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only surpassed by that of his son, an clad, under the :: Ids of such a bannos arrogance which reduced his colleagues they fall into battle array; the more to the rank of subalterns, a Roman pa. powerfully that amongst them there is triotism which demanded for England one altogether holy, the sentiment or a universal tyranny, an ambition lavisk right, which rallies, occupies, and enof money and men, gave the nation its nobles them : rapacity and its fire, and only saw rest in far vistas of dazzling glory and limitless millions of people so dead to all the feelings of

I rejoice that America has resisted. Three power, an imagination which brought liberty, as voluntarily to submit

to be slaves, into Parliament the vehemence and dec- would have been fit instruments to make slaves amation of the stage, the brilliancy of of the rest, fitful inspiration, the boldness of poetic main inviolate ; let it be taxable only by their

“Let the sacredness of their property re inagery. Such are the sources of his own consent given in their provincial assem. eloquence :

blies; else it will cease to be property.

“ This glorious spirit of whiggism animates “. But yesterday, and England might have three millions in America, who prefer poverty itood against the world; now none so poor to with liberty to gilded chains and sordid affluto her reverence.'

ence, and who will die in defence of their rights My Lords, YOU CANNOT CONQUER AMER- as men, as freemen. • : : The spirit which now

resists your taxation in America is the same “We shall be forced ultimately to retract; which formerly opposed loans, benevolences, et us retract while we can, not when we must. and ship money in England ; the same spirit I say we must necessarily undo these violent which called all England on its legs, and uy tho of pressive Acts; they must be repealed-you Bill of Rights vindicated the English constituwill repeal them; I pledge myself for it, that tion; the same spirit which established the you will in the end repeal them; I stake my great fundamental, essential maxim of your lib. reputation on it. I will consent to be taken for erties; that no subject of England 'shall be an idiot, if they are not finally repealed. taxed but by his own consent.

“ You may swell every expense, and every “ As an Englishman by birth and principle, I effort, still more extravagantly ; pile and accu- recognize to the Americans their supreme unmulate every assistance you can buy or bor: alienable right in their property, a right which sow; traffic and barter with every little pitiful they are justified in the defence of to the last German prince, that sells and sends his sub- extremity." + jects to the shambles of a foreign prince ; your efforts are for uver vain and impotent-doubly' If Pitt sees his own right, he sees so from this mercenary aid on which you rely that of others too ; it was with

this idea for it irritates, to an incurable resentment, the minds of your enemies. To overrun them with that he moved and managed England. the mercenary sons of rapine and plunder ; des For it, he appealed to Englishmen voting them and their possessions to the rapaco against themselves; and in spite of is of hireling cruelty! If I were an American themselves they recognized their dearas I am an Englishman, while a foreign troop was landed in my country, I never would lay est instinct in this maxim, that every down my arms-never-never--never! human will is inviolable in its limited But, my Lords, who is the

man that

in ad- and legal province, and that it must put dition to these disgraces and mischiets of our army, has dared to authorize and associate to forth its whole strength against the our arms the tomahawk and scalping-knife of slightest usurpation. the savage ? To call into civilized alliance the

Unrestrained passions and the most wild and inhuman savage of the woods ; to del. egate to the merciless Indian the defence of manly sentiment of right; such is the disputed rights, and to wage the horrors of bar- abstract of all this eloquence. Instead barous war against our brethren? My Lords, of an orator, a public man, let us take these enormities cry aloud for redress and pun; a writer, a private individual ; let us ishment ; unless thoroughly done away, it will be a stain on the national characterit is a vio- look at the letters of Junius, which, atije of a constitution—I believe it is against amidst national irritation and anxiety,

fell one by one like drops of fire on the There is a touch of Milton and Shak- fevered limbs of the body politic. If speare in this tragic pomp, in this im- he makes his phrases concise, and sepassioned solemnity, in the sombre and lects his epithets, it was not from a violent brilliancy of this overstrung and love of style, but in order the better to overloaded style. In such superb and stamp his insult. Oratorical artifices in blood-like purple are English

passions his hand become instruments of tor

ture, and when he files his periods it • Anecdotes and Speeches of the Earl of, was to drive the knife deeper and surer Chatham, 7th ed., 3 vols., 181ii. ch. 42 and

. Shid. i. ch. 19.

| Ibid ii. ch. 42


ford :


with what audacity of denunciation, of hatred? Yet this is not vile, for it with what sternness of animosity, with thinks itself to be in the service of what corrosive and burning irony, ap- justice. Amidst these excesses, this is plied to the most secret corners of the persuasion which enhances them; private life, with what inexorable per these men tear one another; but they sistence of calculated and meditated do not crouch ; whoever their enemy persecution, the quotations alone will be, they take their stand in front of show. He writes to the Duke of Bed him. Thus Junius addresses the king:

“ SIR-It is the misfortune of your life, and “My lord, you are so little accustomed to originally the cause of every reproach and dis receive any marks of respect or esteem from tress which has attended your government, tha the public, that if, in the following lines, a com- language of truth until you heard it in the com

you should never have been acquainted with the pliment or expression of applause should escape rre, I fear you would consider it as a mock- plaints of your people. It is not, however, toc ery of your established character, and perhaps are still inclined 1 o make an indulgent allowance

late to correct the error of your education. We an insult to your understanding."*

for the pernicious lessons you received in your He writes to the Duke of Grafton : youth, and to form the most sanguine hopes

from the natural benevolence of your disposi. “There is something in both your character tion. We are far from thinking you capable of and conduct which distinguishes you not only a direct, deliberate purpose to invade those from all other ministers, but from all other original rights of your subjects on which all

It is not that you do wrong by design, their civil and political liberties depend. Had but that you should never do right by mistake it been possible for us to entertain a suspicion It is not that your indolence and your activity so dishonourable to your character, we should have been equally misapplied, but that the first long since have adopted a style of remonstrance uniform principle, or, if I may call it, the genius very distant from the humility of complain of your life, should have carried you through House of Hanover, not from a vain preference

The people of England are loyal to the every possible change and contradiction of conduct, without the momentary imputation or

of one family to another, but from a conviction colour of a virtue ; and that the wildest spirit that the establishment of that family was necesof inconsistency should never once have be- sary to the support of their civil and religious trayed you into a wise or honourable action." | liberties. This, şir, is a principle of allegiance

equally solid and rational ; fit for Englishmen Junius goes on, fiercer and fiercer ; to adopt, and well worthy of your Majesty's en. even when he sees the minister fallen couragement. We cannot long be deluded by

nominal distinctions. The name of Stuart, of and dishonored, he is still savage. itself, is only contemptible:-armed with the

It is vain that he confesses aloud that sovereign authority, their principles are formidin the state in which he is, the Duke able. The prince who imitates their conduct, might“ disarm a private enemy of his should be warned by their example ; and while

he plumes himself upon the security of his title resentment.” He grows worse : to the crown, should remember that, as it was

You have every claim to compassion that acquired by one revolution, it may be lost by can arise from misery and distress.

another." dition you are reduced to would disarm a pri- Let us look for less bitter souls, andi vate enemy of his resentment and leave no con. try to encounter a sweeter accent. There solation to the most vindictive spirit, but that such an object, as you are, would disgrace the is one man, Charles James Fox, happy dignity of revenge. :: For my own part, I do from his cradle, who learned every not pretend to understand those prudent forms thing without study, whom his father of decorum, those gentle rules of discretion, trained in prodigality and recklessness, which some men endeavour to unite with the conduct of the greatest and most hazardous af- whom, from the age of twenty-one, the fairs. ... I should scorn to provide for a fu- public voice proclaimed as the first in ture retreat, or to keep terms with a man who eloquence and the leader of a great preserves ao measures with the public. Neither the abject submission of deserting his post in party, liberal, humane, sociable, noi the hour of danger, nor even the sacred shield frustrating these generous expectations, of cowardice, should protect him. I would pur- whose very enemies pardoned his faults, sue him through life, and try the last exertion whom his friends adored, whom labor of my abilities to preserve the perishable infamy of his name, and make it immortal.” 1

never wearied, whom rivals never em.

bittered, whom power did not spoil ; a Except Swift, is there a human being lover of converse, of literature, of wno has more intentionally concentrated pleasure, who has left the impress of and intensified in his heart the venom his rich genius in the persuasive abun : Junius! Lettors, a vols., !772, xxjů. i. 162. dance, in the fine character, the clear Toid. xii. i. 75 1 Ibid. . ü. 56.

* Ibid. xxxv. ii. 29.

The con


Aess and continuous ease of his speech | A sort of impassioned exaggeration

Behold him rising to speak; think reigns in the debates to which the of the discretion he must use; he is a trial of Warren Hastings and the statesman, a premier, speaking in Par. French Revolution gave rise, in the liament of the friends of the king, lords acrimonious rhetoric and forced dec. of the bedchamber, the noblest families lamation of Sheridan, in the pitiiess of the kingdom, with their allies and sarcasm and sententious pomp of the connections around him; he knows younger Pitt. These orators love the that every one of his words will pierce coarse vulgarity of gaudy colors ; they like a fiery arrow into the heart and hunt out accumulations of big words, honor of five hundred men who sit to contrasts symmetrically protracted, hear hir.. No matter, he has been be. vast and resounding periods. They do trayed; he will punish the traitors, and not fear to repel; they crave effect here is the pillory in which he sets Force is their characteristic, and the “the janissaries of the bedchamber," characteristic of the greatest amongst who by the Prince's order have deserted them, the first mind of the age, Edmund him in the thick of the fight :

Burke, of whom Dr. Johnson said :

“ Take up whatever topic you please, “The whole compass of language affords no terms sufficiently strong and pointed to mark he (Burke) is ready to meet you. the contempt which I feel for their conduct. It Burke did not enter Parliament, like is an impudent avowal of political profligacy, as Pitt and Fox, in the dawn of his youth, if that species of treachery were less infamous but at thirty-five, having had time to than any other. It is not only a degradation of a station which ought to be occupied only by train himself thoroughly in all matters, the highest and most exemplary honour, but learned in law, history, philosophy, forfeits their claim to the characters of gentle- literature, master of such a universal men, and reduces them to a level with the erudition, that he has been compared meanest and basest of the species ; it insults the noble, the ancient, and the characteristic to Bacon. But what distinguished independence of the English peerage, and is him from all other men was a wide, calculated to traduce and vilify the British leg- comprehensive intellect, which, exer, islature in the eyes of all Europe, and to the cised by philosophical studies and latest posterity. By what magic nobility can thus charm vice into virtue, know not nor writings, * seized the general aspects of wish to know; but in any other thing than things, and, beyond text, constitutions, politics, and among any other men than lords and figures, perceived the invisible of the bedchamber, such an instance of the grossest perfidy would,

as it well deserves, be tendency of events and the inner spirit, branded with infamy and execration."* covering with his contempt those preThen turning to the Commons :

tended statesmen, a vulgar herd of

common journeymen, denying the ex.“ A parliament thus fettered and controlled, istence of every thing not coarse or without spirit and without freedom, instead of material, and who, far from being calimiting, extends, substantiates, and establishes beyond all precedent, latitude, or condition, the pable of guiding the grand movements prerogatives of the crown. But though the of an empire, are not worthy to turn British House of Commons were so shamefully the wheel of a machine. lost to its own weight in the constitution, were so unmindful of its former struggles and

Beyond all those gifts, he possessed triumphs in the great cause of liberty

and man- one of those fertile and precise imagkin:1, were so indifferent and treacherous to inations which believe that finished those primary objects and concerns for which knowledge is an inner view, which it was originally instituted, I trust the characteristic spirit of this country is still equal to the never quit a subject without having brial; I trust Englishmen will be as jealous of clothed it in its colors and forms, and trust they are not more ready to defend their the rubbish of dry documents, recom. recret influence as superior to open violence;.I which, passing beyond statistics and interests against foreign depredation and insult, than to encounter and defeat this midnight pose and reconstruct before the reader's conspiracy against the constitation." + eyes a distant country and a foreign If such are the outbursts of a nature landscapes, and all the shifting


nation, with its monuments, dresses, above all gentle and amiable, we can of its aspects and manners.

To ! judge what the others must have been these powers of mind, which constitute

• Fox's Speechos, 6 vols., 18:5, ii. 271 ; Dec. * An Inquiry into our Ideas of the Sublimas n, 1783.

1 Ibid. p. 368. and the Beautiful


a man of system, he added all those courageous anger. It is either the energies of heart which constitute an expose of an administration, or the enthusiast. Poor, unknown, having whole history of British India, or the spent his youth in compiling for the complete theory of revolutions, and publishers, he rose, by dint of work the political conditions, which comes and personal merit, with a pure repu- down like a vast, overflowing stream, to tation and an unscathed conscience, dash with its ceaseless effort and accu ere the trials of his obscure life or the mulated mass against some crime that secuctions of his brilliant life had men would overlook, or some injustice {ettered his independence or tarnished which they would sanction. Doubtless he flower of his loyalty. He brought to there is foam on its eddies, mud in its politics a horror of crime, a vivacity bed: thousands of strange creatures and sincerity of conscience, a humanity, sport wili.y on its surface. Burke a sensibility, which seem only suitable to does not select, be lavishes : he casts a young man. He based human society forth by myriads his teeming fancies,

maxims of morality, insisted his emphasized and harsh words, decupon a high and pure tone of feeling lamations and apostrophes, jests and in the conduct of public business, and execrations, the whole grotesque or seemed to have undertaken to raise horrible assemblage of the distant re. and authorize the generosity of the hu- gions and populous cities which his man heart. He fought nobly for noble unwearied learning or fancy has travcauses ; against the crimes of power in ersed. He says, speaking of the usuri

, England, the crimes of the people in ious loans, at forty-eight per cent., and France, the crimes of monopolists in at compound interest, by which Eng. India. He defended, with immense re. lishmen had devastated India, that search and unimpeached disinterested- " That debt forms the foul putrid mucus, in ness, the Hindoos tyrannized over by which are engendered the whole brood of English greed :

creeping ascarides, all the endless involutions,

the eternal knot, added to a knot of those inex. Every man of rank and landed fortune being pugnable tape-worms which devour the nutrilong since extinguished, the remaining miser ment, and eat up the bowels of India." * able last cultivator who grows to the soil after having his back scored by the farmer, has it Nothing strikes him as excessive in again flayed by the whip of the assignee, and is speech, neither the description of torthus by a ravenous because a short-lived suctures, nor the atrocity of his images, cession of claimants lashed from oppressor to oppressor, whilst a single drop of blood is lett nor the deafening racket of his antith as the means of extorting a single grain of eses, nor the prolonged trumpet-blast

of his curses, nor the vast oddity of his He made himself everywhere the jeste. To the Duke of Bedford, who champion of principle and the perse

had reproached him with his pensiun, cutor of vice; and men saw him bring

he answers : to the attack all the forces of his won- “ The grants to the house of Russell were so derful knowledge, his lofty reason, his enormous, as not only to outrage economy, but splendid style, with the unwearying

and even to stagger credibility. The duke of Bed. untempered ardor of a moralist and a the crown.

ford is the leviathan among all the creatures of

He tumbles about his unwieldy knight.

bulk ; he plays and frolicks in the ocean of the Let us read him only several pages at royal bounty. Huge as he is, and whilst he A time : only thus he is great; otherwise His ribs, his fins, his whalebone, his blubber,

lies floating many a rood,' he is still a creature. all this is exaggerated, commonplace, the very spiracles through which he spouts : and strange, will arrest and shock us ; torrent of brine against his origin, and coven but if we give ourselves up to him, we

me all over with the spray,--every thing of him will be carried away and captivated. The and about him is from the throne." enormous mass of his documents rolls Burke has no taste, nor have his com impetuously in a current of eloquence. peers. The fine Greek or French Sometimes a spoken or written dis- deduction has never found a place course needs a whole volume to unfold among the Germanic nations; witŁ che train of his multiplied proofs and them all heavy or ill-refined. It is

* Burke's Works, 1808, 8 vols., iv. 286, • Ibid. iv. 282. Speech on the Nabos of Arcot's debts

1 lbid. viii. 35 4 Letter to . Nadie lok





ts rays.

of no use for Burke to study Cicero, propriety of dress, a pensive air, the and to confine his dashing force in the correct deportment of Miss Burney's orderly channels of Latin rhetoric; he heroines. They are men who have continues half a barbarian, battening done the world some service : Bake: in exaggeration and violence; but his well transforms and reforms their catfire is so sustained, his conviction so tle ; Arthur Young their agriculture; strong, his emotion so warnı and abun- Howard their prisons; Arkwright and dant, that we give way to him, forget Watt their industry; Adam Smith their our repugnance, see in his irregularities political economy; Bentham their peral an i his outbursts only the outpourings law; Locke, Hutcheson, Ferguson of a great heart and a deep mind, too Bishop Butler, Reid, Stewart, Price open and too full; and we wonder their psychology and their moi ality. with a sort of strange veneration at They have purified their private man this extraordinary overflow, impetuous pers, they now purify their public manis a torrent, broad as a sea, in which ners. They have settled their govern the inexhaustible variety of colors and ment, they have established themselves forms undulates beneath the sun of a in their religion. Johnson is able to splendid imagination, which lends to say with truth, that no nation in the :his muddy surge all the brilliancy of world better tills its soil and its mind.

There is none so ric.com so free, so well

nourished, where public and private IX.

efforts are directed with such assiduity, If you wish for a comprehensive

nergy, and ability towards the imview of all these personages, study Sir provement of public and private affairs. Joshua Reynolds,* and then look at one point alone is wanting: lofty the fine French portraits of this time, speculation. It is just this point which the cheerful ministers, gallant and when all others are wanting, constitutes charming archbishops, Marshal de at this moment the glory of France; Saxe, who in the Strasburg monu

and English caricatures show, with a ment goes down to his tomb with the good appreciation of burlesque, face to grace and ease of a courtier on the face and in strange contrast, on one side staircase at Versailles. In England, the Frenchman in a tumbledown cotunder skies drowned in pallid mists, tagę, shivering, with long teeth, thin, amid soft, vaporous clouds, appear

feeding on snails and a handful of roots, expressive

or contemplative heads : the but otherwise charmed with his lot, rude energy of the character has not consoled by a republican cockade and awed the artist; the coarse bloated humanitarian programmes; on the animal ;

the strange and ominous bird other, the Englishman, rec and puffed of prey; the growling jaws of the

out with fat, seated at his table in a fierce bulldog-he has put them all in: comfortable room, before a dish of levelling politeness has not in his pic- most juicy roast-beef, with a pot of tures effaced individual asperities under foaming.ale, busy in grumbling against uniform pleasantness. Beauty is there, the public distress and the treacherous but only in the cold decision of look, ministers, who are going to ruin every in the deep seriousness and sad nobil' | thing ity of the pale countenance, in the

Thus Englishmen arrive

on the cor.scientious gravity and the indom- threshold of the French Revolution, itable resolution of the restrained ges- the French free-thinkers and revolu

Conservatives and Christians facing ture. In place of Lely's courtesans, we see by their side chaste ladies, some

tionaries. Without knowing it, the times severe and active; good moth two nations have rolled onwards for ers surrounded by their little children, two centuries towards this terrible who k.ss them and embrace

without knowing it, they have another : morality is here, and with only been working to make it worse it the sentiment of home and family, All their efforts, all their ideas, all their • Lord Heathfield, the Earl of Mansfield, which hurls them towards the inevi

great men have accelerated the motior. Major Stringer Lawrence, Lord Ashburton, Lord Edgecombe, and many others.

table conflict A hundred and fifty



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