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burlesque. To read those long details pared, and that he inade use of these of the kitchen, those servile and crude fatherly expressiors on the spur of the jokes, people might fancy themselves moment. He added, “that he had in the company of a common buffoon much rather his daughter should be in the market place; it is the talk of the duke's whore than his wife.” Is the quacks on the bridges, adapting this not heroical ? But let Clarendor their imagination and language to the speak for himself. Only such a tru: manners of the beer-shop and the monarchical heart can sui pass itse'l ; hovel. There is filth to be met with

He was ready to give a positive judgmeni there; indeed, the rabble will laugh in which he hoped their lordships would con when the mountebank alludes to the cur with him; that the king should immediate disgusting acts of private life.* Such ly cause the woman to be sent to the lowes is the grotesque stuff in which the and to be cast into a dungeon under

so strict :

guard, that no person living should be ad. courtiers of the Restoration delighted ; mitted to come to her; and then that an act of their spite and their coarseness took Parliament should be immediately passed for a pleasure in the spectacle of these the cutting off her head, to which he would

not only give his consent, but would very wil bawling puppets; even now, after two ingly be the first man that should propose centuries, we hear the ribald laughter it." of this audience of lackeys.

What Roman virtue! Afraid of not

being believed he insists; whoever IV.

knew the man, will believe that all this Charles II., when at his meals, os- came from the very bottom of his tentatiously drew Grammont's atten. heart. He is not yet satisfied; he retion to the fact that his officers served peats his advice; he addresses to the him on their knees. They were in the king different conclusive reasonings, right; it was their fit attitude. Lord in order that they might cut off the Chancellor Clarendon, one of the most head of his daughter: hor.ured and honest men of the Court,

I had rather submit and bear it (this dislearns suddenly and in full council that grace) with all humility, than that it should be his daughter Anne is enceinte by the repaired by making her his wife, the thought Duke of York, and that the Duke, the whereof I do so much abominate, that I had sing's brother, has promised her mar

much rather see her dead, with all the infamy

that is due to her presumption." | riage. Listen to the words of this tender father ; he has himself taken care In this manner, a man, who is in diffito hand them down :

culty, can keep his salary and his

Chancellor's robes. Sir Charles Berk. "The Chancellor broke out into a very im. ley, captain of the Duke of York's moderate passion against the wickedness of his daughter, and said with all imaginable earnest- guards, did better still ; he solemnly ness, that as soon as he came home, he would swore “ that he had lain with the young tura her (his daughter) out of his house as a lady," and declared himself ready to strumpet to shift for herself, and would never see her again.'”+

marry her " for the sake of the duke,

though he knew well the familiarity Observe that this great man had re- the duke had with her.” Then, shortly ceived the news from the king unpre- afterwards, he confessed that he had • " Quoth Hudibras, I smell a rat.

lied, but with a good intention, in all Ralpho, thou dost prevaricate;

honor, in order to save the royal family For though the thesis which thou lay'st Be true ad amussim as thou say'st

from such a mésalliance. This admira. (For that bear-baiting should appear

ble self-sacrifice was rewarded; he Jure divino lawfuller

soon had a pension from the privy Than Synods are, thou do'st deny, Totidem verbis ; so do I),

purse, and was created Earl of Faí. Yet there is fallacy in this ;

mouth. From the first, the baseness For if by sly homæosis,

of the public corporations rivalled that Tussis pro crepitu, an art

of individuals. The House of Com Thou wouldst sophistically imply,

mons, but recently naster of the coun. Both are unlawful, I deny."

try, still full of Presbyterians, rebels, Part i. canto i. l. 821-834.

and conquerors, voted “that' neither + The Life of Clarendon, ed. by himself, * The Life of Clarendom, i. 379. vow ed., 1827, 3 vols., i. 378.

Ibid. i. 380.


We can

themselves nor the people of England and distinguished man of his kind could be free from the horrid guilt of pardoned him, gave him an estate in the late unnatural rebellion, or from Ireland, and admitted him to his pres the punishment which that guilt mer ence, side by side with the Duke of ited, unless they formally availed them- Ormond, so that Blood became a sort selves of his majesty's grace and par- of hero, and was received in good so. don, as set forth in the declaration of ciety. After such splendid examples, Breda.” Then all these heroes went men dared every thing. The Duke of in a body and threw themselves with Buckingham, a lover of the Countess contrit on at the sacred feet of their of Shrewsbury, slew the Earl in a duel ; monarch. In this universal prostra- the Countess, disguised as a page, held tion it seemed that no one had any Buckingham's horse, while she courage left. The king became the braced him, covered as he was with hireling of Louis XIV., and sold his her husband's blood; and the mur. country for a large pension. Ministers, derer and adulteress returned publicly, members of Parliament, ambassadors, and as triumphantly, to the house of all received French money. The conta- the dead man.

no longer gion spread even to patriots, to men wonder at hearing Count Königsmark noted for their purity, to martyrs. Lord describe as a "peccadillo ” an assas. William Russell intrigued with Ver- sination which he had committed by sailles ; Algernon Şidney accepted 500 waylaying his victim. I transcribe a guineas. They had not discrimination duel out Pepys, to give a notion of enough to retain a show of spirit; they the manners of these bloodthirsty cut had not spirit enough to retain a show throats. Sir H. Bellassis and Ton of honor.*

Porter, the greatest friends in the world In men thus laid bare, the first thing were talking together : that strikes you is the bloodthirsty in- and Sir H. Bellassis talked a little louder stinct of brute beasts. Sir John Cov.than ordinary to Tom Porter, giving of him entry, a member of Parliament, let some advice. Some of the company standing some word escape him, which was con- by said, 'What! are they quarrelling, that strued into a reproach of the royal it, said, No ?" says he : 'I would have you

they talk so high?' Sir H. Bellassis, hearing amours. His friend, the Duke of know I never quarrel, but I strike : and take Monmouth, contrived that he should that as a rule of mine! How?' says Tom be treacherously assaulted under the Porter, strike! I would I could see the man

in England that durst give me a blow!' with king's command, by respectable men

that Sir H. Bellassis did give him a box of the devoted to his service, who slit his nose

eare ; and so they were going to fight there, to the bone. A vile wretch of the but were hindered. Tom Porter, being in. name of Blood tried to assassinate the formed that Sir H. Bellassis' coach was com. Duke of Ormond, and to stab the he staid for the tidings, and stopped the coach,

ing, went down out of the coffee-house where keeper of the Tower, in order

to steal and bade Sir H. Bellassis come out. • Why, the crown jewels. Charles II., con- says H. Bellassis, you will not hurt me com sidering that this was an interesting ing out, will you? No,' says Tom Porter.

So he , and both drew. They * “Mr. Evelyn tells me of several of the wounded one another, and Sir H. Bellassis sc menial servants of the Court lacking bread, much that it is feared he will die "--* that have not received a farthing wages since the King's coming ip."-Pepys Diary, ed. which he did ten days after. Lord Braybrodzie, 3d ed., 1848, 5 vols., iv.

Bull-dogs like these took no pity of April 26, 1667.

** Mr. Povy says that to this day the King do their enemies. The Restoration open follow the women as much as he ever did ; ed with a butchery. The Lords conthat the Duke of York hath come out ducted the trials of the republicans of his wife's bed, and gone to others laid in with a shamelessness of cruelty and an bed for him ; that the family (of the Duke) is in horrible disorder by being in debt excess of rancor that were extraordi. by spending above £60,000 per annum, when nary. A sheriff struggled with Sir he hath not £40,000" (Ibid. iy. June 23, Harry Vane on the scaffold, rummag 1667); It is certain that, as it now is, the seamen

ing his pockets, and taking from him a of England, in my conscience, would, if they paper which he attempted to read could, go over and serve the king of France or During the trial of Major-General Har Holland rather than us " (Ibid. iv. June 25, 1667).

* Pepys' Diary, vol. iv., 29th July, 1667.

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rison, the hangman was placed by his robbed him of his wife, and passed her side, in a black dress, with a rope in on to Buckingham. The husband his hand; they sought to give him a hanged himself ; they made very merry full enjoyment of the foretaste of over the affair. At another time he death. He was cut down alive from disguised himself as a chairman, then the gibbet, and disembowelled; he as a beggar, and paid court to the saw his entrails cast into the fire ; he gutter-girls. He ended by turning a was then quartered, and his still beat. quack astrologer, and vendor of drugs ing heart was torn out and shown to for procuring abortion, in the suburbs the people. The cavaliers gathered It was the licentiousness of a fervid round for amusement. Here and there imagination, which fouled itself as an. one of them would do worse even than other would have adorned it, which this. Colonel Turner, seeing them forced its way into lewdness and folly quarter John Coke, the lawyer, told as another would have done into sense the sheriff's men to bring Hugh Peters, and beauty. What can come of love another of the condemned, nearer; in hands like these ?

We cannot copy the executioner came up, and rubbing even the titles of his poems; they were his bloody hands, asked the unfortu- written only for the haunts of vice. nate man if the work pleased him. The Stendhal said that love is like a dried rotting bodies of Cromwell, Ireton and up bough cast into a mine ; the crys. Bradshaw were dug up in the night, tals cover it, spread out into filagree and their heads fixed on poles over work, and end by converting the worth Westminster Hall. Ladies went to less stick into a sparkling tuft of the see these disgusting sights; the good purest diamonds. Rochester begins by Evelyn applauded them; the courtiers depriving love of all its adornment, and made songs on them. These people to make sure of grasping it, converts it were fallen so low, that they did not into a stick. Every refined sentiment, even turn sick at it Sight and smell every fancy; the enchantment, the se. no longer aided humanity by producing rene, sublime glow which transforms repugnance; their senses were as dead in a moment this wretched world of as their hearts.

ours; the illusion which, uniting all From carnage they threw themselves the powers of our being, shows us per nto debauchery. You should read the fection in a finite creature, and eternal ife of the Earl of Rochester, a courtier bliss in a transient emotion,-all has ind a poet, who was the hero of the vanished; there remain but satiated time. His manners were those of a appetites and palled senses. The worst lawless and wretched mountebank; his of it is, that he writes without spirit delight was to haunt the stews, to de: and methodically enough. He has no bauch women, to write filthy songs and natural ardor, no picturesque sensual. lewd pamphlets; he spent his time ity; his satires prove him a disciple of between gossiping with the maids of Boileau. Nothing is more disgusting honor, broils with men of letters, the than obscenity in cold blood. We can receiving of insults, the giving of endure the obscene works of Giulio blows. By way of playing the gallant, Romano, and his Venetian voluptuous. he eloped with his wife before he mar- ness, because in them genius sets off ried her. Out of a spirit of bravado, sensuality, and the loveliness of the he declined fighting a duel, and gained splendid colored draperies transforms the na ne of a coward. For five years an orgie into a work of art. We together he was said to be drunk. The pardon Rabelais, when we have entered spirit within him failing of a worthy into the deep current of manly joy and outlet, plunged him into adventures vigor, with which his feasts abound. more befitting a clown. Once with the We can hold our nose and have dono Duke of Buckingham he rented an inn with it, while we follow with admira on the Newmarket road, and turned tion, and even sympathy, the torrent of innkeeper, supplying the husbands with ideas and fancies which flows through drink and defiling their wives. He his mire. But to see a man trying to introduced himself, disguised as an old be elegant and remaining obscene, en woman, into the house of a miser, Ideavoring to paint the sentiments of a


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navvy in the language of a man of the public taste maintained at Ve sailles world, who tries to find a suitable meta- was here dispensed with as t:ouble. phor for every kind of filth, who plays some. Charles and his brother, in the blackguard studiously and deliber. their state dress, would set off running ately, who, excused neither by genuine as in a carnival. On the day when the feeling, nor the glow of fancy, nor Dutch fleet burned the English ships knowledge, nor genius, degrades a good in the Thames, the king supped with style of writing to such work,-it is the Duchess of Monmouth, and amused like a rascal who sets himself to sully a himself by chasing a moth. In council set of gems in a gutter. The end of while business was being transacted all is but disgust and illness. While he would be playing with his log, La Fontaine continues to the last day Rochester and Buckingham insulted capable of tenderness and happiness, him by insolent repartees or dissolute this man at the age of thirty insults the epigrams; he would fly into a pas. weaker sex with spiteful malignity: sion and suffer them to go on. He When she is young, she whores herself for quarrelled with his mistress in public; sport;

she called him an idiot, and he called And when she's old, she bawds for her sup her a jade. He would leave her in the

port. • She is a snare, a shamble, and a stews ;

morning, so that the very sentrys Her meat and sauce she does for lechery speak of it.” * He suffered her to chuse,

play him false before the eyes of all; And does in laziness delight the more, Because by that she is provoked to whore.

at one time she received a couple of Ungrateful, treacherous, enviously inclined,

actors, one of whom was a mounteWild beasts are tamed, foods easier far con bank. If need were, she would use

Ened, Than is her stubborn and rebellious mind.... hath declared that he did not get the

abusive language to him. The King Her temper so extravagant we find, She hates, or is impertinently kind.

child of which she is conceived at this Would she be grave, she then looks like a time. But she told him, “...! but

devil, And like a fool or whore, when she be civil.. | did acknowledge the child, and took to

you shall own it.” + Whereupon he Contentious, wicked, and not fit to trust,

And covetous to spend it on her lust." himself a couple of actresses for conWhat a confession is such a judgment !

solation. When his new wife, Cathe. what an abstract of life! You see the rine of Braganza, arrived, he drove roisterer stupefied at the end of his away her attendants, used coarse career, dried up like a mummy, eaten language to her, that he might force or away by ulcers. Amid the choruses, her the familiarities of his mistress, the crude satires, the remembrance of and finished by degrading her to a plans miscarried, the sullied enjoyments friendship such as this.

The good which are heaped up in his wearied Pepys, notwithstanding his loyal feel. brain as in a sink, the fear of damna- ings, ends by saying, having heard the tion is fermenting ; he dies a devotee king and the duke talk, and seeing and at the age of thirty-three.

observing their manner of discourse, At the head of all, the king sets the

“God forgive me! though I admire example. This “old goat,

as the them with all the duty possible, yet the courtiers call him, imagines himself a

more a man considers and observes man of gayety and elegance. What them, the less he finds of difference br. gayety! what elegance ! French

tween them and other men, though, manners do not suit men beyond the blessed be God I they are both princes Channel. When they are Catholics, of great nobleness and spirits." He they fall into narrow superstition; heard that, on a certain day, the king when epicureans, into gross debauch was so besotted with Mrs. Stewart thai ery; when courtiers, into base ser

he gets “into corners, and will be with vility; when skeptics, into vulgar her half an hour together kissing her atheism. The court of England could to the observation of all the world.” § only imitate French furniture and dress. The regular and decent exterior which

* Penys Diary, ii. January 1, 166 1663

Ibid. iv. July 39, 1667. * Rochester's works, edited by St. Evre- 1 Ibid. iii. July 26, 1665. mond.

Ibid. . Nov. 9. 1663

Another day, Captain Ferrers told him

V. "how, at a ball at Court, a child was dropped by one of the ladies in danc. Hobbes was one of those powerful ing". They took it off in a handker- limited, and, as they are called, positive chief, "and the King had it in his minds, so common in England, of the closet a week after, and did dissect it, school of Swift and Bentham, effica making great sport of it.”* These cious and remorseless as an iron ma ghastly freaks and these lewd events chine. Hence we find in him a meth. make us shudder. The courtiers went od and style of surprising dryness and with the stream. Miss Jennings, who vigor, most adapted to build up and hecame Duchess of Tyrconnel, dis- pull down; hence a philosophy which, yuised herself one day as an orange by the audacity of its teaching, has girl, and cried her wares in the street.t placed in an undying light one of Pepys recounts festivities in which the indestructible phases of the human lords and ladies smeared one another's mind. In every object, every event, faces with candle-grease and soot, " till there is some primitive and constant most of us were like devils.” It was fact, which forms, as it were, the nuthe fashion to swear, to relate scandal- cleus around which group themselves ous adventures, to get drunk, to prate the various developments which comagainst the preachers and Scripture, to plete it. . The positive mind swoops gamble. Lady Castlemaine in one down immediately upon this nucleus, night lost £25,000. The Duke of St. crushes the brilliant growth which Albans, a blind man, eighty years old, covers it ; disperses, annihilates it; went to the gambling-house with an then, concentrating upon it the full attendant at his side to tell him the force of its violent grasp, loosens it, cards. Sedley and Buckhurst stripped raises it up, shapes it, and lifts it into nearly naked, and ran through the a conspicuous position, from whence it streets after midnight. Another, in the may henceforth shine out to all men open day, stood naked at the window and for all time like a crystal. All ornato address the people I let Grammont ment, all emotions, are excluded from keep to himself his accounts of the the style of Hobbes; it is a mere agmaids of honor brought to bed, and of gregate of arguments and concise facts unnatural lusts. We must either ex. in a small space, united together by hibit or conceal them, and I have not deduction, as by iron bands. There the courage lightly to insinuate them, are no tints, no fine or unusual word. after his fashion. I end by a quotation He makes use only of words most fafrom Pepys, which will serve for ex- miliar to common and lasting usage ; ample: Here I first understood by there are not a dozen employed by him. their talk the meaning of company that which, during two hundred years, have lately were called Ballers ; Harris tell- grown obsolete ; he pierces to the root ing how it was by a meeting of some of all sensation, removes the transient young blades, where he was among and brilliant externals, narrows the them, and my Lady Bennet and her solid portion which is the permanent ladies; and their dancing naked, and subject matter of all thought, and the . all the roguish things in the world.” I proper object of common intelligence. The marvellous thing is, that this fair He curtails throughout in order to is not even gay; these people were strengthen; he attains solidity by sup misanthropic, and became morose ; pression. Of all the bonds which con: they quote the gloomy Hobbes, and he nect ideas, he retains but one, and that is their master. In fact, the philosophy the most stable ; his style is only a conof Hobbes shall give us the last word tinuous chain of reasoning of the most and the last characteristics of this stubborn description, wholly made up society.

of additions and subtractions, rec uced * Pepys' Diary, ii. Feb. 8, 17, 1662-3.

to a combination of certain simple # Ibid. Feb. 21, 1664-1665.

ideas, which added on to or diminish. * The author has inadvertently confounded ing from one another, make up, i nder "my Lady Bennet”, with the Countess of Arlington. See Pepys' Diary, iv. May 30, of which we are forever either sindy

various names, the totals or differences 1668, footnote.-Tr.

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