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Ing the formation or unravelling the would reconstitute moral science on elements. He pursued beforehand the the same basis. He assigns to it this method of Condillac, beginning with foundation when he lays down that tracing to the original fact, palpably sensation is an internal movement and clearly, so as to pursue step by caused by an external shock; desire, an step the filiation and parentage of the internal movement toward an external ideas of which this primary fact is the object; and he builds upon these two stock, in such a manner that the reader, notions the whole system of morals conducted from total to total, may at Again, he assigns to morals a mathe any moment test the exactness of his matical method, when he distinguishes operation, and verify the truth of his like the geometrician, between snosim results. Such a logical system cuts ple ideas, which he transforms by le across the grain of prejudice with a grees into two more complex; and mechanical stiffness and boldness. when on the basis of sensation and Hobbes clears science of scholastic desire he constructs the passions, the words and theories. He laughs down rights, and institutions of man, just as quiddities, he does away with rational the geometrician out of straight lines and intelligible classifications, he re- and curves constructs all the varieties jects the authority of references.* He of figure. To morals he gives a mathe. cuts, as with a surgeon's knife, at the matical aspect, by mapping out the inheart of the most living creeds. He complete and rigid construction of hu. denies the authenticity of the books of man life, like the network of imaginary Moses, Joshua, and the like. He de forms which geometricians have con: clares that no argument proves the ceived. For the first time there was divinity of Scripture, and that, in order discernible in him, as in Descartes, but to believe it, every man requires a su- exaggerated and standing out more pernatural and personal revelation. conspicuously, that species of intellect He upsets in half-a-dozen words the which produced the classic age in authority of this and every other reve. Europe: not the independence of in. lation. He reduces man to a mere spiration and genius which marked the body, the soul to a function, God, to an Renaissance; not the mature experi. unknown existence. His phrases read mental methods and conceptions of like equations or mathematical results. aggregates which distinguish the pres. In fact it is from mathematics * that ent age, but the independence of arhe derives the idea of all science. He gumentative reasoning, which dispens
ing with the imagination, liberating Though I reverence those men of ancient itself from tradition, badly practising times that either have written truth perspicu- experience, acknowledges its queen in ously, or set it in a better way to find it out logic, its model in mathematics, its inourselves, yet to the antiquity itself, I think nothing due ; for if we reverence the age, the struments in ratiocination, its audience present is the oldest. - Hobbes Works, Moles in polished society, its employment in worth, 11 vols. 8vo, 1839-45, iii. 713.
average truth, its subject-matter in ab. "To say he hath spoken to him in a stract humanity, its formula in ideolo dream, is no more than to say he dreamed that God spake to him. To say he hath seen a
gy, and in the French Revolution at vision or heard a voice, is to say that he has once its glory and its condemnation, dreamed between sleeping and waking. : . its trium.ph and its close. To say he speaks by supernatural inspiration, But whereas Descartes, in the is to say he finds an ardent DESIRE to speak, of midst of a purified society and religion some strong opinion of himself for which he can allege no sufficient and natural reason.
noble and calm, enthroned intellli. Ibid. iii. 361-2.
gence and elevated man, Hobbes, in "From the principal parts of Nature, Rear the midst of an overthrown society son, and Passion, have proceeded two kinds of and a religion run mad, degraded man learning, mathematical and dogmatical: The and enthroned matter. Through disformer is free from controversy and dispute, because it consisteth in comparing figure and gust of Puritanism, the courtiers remotion only, in which things truth and the induced human existence to an animal terest of men oppose not each other. But in licentiousness; through disgust of the other there is nothing undisputable, be cause it compares men, and meadles with their Puritanism, Hobbes reduced human right and profit."--Ibid. iv. Epis. ded. nature to its merely animal aspect
The courtiers were practically atheists to religion, it is but “the fear of an and brutish, as he was atheistic and invisible power, whether this be a fig brutish in the province of speculation. ment, or adopted from history by gen. They had established the fashion of eral consent."* Indeed, this was true instinct and egotism; he wrote the for a Rochester or a Charles II. ; Cow philosophy of egotism and instinct. ards or bullies, superstitious or blasphe They had wiped out from their hearts mers, they conceived of nothing beyond all refined and noble sentiments; he Neither is there any natural right wiped out from the heart all noble and “Before men were bound by contract refined sentiment. He arranged their one with another, each had the right to banners into a tneory, ave them the do what he would against whom he manual of their conduct, wrote down would.” Nor any, natural friendship, beforehand the maxims which they “ All association is for the cause ct were to reduce to practice.* With advantage or of glory, that is, for love him, as with them, “the greatest good of one's self, not of one's associates. is the preservation of life and limb; The origin of great and durable asso the greatest evil is death, especially ciations is not mutual well-wishing but with pain.” Other goods and other mutual fear. The desire of injuring is evils are only the means of these. None innate in all. Man is to man a wol!. seek or wish for any thing but that Warfare was the natural condiwhich is pleasurable. “No man gives tion of men before societies were except for a personal advantage.” Why formed; and this not incidentally, but are friendships good things? “Be- of all against all : and this war is of its cause they are useful ; friends serve own nature eternal.” | Sectarian vio. for defence and otherwise.” Why do lence let loose, the conflict of ambiwe pity one another? 'Because we tions, the fall of governments, the imagine that a similar misfortune may overdow of soured imaginations and befall ourselves.” Why is it noble to malevolent passions, had raised up this pardon him who asks it? “Because idea of society and of mankind. One thus one proves confidence in self.”
tiæ cum ad multa alia, tam ad præsidium conSuch is the background of the human ferunt. heart. Consider now what becomes Sapientia utile. Nam præsidium in se haber
nonnullum. of the most precious flowers in these
Etiam appetibile est per se, id
est jucundum. Item pulchrum, quia acquisitu blighting hands.
“Music, painting, difficilis. poetry, are agreeable as imitations Non enim qui sapiens est, ut dixere stoici, which recall the past, because if the dives est, sed contra qui dives est sapiens es
dicendus est. past was pod, it is agreeable in its
Ignoscere veniam petenti pulchrum. Nam imitation as a good thing; but if it was indicium fiduciæ sui. bad, it is agreeable in its imitation as Imitatio jucundum : revocat enim præterita being past.
To this gross mechanism Præterita autem si bona fuerint, jucunda sunt he reduces the fine arts; it was per- terita. Jucunda igitur musica, poesis pictura.
repræsentata, quia bona; si mala, quia præ ceptible in his attempt to translate the -Mobbes' Opera Latina, Molesworth, vol. ä. Iliad. In his sight, philosophy is a 98-102. thing of like kind. «Wisdom is ser
* Metus potentiarum invisibilium, sive ficts viceablo, because it has in it some kind religio est si publice acceptæ non sint, suser
illæ sint, sive ab historiis acceptæ sint publice of protection; if it is desirable in it- stitio.-Ibid. ii. 45. self, it is because it is pleasant.” Thus
† Omnis igitur societas vel commodi cause here is no dignity in knowledge. It is vel gloriæ, hoc est, sui, non sociorum amore
contrahitur.-Ibid. ii. 161. a pastime or an assistance; good, as a Statuendum igitur est, originem magnaruk servant or a puppet is a good thing. et diuturnarum societatum non a mutua homi Money being more serviceable, is
num benevolentia, sed a mutuo metu exstitists. worth more. “ Not he who is wise is
Voluntas lædendi omnibus quidem inest in rich, as the Stoics say; but, on the statu naturæ. -Ibich ii. 162. contrary, he who is rich is wise.” | As Status hominum naturalis antequam in som
cietatem coiretur bellum fuerit ; neque hos • His chiet works were written between 1646 simpliciter, sed bellum omnium in omnes.and 1655.
Ibid. ü. 166. * Nemo dat nisi respiciens ad bonum sibi. Bellum sua natura sempiternum.Sme sola Amicitia bonæ, nempe utilos. Nam amici- 1 1. 16.
and all, philosophers and people, spectacle of the English Restoration yearned for monarchy and repose, suggests.
Men deserved then thi Hobbes, an inexorable logician, would treatment, because they gave birth to have it absolute; repression would this philosophy; they were represented thus be more stern, peace more last- on the stage as they had proved them ing. The sovereign should be un- selves to be in theory and in manners. opposed. Whatsoever he might do against a subject, under whatever pre
VI. tex, would not be injustice. He ought to decide upon the canonical books. When the theatres, which Parlia. He was pope, and more than pope. ment had closed, were re-opened, the Were he to command it, his subjects change of public taste was soon mani, should renounce Christ, at least with fested. Shirley, the last of the grand their mouth; the original contract has old school, wrote and lived no longer. given up to him, without any reserva- Waller, Buckingham, and Dryden were tion, all responsibility of external ac- compelled to dish up the plays of tions; at least, according to this view, Shakspeare and Beaumont and Fletchthe sectarian will no longer have the er, and to adapt them to the modern yretext of his conscience a harassing style. Pepys, who went to see Midthe state. To such extremities had summer Night's Dream, declared that the intense weariness and horror of he would never go there again ; " for civil war driven a narrow but logical it is the most insipid, ridiculous play intellect. Upon the secure den in that ever I saw in my life." * Comedy which he had with every effort impris-was transformed; the fact was, that the oned and confined the evil beast of public was transformed. prey, he laid as a final weight, in order What an audience was that of Shak. that he might perpetuate the captivity speare and Beaumont and Fletcher ! of humanity, the whole philosophy and What youthful and delightful souls ! theory not simply of man, but of the In this evil-smelling room in which it remainder of the universe.
was necessary to burn juniper, before duced judgment to the "combina- that miserable half-lighted stage, betion of two terms,” ideas to condi- fore decorations worthy of an alehouse, tions of the brain, sensations to mo with men playing the women's parts, tions of the body, general laws to illusion enchained them. They scarcesimple words, all substance to corpore- ly troubled themselves about probabili
. ality, all science to the knowledge of ties; they could be carried in an insensible bodies, the human being to a stant over forest and ocean, from clime body capable of motion given or re- to clime, across twenty years of time, ceived; so that man, recognizing him through ten battles and all the hurry self and nature only under this de- of adventure. They did not care to be spised form, and degraded in his con- always laughing; comedy, after a burst ception of himself and of the world, of buffoonery, resumed its serious or might bow beneath the burden of a tender tone. They came less to be necessary authority, and submit in the amused than to muse. In these fresh end to the yoke which his rebellious minds, amidst a woof of passions and Qature rejects, yet is forced to tolerate.* dreams, there were hidden passions Such, in brief, is the aim which this and brilliant dreams whose imprisoned
swarm buzzed indistinctly, waiting for *Corpus et substantia idem significant, et the poet to come and lay bare to them proinde vox composita substantia incorporea est insignificans æque ac si quis diceret corpus the novelty and the splendor of heav. incorporeum.-Hobbes' Opera Latina, Moles- en. Landscapes revealed by a lightvorth, iii. 281.
Quidquid imaginamur finitum est. Nulla Veritas enim in dicto non in re consistit.ergo eat idea neque conceptus qui oriri potest a Ibid. i. 3!. voce bac, infinitum.-Ibid. ii. 20.
Sensio igitur in sentiente nihil aliud esse po Recidit itaque ratiocinatio omnis ad duas test præter motum partium aliquarum intus is operationes animi, additionem et substractio- sentiente existentium, quæ partes motæ organ nem.-Ibid. i. 3.
orum quibus sentimus partes sunt.-bid. i Nomina signa sunt non rerum sed cogita- 317. rionen-Ibid. i. 15.
* Pegys' Diary, ü. Sept. 29, 1663.
ning flash, the gray mane of a long and the tavern or the ante-chamber; let the overhanging billow, a wet forest nook theatre and the street reproduce one where the deer raise their startled another. Comecy will give him the heads, the sudden smile and purpling same entertainment as real life ; ho cheek of a young girl in love, the sub- will wallow equally well ther: in vullime and various Aight of all delicate garity and lewdness; to be present sentiments, a cloak of ecstatic and ro there will demand neither imagination mantic passion over all,—these were nor wit; eyes and meinory are the only the sights and feelings which they requisites. This exact imitation will
to seek, They raised them- amuse him and instruct him at the selves without any assistance to the same time. Filthy words will make him. summit of the world of ideas; they laugh through sympathy; shamelesi desired to contemplate extreme gener- imagery will divert him by appealing 11 osity, absolute love; they were not as his recollections. The author, to, onished at the sight of fairy-land; will take care to arouse him by his they entered without an effort into the plot, which generally has the deceiving region of poetical transformation, whose of a father or a husband for its sub. .ight was necessary to their eyes. They ject. The fine gentlemen agree with took in at a glance its excesses and its the author in siding with the gallant ; caprices; they needed no preparation; they follow his fortunes' with interest, they followed its digressions, its whim and fancy that they themselves have sicalities, the crowding of its abundant the same success with the fair. Add creations, the sudden prodigality of its to th women debauched, and willing high coloring, as a musician follows a to be debauched; and it is manifest symphony. They were in that tran: how these provocations, these man. sient and strained condition in which ners of prostitutes, that interchange the imagination, adult and pure, laden of exchanges and surprises, that carni. with desire, curiosity, force, develops val of rendezvous and suppers, the man all at once, and in that man the impudence of the scenes only stopping most exalted and exquisite feelings. short of physical demonstration, those
The roisterers took the place of these songs with their double meaning, that They were rich, they had tried to deck coarse slang shouted loudly and rethemselves with the polish of French- plied to amidst tableaux vivants, all men; they added to the stage move that stage-imitation of orgie, must able decorations, music, lights, proba. have stirred up the innermost feelbility, comfort, every external aid; but ings of the habitual practisers of in. they wanted heart. Imagine those trigue. And what is more, the theafoppish and half intoxicated men, who tre gave. its sanction to their manners. saw in love nothing beyond desire, and By representing nothing but vice, it in man nothing beyond sensuality ; authorized their vices. Authors laid Rochester in the place of Mercutio. it down as a rule, that all women werc What part of his soul could compre. | impudent hussies, and that all men hend poesy and fancy? The comedy were brutes. Debauchery in their of romance was altogether beyond his hands became a matter of course, nay seach; he could only seize the actual more, a matter of good taste; they world, and of this world but the palpa. frofess it. Rochester and Charla ble and gross externals. Give him an | II. could quit the theatre highly edi. exact picture of ordinary life, common fied; more convinced than they were place and probable occurrences, literal before that virtue was only a pretence 'mitations of what he himself was and the pretence of clever rascals who did ; lay the scene in London, in the wanted to sell themselves dear. current year, copy his coarse words, his brutal jokes, his conversation with
VII. the orange girls, his rendezvous in the park, his attempts at French disserta- Dryden, who was amougst the first tion. Let him recognize himself, let to adopt this view of the matter, did him find again the people and the not adopt it heartily. A kind of bars manncrs he had just left behind him in • His Wild Gallant dates from 106a.
mist, the relic of the former age, still tact or contrivance. In his Spanis) Aoated over his plays. His wealthy im-Friar, the queen, a good encugh wo agination half bound him to the come man, tells Torrismond that she is going dy of romance. At one time he adapted to have the old dethroned king put to Milton's Paradise, Shakspeare's Ten- death, in order to marry him, Torrispest, and Troilus and Cressida. An- mond, more at her ease. Presently she other time he imitated, in Love in a is informed that the murder is comNunnery, in Marriage à la Mode, in pleted,
“ What hinders now," says The Mock Astrologer, the imbroglios and she, “but that the holy priest, in secret surprises of the Spanish stage. Some joins our mutual vows and then this tines he displays the sparkling images night, this happy night, is yours and er.d lofty metaphors of the older na- mine."* Side by side with this sentional poets, sometimes the affected sual tragedy, a comic intrigue, pushed figures of speech and cavilling wit of to the most indecent familiarity, exCalderon and Lope de Vega. , He hibits the love of a cavalier for a marmingles the tragic and the humorous, ried woman, who in the end turns out the overthrow of thrones and the or- to be his sister. Dryden discovers dinary description of manners. But in nothing in this situation to shock him this awkward compromise the poetic He has lost the commonest repug spirit of ancient comedy disappears ; nances of natural modesty. Trans. only the dress and the gilding remain. lating any pretty broad play, AmphiThe new characters are gross and im- tryon for instance, he finds it too pure; moral, with the instincts of a lackey he strips off all its small delicacies, beneath the dress of a lord; which is and enlarges its very improprieties. † the more shocking, because by it Dry. Thus Jupiter says: den contradicts his own talents, being For kings and priests are in a manner at bottom grave and a poet; he follows bound, che fashion, and not his own mind; he For reverence sake, to be close hypo
crites.” 1 plays the libertine with deliberate fore. thought, to adapt himself to the taste And he proceeds thereupon boldly to of the day. * He plays the blackguard lay bare his own despotism. In reality, awkwardly and dogmatically; he is im- his sophisms and his shamelessness pious without enthusiasm, and in meas- serve Dryden as a means of decrying ured periods. One of his gallants by rebound the arbitrary Divinity of crics :
the theologians. He lets Jupiter say: • Is not love love without a pricst and altars?
“ Fate is what I, The temples are inanimate, and know not By virtue of omnipotence, have made it; What vows are made in them ; the priest And power omnipotent can do no wrong! stands ready
Not to myself, because I will it so; For his hire, and cares not what hearts he Nor yet
to men, for what they are is mine.couples;
This night I will enjoy Amphitryon's wife ; Love alone is marriage.".
For when I made her, I decreed her such
As I should please to love." Hippolita says, “I wished the ball might be kept perpetually in our clois. This open pedantry is changed into ter, and that half the handsome nuns open lust as soon as Jupiter sees Alc. in it might be turned to men, for the * Spanish Friar, iii. 3. And jumbled up sake of the other." | Dryden has no
with the plot we keep meeting with politica
allusions. This is a mark of the time. Torrig "We love to get our mistresses, and purr mond, to excuse himself from marrying the over them, as cats do over mice, and let them queen, says, Power which in one age is at a little way; and all the pleasure is to pat tyranny is ripen'd in the next to true succes shem back again.".-Mock Astrologer, ii. 1.
She's in possession."-Spanish Friar, Wildblood says to his mistress: "I am none iv. 2. of those unreasonable lovers that propose to † Plautus Amphitryon has been imitated by themselves the loving to eternity: À month is Dryden and Molière. Sir Walter Scott, in commonly iny stint. And Jacintha replies: the introduction to Dryden's play, says: Ho
Or would not a fortnight serve our turn?"- is, in general, coarse and vulgar, where MolIbid.
ière is witty ; and where the Frenchman ver Frequently, one would think Dayden was tures upon a doub'e meaning, the Englishmaz translating Hobbes, by the harshness of his always contrives to make a single one."
TR. * Love in a Nonery, i. 3. Ibid. iii. 3. 1 A mpkitryon, i. a.