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pick up some odious man of quality Miss P. O Geo ini! wel I always had : yet, and only take poor Heartfree for great mind to tell lies ; but they frighted me

and said it was a sin. a gallant.” * These young ladies are

T. Well, my pretty creature ; will you naso clever, and in all cases apt to follow me happy by giving me a kiss? good instruction. Listen to Miss Miss P. No, indeed ; I'm angry at you. Prue: “Look you here, madam, then, (Runs and kisses him.)

T. Hold, hold that's pretty well ;- but you what Mr. Tattle has given me.-Look should not have given it me, but have suffered you here, cousin, here's a snuff-box: me to have taken it. nay, there's snuff in't; here, will you

Miss P. Well, we'll do it again. have any ?-Oh, good! how sweet it angel

. (Kisses her.)

T. With all my heart. Now, then, my lituo is ! Mr. Tattle is all over sweet; his Miss P. Pish! peruke is sweet, and his gloves are T. That's right-again, my charmer! (Kisset sweet, and his handkerchief is sweet,


Miss P. O fy! nay, now I can't abide you. pure sweet, sweeter than roses.--Smeli

T. Admirable! that was as well as if him, mother, madam, I mean.—He had been born and bred in Covent Garden." gave me this ring for a kiss.... Smell,

She makes such rapid progress, tha cousin ; he says, he'll give me someihing that will make my smocks smell we must stop the quotation forthwith this way. Is not it pure ?-It's better And mark, what is bred in the bone than lavender, mun. I'm resolved will come out in the flesh. All these I won't let nurse put any more lavender charming characters soon employ the among my smocks-ha, cousin ? " + language of kitchen-maids. When Ben, It is the silly chatter of a young magpie, to Miss Prue, she sends him off with a

the dolt of a sailor, wants to make love who Aies for the first time. . Tattle, Hea in his ear, raves, lets loose a string alone with her, tells her he is going of cries and coarse expressions, calls to make love :

him a “great sea-calf." ““ What does Miss Prue. Well; and how will you make father mean," he says, to leave me love to me? come, I long to have you begin. alone, as soon as I come home, with Must I make love too? you must tell me how. Tattle. You must let me speak, miss, you

such a dirty dowdy? Sea-calf ! I must not speak first; I must ask you questions, an't calf enough to lick your chalked and you must answer. Miss P. What, is it like the catechism ? by these amenities, she breaks out into

face, you cheese-curd, you.” Moved come, then, ask me. T. D'ye think you can love me?

a rage, weeps, calls him a

“ stinking Miss R. Yes.

tar-barrell.”7 People come and put a T. Pooh! pox! you must not say yes al stop to this first essay at gallantry. ready; I shan't care a farthing for you then in She fires up, declares she will marry a twinkling: Miss P. What must I say then?

Tattle, or the butler, if she cannot get 7. Why, you must say no, or you believe a better man. Her father says, “ Husnot, or you can't tell.

sy, you shall have a rod.” She an. Miss P. Why, must I tell a lie then ?

T. Yes, if you'd be well-bred ;-all well-bred swers, "A fiddle of a rod! I'll have a persons lie.—Besides, you are a woman, you husband : and if you won't get me one, must never speak what you think : your words I'll get one for myself. I'll marry our must contradict your thoughts ; but your ac, Robin the butler.” 1 Here are p:etty tions may contradict your words. So, when I ask you, if you can love me, you must say no,

and prancing mares if you like; but but you must love me too.

If I tell you you * Ibid. ii. II. are handsome, you must deny it, and say I HatBut

† “ Miss Prue. Well, and there's a hand. You must think yourself more charming than I speak you: and like me, for some gentleman, and a fine gentleman, and a the beauty which I say you have, as much as if sweet gentleman, that was here, that loves me, I had it myself. If I ask you to kiss me, you and I love him; and if he sees you speak to mo must be angry, but you must not refuse me....

any more, he'll thrash your jacket for you, he Miss P. O Lord, I swear this is pure:-1 will; you great sea-calf. like it better than our old-fashioned country

Ben. What! do you mean that fair-weather way of speaking one's mind ;-and must not spark that was here just now? Will he thrash you lie too?

my jacket? Let'n, let'n, let'n-but an he comes T. Huml-Yes ; but you must believe I near me, mayhap I may give him a salt-eel for's speak truth.

supper, for all that. What does father mean, to leave me alone, as soon as I come home, with

such a dirty dowdy? Sea-calf ! I an't call • Vanbrugh's Provokes a Wife, v. 3. enough to lick your chalked face, you checro + Congreve's Love for love, ii. 10. curd you."-Tbid. ü. 7

# Ibid. v. 6.

ter you.



decidedly, in these authors' hands, the me, low can you talk of heaven ! and tave so natural man becomes nothing but a

much wickedness in your heart? May be you

don't think it a sin.-They say some of you genwaif from the stable or the kennel.

tlemen don't think it a sin.-May be it is no sinto Will

you be better pleased by the them that don't think it so ; indeed, it I did not 9ducated man? The worldly life which think * a sin—but still my honour, if it were they depict is a regular carnival, and no sin ---But then, to marry my daughter, for the heads of their heroines are full of never consent to that, as sure as can bé l'i

the conveniency of frequent opportunities, l’!! wild imaginations and unchecked gos- break the match. sip. You may see in Congreve how

Mel. Death and amazement.--Madam, upor

knees. they chatter, with what a flow of words

Lady P. Nay, nay, rise up; come, you shall ind affectations, with what a

see my good nature. I know love is powerful, in modulated voice, with what ges- and nobody can help his passion : 'tis not your ures, what twisting of arms and neck, fault ; nor I swear it is not mine. How can I

help it, if I have charms ? and how can you what looks raised to heaven, what gen. help it if you are made a captive? I swear it teel airs, what grimaces. Lady Wish- is pity it should be a fault. But my honour,,, fort speaks :

well, but your honour too-but the sin !-well, " But art thou sure Sir Rowland will not fail to coming, I dare not stay., Well, you must con.

but the necessity-O Lord, here is somebody come? or will he not fail when he does come? sider of your crime; and strive as much as can Will he be importunate, Foible, and push? For be against it,--strive, be sure--but don't be if he should not be importunate, I shall never melancholic, don't despair.-But never think break decorums :- I shall die with confusion, it that I'll grant you anything; O Lord, no:I am forced to advance. -Oh no, I can never But be sure you lay aside all thoughts of the advance !-I shall swoon, if he should expect marriage : for though I know you don't love advances. No, I hope Sir Rowland is better Cynthia, only as a blind to your passion for me, bred than to put a lady to the necessity of yet it will make me jealous.--Lord, what did breaking her forms. I won't be too.coy neither 1 say? jealous! no, no; I can't be jealous, for - I won't give him despair-but a little disdaini must not love you-therefore don't hope, is not amiss ; a little scorn is alluring, Foible. A little scorn becomes your ladyship. I must fly." **

but don't despair neither.-0, they're coming! Lady Wishfort. Yes, but tenderness becomes m. best-a sort of dyingness-you see She escapes and we will not follow that picture has a sort of a-ha, Foible! a (her. swimmingness in the eye--yes, I'll look som my niece affects it; but she wants features. Is

This giddiness, this volubility, this Sir Rowlana landsome? Let my toilet be re- pretty corruption, these reckless and moved—I'll dress above. I'll receive Sir Row affected airs, are collected in the most land iere. is he handsome! Don't answer brilliant, the most worldly portrait of

I won't know: I'll be surprised, I'll be taken by surprise.* . . . And how do I look, the stage we are discussing, that of Foibie?

Mrs. Millamant, “a fine lady," as the Most killing well, madam.

Dramatis Personæ say.t She enters, indy W. Well, and how shall I receive

“with her fan spread and her streamers him? in what figuie shall I give his heart the arst impression? Shall I sit?-no, I won't out," dragging a train of furbelows and sit-I'll walk-ay, I'll walk from the door upon ribbons, passing through a crowa vi his entrance; and then turn full upon him.-.-no, laced and bedizened fops, in splendid tnat will be too sudaen. I'll lie ay, I'll lie down-1*1 receive him in my littie "dressing perukes, who flutter about her path, room; there's a couch-yes, yes, I'll give the haughty and wanton, witty and scornarst impression on a couch. I won't lie neither; ful, toying with gallantries, petulant, hut loft and lean upon one elbow: with one with a horror of every grave word and co: a little dang'ing off, jogging in a thought all nobility of action, falling in only tul way-yes-and then as soon as he appears, ita. t, ay, start, and be surprised, and rise to with change and pleasure. She laughs Ecet him in a pretty disorder." +

at the sermons of Mirabell, her suitor: These hesitations of a finished co- “ Sententious Mirabell |--Prithee don't que

te become still more vehement at look with that violent and inflexible the critical moment. Lady Plyant wise face, like Solomon at the dividing thinks herself beloved by Mellefont, of the child an old tapestry-hang: who does not love her at all, and tries ing.I ... Ha! ha! hal-pardon me, in vain to undeceive her.

dear creature, though I grant you 'tis

a little barbarous, hal ha! ha!”
Mellefont. For heaven's sake, madam.
Lady Plyant. O, name it no morel-Bless

She breaks out into laughter, then
Congreve, The Double-dealers,


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5. * Congreve, The Way of the World, iii. 5. t Congreve, The Way of the World. # Ibid. iv.

1 Ibid. ii. 6

& Tbil. iii. 11



gets into a rage, then banters, then I have only presented their must amia: sings, then makes faces, and changes ble aspects. Deeper down it is all at every motion while we look at her. gloomy, bitter, above all, pernicious.. It is a regular whirlpool; all turns It represents a household as a prison, found in her brain as in a clock when marriage as a warfare, woman as a the mainspring is broken. Nothing rebel, adultery as the result looked for, can be prettier than her fashion of en- irregularity as a right, 'extravagance as tering on matrimony:

pleasure.* A woman of fashion goes Milla mant. Ah! I'll never marry unless I

to bed ii the morning, rises at mid-day, am first made sure of my will and pleasure!...

curses her husband, listens tó obsceni. My dear liberty, shall I leave thee? my faithful ties, frequents balls, haunts the plays, solitude, my darling contemplation, must I bid ruins reputations, turns her home into you then adieu? Ay-h-adieu-my morning thoughts, agreeable wakings, indolent slumbers, a gambling-house, borrows money, al. all ye douceurs ye sommeils du matin adieu lures men, associates her honor and -I can't do it ; 'tis more than impossible--pos. fortune with debts and assignations. itively, Mirabell, I'll lie a-bed in a morning as “We are as wicked (as men),” says long as I please. Mirabell. Then I'll get ap in a morning as

Lady Brute, “but our vices lie another early as I please.

way. Men have more courage than --and d’ye hear, I won't be called names after dent sins. They quarrel, Sght, swear,

Mil. Ah! idle creature, get up when you will we, so they commit more bold impuI'm married; positively I won't be called drink, blaspheme, and the like ; where Mir. Names !

as we being cowards, only backbite, Mill. Ay, as wife, spouse, my dear, joy, jewel, love, sweet heart, and the rest of that An admirable resumé, in which the

tell lies, cheat at cards, and so forth.” 1 nauseous cant, in which men and their wives are so fulsomely familiar-1 shall never bear gentlemen are included and the ladies that-good Mirabell, don't let us be familiar or too! The world has done nothing but fond, nor kiss before folks, like my Lady Fad- provide them with correct phrases and ler, and Sir Francis. Let us never visit together, nor go to a play together

; but let us be elegant dresses. In Congreve especial. very strange and well-bred: let us be as strange ly they talk in the best style; above al:

if we had been married a great while ; and they know how to hand ladies about as well bred as if we were not married at and entertain them with news; they Mir. Shall I kiss your hand upon the con

are expert in the fence of retorts and tract ? *

replies ; they are never out of counteMill. Fainall, what shall I do? shall I have him? I think I must have him.

Amanda. How did you live together? Fainall. Ay, ay, take him. What should Berinthia. Like man and wife, asunder.--He

loved the country, I the town.

He hawks and Mill. Well then-I'll take my death I'm in a hounds, coaches and equipage. He eating horrid fright-Fainall, I shall never say it

and drinking, I carding and playing. He the well-I think-I'll endure you.

sound of a horn, I the squeak of a fideje. We Fain. Fy! fyl have him, have him, and tell

were dull company at table, worse a-bed. him so in plain terms: for I am sure you have

Whenever we met, we gave one another the a mind to him.

spleen; and never agreed but once, which was Mill

. Are you? I think I have and the hor- about lying alone."--Vanbrugh, Kelapse, Act rid man looks as if he thought so too well, you

. ad fin. ridiculous thing you, I'll have you-I won't be

Compare Vanbrugh, A Journey to London. kissed, nor I won't

be thanked
here kiss my Rarely has the repulsiveness and

corruption of hand though. So, hold your tongue now,


the brutish or worldly nature been more vividly say a word." +

displayed. Little Betty and her brother, Squire

Humphry, deserve hanging. The agreement is complete. I should Again." "Mrs. Foresight. Do you think like to see one more article to it-a any woman honest? Scandal. Yes, several divorce “a menså et thoro :” this would sometimes ; but that's nothing:

very honest; they'll cheat a little at cards,

Mrs. F. be the genuine marriage of the world. Pshaw! but virtuous, I mean, S. Yes, faith; lings, that is a decent divorce. And I I believe 'some' women are virtuous too; but am sure that in two years Mirabell and

'tis as I believe some men are valiant, through

fear. Millamant will come to this. Hither

For why should a man court danger or a

woman shun pleasure?”-Congreve, Love for tends the whole of this theatre ; for, Love, üi. 14. with regard to the women, but particu

Com larly with regard to the married women, moiselle, the French chambermaid. They rep

† Vanbrugh, Provoked Wife, v. 3.

pare also in this piece the character of Made * Congreve, The Way of the World, iv. s. resent French v.ce as even more shamelen Ibid. 6.

than English vice.



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nance, find means to make the most is this argument ! How can a mai ticklish notions understood ; they dis- better console a woman whom he cuss very well, speak excellently, make has plunged into bitter unhappiness ! their bow still better ; but to sum up, What a touching logic in the insinua they are blackguards, systematical epi- tion which follows : " If the familiari cureans, professed seducers. They set ties of our loves had produced tha; forth immorality in maxims, and rea- consequence of which you were appre. son out their vice. “Give me,” says hensive, where could you have fixed a one, a man that keeps his five senses father's name with credit, but on a keen and bright as his sword, that has husband ?” He continues his reasons 'em always drawn out in their just or-ing in an excellent style ; listen to the der and strength, with his reason, as dilemma of a man of feeling: “A bet commander at the head of 'em, that ter man ought not to have been sacri. detaches 'em by turns upon whatever ficed to the occasion; a worse had no: party of pleasure agreeably offers, and answered to the purpose. When you commands 'em to retreat upon the are weary of him, you know your remeleast appearance of disadvantage or dy.”. Thus are a woman's feelings danger. I love a fine house, but to be considered, especially a woman let another keep it; and just so I love whom we have loved. To cap all, this a fine woman.”* One déliberately se delicate conversation is meant to force duces his friend's wife; another under the poor deserted Mrs. Fainall into a a false name gets possession of his low intrigue which shall obtain fo: brother's intended. A third hires Mirabell a pretty wife and a good dowry. false witnesses to secure a dowry.. I Certainly this gentleman knows the must ask the reader to consult for bim- world; no one could better employ a self the fine stratagems of Worthy, former mistress. Such are the cultiMirabell, and others. They are cold- vated characters of this theatre, as disblooded rascals who forge, commit honest as the uncultivated ones : havadultery, swindle, as if they had done ing transformed their evil instincts into nothing else all their lives. They are systematic vices, lust into debauchery, represented here as men of fashion; brutality into cynicism, perversity into they are theatrical lovers, heroes, and depravity, deliberate egotists, calculaas such they manage to get hold of an ting sensualists, with rules for their imheiress. We must go to Mirabell for morality, reducing feeling to self-interan example of this medley of corrup- est, honor to decorum, happiness to tion and elegance. Mrs. Fainall, his pleasure. former mistress, married by him to a The English Restoration altogether common friend, a miserable wretch, was one of those great crises which, complains to him of this hateful mar: while warping the development of a riage. He appeases her, gives her society and a literature, show the inadvice, shows her the precise mode, ward spirit which they modify, but the true expedient for setting things on which contradicts them. Society did a comfortable footing, “ You should not lack vigor, nor literature talent; have just so much disgust for your men of the world were polished, wrihusband, as may be sufficient to make ters inventive. There was a court, you relish your lover.” She cries in drawing-rooms, conversation, worldly despair, Why did you make me life, a taste for letters, the example of marry this man?" He smiles calmly, France, peace, leisure, the influence of “Why do we daily commit disagree the sciences, of politics, of "heology, able and dangerous actions ? to save -in short, all the happy circunstances that idol, reputation." How tender which can elevate the mind and civilize

There was the vigorous * Farquhar's The Beaux Stratagem, i. 1; and in the same piece here is the catechism of satire of Wycherley, the sparkling dialove: What are the objects of that passion logue and delicate raillery of Congreve, -youth, beauty, and clean linen." And from the frank nature and animation of Van the Mock Astrologer of Dryden: "As I am a brugh, the manifold invention of Far gentleman, a man about town, one that wears good cloths, eats, drinks, and wenches suffi- qubar, in short, all the resources which ciently."

Congreve, The Way of the World, ü. 4


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might nourish the comic element, and ishes, marriage is more respected, the offer a genuine theatre to the best con- heroines go no further than to tho structions of human intelligence. Noth-verge of adultery; * the roisterers are ing came to a head; all was abortive. pulled up at the critical moment; one Their age left nothing behind but the of them suddenly declares himself memory of corruption; their comedy purified, and speaks in verse, the betremains a repertory of viciousness; ter to mark his enthusiasm; another society had only a solid elegance, litera- praises marriage ; † some aspire in the ture a frigid wit. Their manners are fifth act to an orderly life. We shall gross and trivial ; their ideas are futile soon see Steele writing a moral treatise or incomplete. Through disgust and called The Christian Hero. Hence. reaction, a revolution was at hand in forth comedy declines and literary literary feeling and moral habits, as well talent flows into another channel. Es as in general beliefs and political institu- say, novel, pamphlet, dissertation, take tions. Man was to change altogether, the place of the drama; and the Eng. and to turn completely round at once. lish classical spirit, abandoning the The same repugnance and the same kinds of writing which are foreign to experience were to detach him from its nature, enters upon the great works every aspect of his old condition. The which are destined to immortalize it Englishman discovered that he was and give it expression. not monarchical, Papistical, nor skeptical, but liberal, Protestant, and a believer. He came to understand that he was not a roisterer nor a worldling, cline of dramatic invention, and in the

Nevertheless, in this continuous de but reflective and introspective. He possesses a current of animal life too great change of literary vitality, some violent to suffer him without danger to

shoots strike out at distant intervals abandon himself to enjoyment; he

towards comedy; for mankind always needs a barrier of moral reasoning to seeks for entertainment, and the theatre repress his outbreaks. There is in him is always a place of entertainment. The a current of attention and will too

tree once planted grows, feebly no strong to suffer himself to rest content doubt, with long intervals of almost to with trifles; he needs some weighty

tal dryness and

almost constant barren. and serviceable labor on which to ex-ness, yet subject to imperfect renewals pend his power. He needs a barrier

of life, to transitory partial blossomings, and an employment. He needs a con

sometimes to an inferior fruitage burst. stitution and a religion which shall ing forth from the lowest branches. restrain him by duties which must be Even when the great subjects are worn performed, and which shall

out, there is still room here and there

occupy him by rights which must be defend for a happy idea. Let a wit, clever ed. He is content only in a serious and experienced, take it in hand, he and orderly life; there he finds the will catch up a few oddities on his way,

he will introduce on the scene some natural groove and the necessary outlet for his faculties and his passions. will come in crowds, and ask no better

vice or fault of his time ; the public From this time he enters upon it, and this theatre itself exhibits the impress There was one of these successes when

than to recognize itself and laugh. of it. It undoes and transforms itself. Collier threw discredit upon it; Addi. Gay, in the Beggars Opera, brought son condemned it. National sentiment out the rascaldom of the great world awoke on the stage; French manners

and avenged the public on Walpole are jeered at; the prologues celebrate * The part of Amanda in Vanbrugh's Rom the defeats of Louis XIV.; the license, lapse; of Mrs. Sullen; the conversion of two elegance, religion of his court, are

roisterers, in the Beaut Stratagem. presented under a ridiculous or odious there are a wondrous many blanks, yet there is

7" Though marriage be a lottery in which light.* Immorality gradually dimin one inestimable lot, in which the only heaven

upon earth is written." * The part of Chaplain Foigard in Farquhar's " To be capable of loving one, doubtless, in Beaut Stratagem; of Mademniselle, and gen- better than to possess a thousand."-Vár erally of all the French people.


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