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my soul.'

vrath,” condemned from our birth, more put to it; for when he so ignt in the dark guilty by nature, justly predestined to

to shun the ditch on the one hand, he was ready destruction. Beneath this formidable to tip over into the mire on the other ; alsa

when he sought to escape the mire, without thought the heart gives way. The un- great carefulness he would be ready to fall into happy man relates how he trembled in the ditch. Thus he went on, and I heard him all his limbs, and in his fits it seemed here sigh bitterly; for, besides the dangers

mentioned above, the path-way was here so to him as though the bones of his chest dark, that ofttimes, when he lift up his foot to would break One day,” he tells us, set forward he knew not where, or upon what "I walked to a neighborir.g town, and he should set it next. Bat down upon a settle in the street, the mouth of Hell to be, and it stood also bard

“ About the midst of this Valley, I perceived and fell into a very deep pause about by the wayside. Now, thought Christian, wha: the most fearful state my sin had shall I do? And ever and anon the flame and bright me to; and after long musing, smoke would come out in such abundance, with I lifted up my head, but methought I forced to put up his Sword, and betake himself

sparks and hideous noises. . saw, as if the sun that shineth in the to another weapon, called All-prayer. So ho heavens did grudge to give light; and cried in my hearing :, O Lord, I beseech thee

Thus he went on a great as if the very stones in the street,

and while, yet still the flames would be reaching to tiles upon the houses, did band them- wards him: Also he heard doleful voices, and selves against me. O how happy now rushings to and fro, so that sometimes he was every creature over I was! For thought he should be torn in pieces, or trodden hey stood fast, and kept their station, down like mire in the Streets. but I was gone and lost.” * The devils Against this agony, neither his good gathered together against the repentant deeds, nor his prayers, nor his justice, sinner; they choked his sight, besieged nor all the justice and all the prayers him with phantoms, yelled at his side of all other men, could defend him. to drag him down their precipices; and Grace alone justifies. God must impute the black valley into which the pilgrim to him the purity of Christ, and save plunges, almost matches by the horror him by a free choice. What can be of its symbols the agony of the terrors more full of passion than the scene in by which he is assailed:

which, under the name of his poor pil

grim, he relates his own doubts, his "I saw then in my Dream, so far as this conversion, his joy, and the sudden Valley reached, there was on the right hand a very deep. Ditch; that Ditch is it into which change of his heart? the blind have led the blind in all ages, and have both there miserably perished. Again, be asked further, But, Lord, may such a great

sin.

“ Then the water stood in mine eyes, and I hold on the left hand, there was a very danger- per as I am be indeed accepted of thee, and be ous Quag, into which, if even a good man falls, saved by thee? And I heard him say, And he can find no bottom for his foot to stand him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast “ The path-way was here also exceeding nar mine eyes full of tears, and mine affections run.

out. . . . And now was my heart full of joy, row, and therefore good Christian was the ning over with love to the Name, People, and

Ways of Jesus Christ. : : . a long fight he conquers him. Yet the way “'It made me see that all the World, not. grows narrow, the shades fall thicker, sulphur- withstanding all the righteousness thereof, is in ous flames rise along the road: it is the valley, a state of condemnation. It made me see that of the Shadow of Death. He passes it, and God the Father, though he be just, can justly arrives at the town of Vanity, a vast fair of justify the coming sinner. It made me greatly business, deceits, and shows, which he walks by ashamed of the vileness of my former life, and with lowered eyes, not wishing to take part in confounded me with the sense of mine own ig. ts festivities or falsehoods. The people of the norance; for there never came thought into my aice beat him, throw him into prison, condemn heart before now, that shewed me so ine peauty hi 1 as a traitor and

rebel, burn his companion of Jesus Christ. It made me lore a holy life, Faithful. Escaped from their hands, he falls and long to do something for the Honour and into those of Giant Despair, who beats him, Glory of the Name of the Lord Jesus ;, yea, I leaves him in a poisonous dungeon without thought that had I ow a thousand gallons of Lood, and giving him daggers and cords, advises blood in my body, I could spill it all for the aim to rid himself from so many misfortunes. sake of the Lord Jesus." + Al last he reaches the Delectable Mountains, whence he sees the holy city. To enter it he

Such an emotion does not weigh lithas only to cross a deep river, where there is no erary calculations. Allegory, the most foothold, where the water dims the sight, and artificial kind, is natural to Bunyan. If which is called the river of Death.

* Bunyar.'s Grace abounding to the Chief of * Pilgrim's Progress, Cambridge 1862, Fins Sinners, $ 87.

Part, p. 64.

| Ibid. p. 160

on.

he employs it here, it is because he simplicity recalls tales for children does so throughout; if he employs it prove that if his work is allegorical, it throughout, it is from necessity, not is so in order that it may be intelligible choice. As children, countrymen, and and that Bunyan is a poet because be all uncultivated minds, he transforms is a child.* arguments into parables; he only If you study him well, however, you grasps truth when it is clothed in im- will find power under his simplicity. ages ; abstract terms elude him; he and in his puerility the vision. These must touch forms and contemplate col- allegories are hallucinations as clear, ors., Dry general truths are a sort of complete, and sound as ordinary per. algebra, acquired by the mind slowly ceptions. No one but Spenser is so and after much trouble, against our lucid. Imaginary objects rise of them. primitive inclination, which is to ob- selves before him. He has no trouble zerve detailed events and visible ob- in calling them up or forming them jects; man being incapable of contem- They agree in all their details with all plating pure formulas until he is trans- the details of the precept which they formed by ten years' reading and re- represent, as a pliant veil fits the body flection. We understand at once the which it covers. He distinguishes and term purification of heart; Bunyan un- arranges all the parts of the landscape-. derstands it fully only, after translating here the river, on the right the castle, it by this fable :

a flag on its left turret, the setting sun “ Then the Interpreter took Christian by the three feet lower, an oval cloud in the hand, and led him into a very large Parlour that front part of the sky-with the prewas full of dust, because never swept; the ciseness of a land-surveyor. We fancy which after he had reviewed a little while, the in reading him that we are looking at Interpreter called for a man to sweep. when he began to sweep, the dust began so the old maps of the time, in which the abundantly to fly about, that Christian had al- striking features of the angular cities most therewith been choaked. Then said the are marked on the copperplate by a Interpreter to a Damsel that stood by, Bring tool as certain as a pair of compasses.f hither the Water, and sprinkle the Room ; the which when she had done, it was swept and Dialogues flow from his pen as in a cleansed with pleasure.

dream. He does not seem to be think. “ Then said Christian, What means this? “ The Interpreter answered, This Parlour is ing; we should even say that he was the hea of • man that was never sanctified by not himself there. Events and speeches the s'yatt Grace of the Gospel : the dust is his seem to grow and dispose themselves Original Sin and inward Corruptions, that have within him, independently of his will. defiled the whole

map. He that began to sweep Nothing, as a rule, is colder than the is the Law; but she that brought water, characters in an allegory; his are liv. and did sprinkle it, is the Gospel. Now, whereas thou sawest that so soon as the first ing. Looking upon these details, so began to sweep, the dust did so fly about that the Room by him could not be cleansed, but witty, so just and simple it is.

* Here is another of his, allegories, almost

Šee Pilgrim's t at thou wast almost choaked there with; this Progress, First Part, p. 68: Now I saw in my is to shew thee, that the Law, instead of cleans Dream, that at the end of this Valley lay blood, ing the heart (by its working) from sin, doth re bones, ashes, and mangled bodies of men, even vive, put strength into and increase it in the of Pilgrims that had gone this way formerly ; soul, even as it doth discover and forbid it for and while I was musing what should be the

reait doth not give power to subdue. " Again, as thou sawest the Damsel sprinkle two Giants, Pope and Pagan, dwelt in old

son, I espied a little before me a Cave, where the room with Water, upon which it was time ; by whose power and tyranny the mer cleansed with pleasure ; this is to shew thee whose bones, blood, ashes, etc., lay there,

were that when the Gospel comes in the sweet and cruelly put to death. But by this place Chris, precious inåuences thereof to the heart, then I say, ever as thou sawest the Damsel lay the somewhat wondered; but I have learnt since,

tian went without much danger, whereat I dust by sprinkling, the floor with Water, so is that Pagan has been dead many a day; and sin vanquished and subdued, and the soul made clean, through the faith of it, and consequent by reason of age, and also of the many shrewd

as for the other, though he be yet alive, he is ly fit for the King of Glory to inhabit." +

brushes that he met with in his younger days, These repetitions, embarrassed phrases, gre va so crazy, and stii in his joints

, that ho

cau now do little more than sit in tis Cave's fan iliar comparisons, this artless style, mouth, grinning at Pilgrims as they go by, and whose awkwardness recalls the child- biting his nails, because he cannot come a ish periods of Herodotus, and whose them.

† For instance, Hollar's work, Cities of Gor * Pilgrim's Progress, First Part, p. 26.

at

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small and familiar, illusion gains upon | Turtle in the land. In Luis Country the Sun us. Giant Despair, a simple abstrac- shineth night and day. Here they were tion, becomes as real in his hands as also here met them some of the inhabitants

within sight of the City they were going to, an English gaoler or farmer. He is thereof; for in this land the Shining Ones come heard talking by night in bed with his monly walked, because it was upon the border wife Diffidence, who gives him good

of Heaven. . . . Here they heard voices from advice, because here, as in other house the daughter of Zion, Behold thy salvation com

out of the City, loud voices, saying, “Say ye to holds, the strong and brutal animal is eth, behold his reward is with him! Here all the least cunning of the two :

the inhabitants of the Country called them

The holy People, The redeemed of the Lord, “ Then she counselled him that when he Sought out, etc.' arose in the morning he should (take the two “Now as they walked in this land, they had prisoners and) beat them without mercy. So more rejoicing than in parts more remote from when he arose, he getteth him a grievous Crab the Kingdom tc which they were bound; and tree Cudgel, and goes down into the Dungeon drawing near to the City, they had yet a more to them, and there first falls to rating of them perfect view thereof. It was builded of Pearls as if they were dogs, although they gave him and Precious Stones, also the Street thereof never a word of distaste. Then he falls upon was paved with gold ; so that by reason of the them, and beats them fearfully, in such sort, natural glory of the City, and the reflection of that they were not able to help themselves, or the Sun-beams upon it, Christian with desire to turn them upon the floor." *

fell sick ; Hopeful also had a fit or two of the

same disease." Wherefore here they lay by it a This stick, chosen with a forester's while, crying out because of their pangs, ' If experience, this instinct of rating Srst you see my Beloved, tell him that I am sick of and storming to get oneself into trim love." for knocking down, are traits which agility and speed, though the foundation upon

They therefore went up here with much attest the sincerity of the narrator, and which the City was framed was higher than the succeed in persuading the reader. Bun- Clouds. They therefore went up through the yan has the copiousness, the tone, the Regions of the Air, sweetly talking as they ease, and the clearness of Homer; he went, being.comforted, because they safely got

over the River, and had such glorious Comis as close to Homer as an Anabaptist panions to attend them. tinker could be to an heroic singer, a “ The talk that they had with the Shining creator of gods.

Ones was about the glory of the place, who

told them that the beauty and glory of it was I err; he is nearer. Before the sen- inexpressible. There, said they, is the Mount timent of the sublime, inequalities are Sion, the heavenly Jerusalem, the innumeralevelled. The depth of emotion raises ble company of Angels, and the Spirits of just peasant and poet to the same eminence; they, to the Paradise of God, wher-in you

men made perfect. You are going, now, said and here also, allegory stands the peas- shall see the Tree of Life, and ear of the neverant in stead. It alone, in the absence fading fruits thereof; and when you come there, of ecstasy, can paint heaven; for it you shall have white Robes given you, and does not pretend to paint it : express- King, even all the days of Eternity. +

your walk and talk shall be every day with the ing it by a figure, it declares it invisible, “There came out also at this time to meet as a glowing sun at which we cannot them, several of the King's Trumpeters, look straight, and whose image we ob cloathed in white and shining Raiment, who serve ir a mirror or a stream. The Heavens to echo with their sound.

with melodious noises and loud, made even the

These ineffable world thus retains all its mys- Trumpeters saluted Christian and his fellow tery ; warned by the allegory, we im- with ten thousand welcomes from the World, agine splendors beyond all which it and this they did with shouting and sound of

Trumpet. presents to us; we feel behind the

“ This done, they compassed them round or beauties which are opened to us, the every side ; some went before, some behind, infinite which is concealed ; and the and some on the right hand, some on the left ideal city, vanishing as soon as it apRegions), continually sounding as they went

(as 't were to guard them through the upper pears, ceases to resemble the material with melodious noise, in notes on high ; so that Whitehall imagined for Jehovah by the very sight was to them that could behold it Milton. Read the arrival of the pilgrims

as if Heaven itself was come down to meet

them. in the celestial land. Saint Theresa

“ And now were these two men as 't were in has nothing more beautiful :

Heaven before they came at it, being swallow " Yea, here they heard continually the sing- up with the sight of Angels, and with hearing of

Here also they had the ing of Birds, and saw every day the Flowers their melodious notes. appear in the earth, and heard the voice of the City itself in view, and they thought they heard Pilgrim's Progress, First Part, p. 126.

:

Ibid. p. 179.

Ibid. p. 174

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all the Bells therein ring to welcome them rally around a free and mora Proton thereto. But above all the warm and joyful tantism. noughts that they had about their own dwelling there with such company, and that fur ever and ever Oh by what tongue or pen can their glorious, jey

be expressed !

saw in my Dream that these two men went in at the Gate; and lo, as they en

CHAPTER VI. !ered, they were transfigured, and they had Raiment put on that shone like Gold. There

Milton. was also that met them with Harps and Crowns, ind gave them to them, the Harps to praise withal, and the Crowns in token of honour. On the borders of the licentious Ro Then I heard in my Dream that all the Bells naissance which was drawing to a c.ose n the City rang again for joy, and that it was and of the exact school of poetry which said unto them, 'Enter ye into the joy of your Lord. I a so heard the men themselves, that was springing up, between the monot they sang with a loud voice, saying,.Blessing, onous conceits of Cowley and the cor Honour, Glory, and Power be to him that sit- rect gallantries of Waller, appeared, a teth upon the Throne, and to the Lamb for ever and ever.'

mighty and superb mind, prepare 1 loy “Now, just as the Gates were opened to let logic and enthusiasm for eloquence in the men, I looked in after them, and behold, and the epic style ; liberal, Protestant, the City shone like the Sun; the Streets alsó

a moralist and a poet, adorning the were paved with Gold, and in them walked many men, with Crowns on their heads, Palms cause of Algernon Sidney and Locke in their hands, and golden Harps to sing praises with the inspiration of Spenser and withal.

Shakspeare; the heir of a poetical age, " There were also of them that had wings, the precursor of an austere age, hold: and they answered one another without intermission, saying, Holy, holy, holy, is the ing his place between the epoch of Lord.' And after that they shut up the Gates. unselfish dreaming and the epoch of Which, when I had seen, I wished myself among practical action; like his cwn Adam, them." +

who, taking his way to an unfriendly He was imprisoned for twelve years land, heard behind him, in the closed and a half; in his dungeon he made Eden, the dying strains of heaven. wire-snares to support himself and his

John Milton was not one of those family ; he died at the age of sixty in fevered souls void of self-command, 1688. At the same time Milton lin- whose rapture takes them by fits, whom gered obscure and blind. The last a sickly sensibility drives forever to two poets of the Reformation thus the extreme of sorrow or joy, whose survived, amid the classical coldness pliability prepares them to produce a which then dried up English literature, variety of characters, whose inquietude and the social excess which then cor condemns them to paint the madness rupted English morals. “Shorn hypo: and contradictions of passion. Vast crites, psalm-singers, gloomy bigots,” knowledge, close logic, and grand pas. such were the names by which men sion; these were his marks. His mind who reformed the manners and renew

was lucid, his imagination limited. He ed the constitution of England were was incapable of " bating one jot of insulted. But oppressed and insulted heart or hope,” or of being transformed as they were, their work continued of He conceived the loftiest of ideal beauitself and without noise underground; ties, but he conceived only one.

He for the ideal which they had raised was not born for the drama, but for was, after all, that which the clime sug- the ode. He does not create souls, but gested and the race demanded. Gradu- constructs arguments, and experiences ally Puritanism began to approach the emotions. Emotions and arguments wor.d, and the world to approach all the forces and actions of his soul, Puritanism. The Restoration was to assemble and are arranged beneath a fall into evil odor, the Revolution was unique sentiment, that of the sublime ; to come, and beneath the gradual pro- and the broad river of lyric poetry gress of national sympathy, as well as streams from him, impetuous, with under the incessant effort of public re- even flow, splendid as a cloth of gold. lection, parties and doctrines were to

L Pilgrim's Progress, First Part, p. 188. Ibid. p. 183, etc.

This dominant sense constituted ide

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* he

greatness and the firmness of his char- taste for letters, being unwilling to acter. Against external fluctuations he give up “his libera and intelligent found a refuge in himself; and the ideal tastes to the extent of becoming al. city which he had built in his soul, en together a slave to the world ; dured impregnable to all assaults. It wrote verses, was an excellent musi. is too beautiful, this inner city, for him cian, one of the best composers of his lo wish to leave it; it was too solid to time; he chose Cornelius Jansen to be destroyed. He believed in the sub- paint his son's portrait when in his tenth lime with the whole force of his nature, year, and gave his child the widest and and he whole authority of his logic; fullest literary education. * Let the and with him, cultivated reason reader try to picture this child, in the strengthened by its tests the sugges- street (Bread Street) inhabited by mercions of primitive instinct. With this chants, in this citizen-like and scholar.. louble armor, man can advance firmly ly, religious and poetical family, whose :hrough life. He who is always feed- manners were regular and their aspiraing himself with demonstrations is ca. tions lofty, where they set the psalms pable of believing, willing, persever. to music, and wrote madrigals in honor ing in belief and will; he does not of Oriana the queen, † where vocal change with every event and every music, letters, painting, all the adorn: passion, as that "fickle and pliable ments of the beautiful Renaissance, being whom we call a poet; he re- decked the sustained gravity, the hardmains at rest in fixed principles. working honesty, the deep Christianity He is capable of embracing a cause, of the Reformation. All Milton's gé. and of continuing attached to it, what- nius springs from this; he carried the ever may happen, spite of all, to the splendor of the Renaissance into the end. No seduction, no emotion, no earnestness of the Reformation, the accident, no change alters the stability magnificence of Spenser into the seof his conviction or the lucidity of his verity of Calvin, and, with his family, knowledge. On the first day, on the found himself at the confluence of the last day, during the whole time, he pre- two civilizations which he combined. serves intact the entire system of his Before he was ten years old he had a clear ideas, and the logical vigor of his learned tutor, “ a puritan, who cut his brain sustains the manly vigor of his hair short; " after that he went to Saint heart. When at length, as here, this Paul's school, then to the University of close logic is employed in the service Cambridge, that he might be instructed of noble ideas, enthusiasm is added to in “polite literature ;

is and at the age constancy. The man holds his opin- of twelve he worked, in spite of his ions not only as true, but as sacred. weak eyes and headaches, until mid. He fights for them, not only as a sol- night and even later. His John the dier, but as a priest. He is impassion Baptist, a character resembling him ed, devoted, religious, heroic. Rarely self, says: is such a mixture seen; but it was “When I was yet a child, no childish play fully seen in Milton.

To me was pleasing; all my mind was set He was of a family in which courage,

Serious to learn and know, and thence to do moral nobility, the love of art, were

Wha, might be public good ; myself

thought present to whisper the most beautiful Born to that end, born to promote all trut. and eloquent words around his cradle. All righteous things." I His mother was a most exemplary At school, afterwards at Cambridge, woman, well known through all the then with his father, he was strengthen neighborhood for her benevolence. * ing and preparing himself with all his His father, a student of Christ Church, power, free from all blame, and loved by and disinherited as a Protestant, had all good men; traversing the vast fields made his fortune by his own ener

*“My father destined me while yet a little gies, and, amidst his occupations as a child for the study of humane letters." Lift scrivener or writer, had preserved the by Masson, 1859, i. 51.

a

# Queen Elizabeth. * Matre probatissima et eleemosynis per

vici- The Poetical Works of John Maton, ed giam potissimum nota.-Defensio Secunda Mitford, Paradise Regained, Book i. l. 30 Life of Milton, by Keight:y.

206.

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