resolves, who can have deserved their defeats and raised mark the force, nature, and moment of up their adversaries. From Shak. temptation and resistance, holds in his speare to the Puritans, from Milton to hand almost all the moving strings of Wycherley, from Congreve to De Foe, humanity, and has only to make them from Sheridan to Burke, from Wilber- vibrate regularly to draw from them force to Lord Byron, irregularity has the most powerful harmonies. In this provoked constraint and tyranny re- consists the art of Richardson ; he volt. This great contest of rule and combines whilst he observes; his mednature is developed again in the writ- itation develops the ideas of the moralings of Fielding and Richardson. ist. No one in this age has equalled

him in these detailed and comprehen

sive conceptions, which, grouping to a IV.

single end the passions of thirty char

acters, twine and color the innumer Pamela, or Virtue rewarded, in a able threads of the whole canvas, to series of familiar letters from a beau- bring out a figure, an action, or a les tiful yjung damsel to her parents, pub- son. lished in order to cultivate the princi- This first novel is a flower-one of ples of virtue and religion in the minds those flowers which only bloom in a of the youth of both sexes; a narra. virgin imagination, at the dawn on tive which has its foundation in truth original invention, whose charm and and at the same time that it agreeably freshness surpass all that the maturity entertains by a variety of curious and of art and genius can afterwards culaffecting incidents, is entirely divested tivate or arrange. Pamela is a child of a'l those images which, in too many of fifteen, brought up by an old lady. pieces calculated for amusement only,

* 1741. The translator has consulted the tend to inflame the minds they should tenth edition, 1775, 4 vola


half servant and half favorite, who, / against all intervention-a sost of di. after the dea h of her mistress, finds vinity to her, with all the superiority herself exposed to the growing seduc. and authority, of a feudal prince. tions and persecutions of the young Moreover, he has the brutality of the master of the house. She is a genuine times; he rates her, speaks to her like child, frank and artless as Goethe's a slave, and yet thinks himself very Margaret, and of the same family. kind. He shuts her up alone for sev. After twenty pages, we involuntarily eral months, with "a wicked creature," Fec this fresh rosy face, always blush his housekeeper, who beats and threat ung, and her laughing eyes, so ready ens her. He tries on her the influence with tears. At the smallest kindness of fear, loneliness, surprise, money, she is confused; she knows not what gentleness. And what is more terrible, to say; she changes color, casts down her own heart is against her : she loves her eyes, as she makes a curtsey; the him secretly; her virtues injure her poor innocent heart is troubled or she dare not lie, when she most neede melts * No trace of the bold vivac- it;* and piety keeps her from suicide, ity, the nervous coolness, which are when that seems her only resource. the elements of a French girl. She is One by one the issues close around her,

a lambkin,” loved, loving, without so that she loses hope, and the readers pride, vanity, bitterness; timid, always of her adventures think her lost and humble. When her master tries forci- ruined. But this native innocence has bly to kiss her, she is astonished; she been strengthened by Puritanic faith. will not believe that the world is so She sees temptations in her weak wicked. “This gentleman has de- nesses; she knows that “Lucifer always graded himself to offer freedoms to his is ready to promote his own work and poor servant.” | She is afraid of be workmen;" t she is penetrated by the ing too free with him ; reproaches her- great Christian idea, which makes all self, when she writes to her relatives, souls equal before the common salvawith saying too often he and him in- tion and the final judgment. She says : stead of his honor ; “but it is his fault “ My soul is of equal importance to if I do, for why did he lose all his dig. the soul of a princess, though my qual. nity with me?” | No outrage ex- ity is inferior to that of the meanest hausts her submissiveness: he has slave.” Wounded, stricken, abankissed her, and took hold of her arm doned, betrayed, still the knowledge so rudely that it was "black and blue;" and thought of a happy or an unhappy he has tried worse, he has behaved like eternity are two defences which no as. a ruffian and a knave. To cap all, he sault can carry. She knows it well ; slanders 'her circumstantially before she has no other means of explaining the servants; he insults her repeatedly, vice than to suppose them absent. and provokes her to speak; she does She considers that wicked Mrs. Jewkes not speak, will not fail in her duty to is an atheist. Belief in God, the heart's her master. “ It is for you, sir, to say belief-not the wording of the catewhat you please, and for me only to chism, but the inner feeling, the habit say, God bless your honor !" She of picturing justice as ever living and falls on her knees, and thanks him for ever present-this is the fresh blood Bending her away. But in so much which the Reformation caused to flow submission what resistance ! Every into the veins of the old world, and thing is against her; he is her master; which alone could give it a new life he is a justice of the peace, secure and a new youth.

She is, as it were, animated by this "To be sure I did think nothing but curt'sy feeling ; in the most perilous as in the and cry, and was all in confusion at his good sweetest moments, this grand sonti"I was so confounded at these words, you twined with all the rest, so much has

ment returns to her, so much is it enmight have beat me down with a feather. So, like a fool, I was ready to cry, and went it multiplied its tendrils and baried ita away curt'syi ig, and blushing, I am sure, up to the ears."

. “I dare not tell a wilful lie." | Pamela, vol. i. Letter x.

Pamela, i. Letter XXV. $ Ibid. Letter xxvii.

Ibid. Letter to Mr. Williams,

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