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The summons of departure short and certain. Complain not though I wring it bard: I'l

kiss it ;
Of human greatness are but pleasing dreams, Oh, 'tis a' fine soft palm |-hark, in thing

1 And shadows soon decaying; on the stage

ear ; Of my mortality, my youth hath acted

Like whom do I look, prithee?-nay, no whis
Some scenes of vanity, drawn out at length pering:
By varied pleasures, sweeten'd in the mix- Goodness! we had been happy ; too much

happiness But tragical in issue. That remedy

Will make folk proud, they say: :.:.
Must be a winding-sheet, a fold of lead, There is no peace left for a ravish'd wife,
And some untrod-on corner in the earth." . Widow'd by lawless marriage; to all memor

Penthea's, poor Penthea's name is strumpet

ed. There is no revolt, no bitterness; she affectionately assists her brother who

Forgive me ; Oh! I faint.” . has caused her unhappiness; she tries She dies, imploring that some gentle to enable him to win the woman he voice may sing her a plaintive air, a loves ; feminine kindness and sweet farewell ditty, a sweet funeral song. 1 ness over Aow in her in the depths of know nothing in the drama more pure her despair. Love here is not despotic, and touching. passionate, as in southern climes. It

When we find a constitution of soul is only deep and sad; the source of so new, and capable of such great eflife is dried up, that is all; she lives fects, it behoves us to look at the no longer, because she cannot ; all go bodies. Man's extreme actions..come by degrees-health, reason, soul; in not from his will, but his nature. In the end she becomes mad, and behold order to understand the great tensions her dishevelled, with wide staring eyes, of the whole machine, we must look with words that can hardly find utter


the whole machine,-I mean For ten days she has not slept, man's temperament, the manner in and will not eat any more; and the which his blood flows, his nerves same fatal thought continually afflicts quiver, his muscles act: the moral inher heart, amidst vague dreams of terprets the physical, and human qualmaternal tenderness and happiness ities have their root in the animal spebrought to nought, which come and go cies. X Consider then the species in in her mind like phantoms :

this case-namely, the race; for the " Sure, if we were all sirens, we should sing Virgilia, Goethe's Clara and Margaret,

sisters of Shakspeare's Ophelia and
And 'twere a comely music, when in parts Otway's Belvidera, Richardson's Pa-
One sung another's knell ; the turtle sighs mela, constitute a race by themselves,
When he hath lost his mate ; and yet some soft and fair, with blue eyes, lily white

He must be dead first : 'tis a fine deceit ness, blushing, of timid delicacy, seri.
To pass away in a dream! indeed, I've slept ous sweetness, framed to yield, bend,
With mine eyes open, a great while. No

cling. Their poets feel it clearly when
Equals a broken faith ; there's not a hair

they bring them on the stage; they Stícks un my head, but like a leaden plum- surround them with the poetry which met,

becomes them, the murmur of streams, It sinks me to the grave : I must creep the pendent willow-tresses, the frai) thither ;

and humid flowers of the country, so The journey is not long. Since I was first a wife, I might have been like themselves : Mother to many pretty prattling babes ; They would have smiled when I smiled; and, " The flower, that's like thy face, pale prin for certain,

rose, nor I should have cried when they cried :-truly, The azure harebell, like thy veins; no, nor brother,

The leaf of eglantine, whom not in slander, My father would have pick'd me out a hus- Out-sweeten'd not thy breath." 1

band, And then my little ones had been ao bas. tards ;

# Ibid. iv. 2. But 'tis too late for me to marry now,

* Schopenhauer, Metaphysics of Love ana

Death. Swift also said that death and love are I am past child-bearing ; 'tis not my fault. . Spare your hand;

the two things in which man is fundamentally

irrational. Believe I'll not hurt it.

In fact, it is the species and the in stinct which are displayed in thein. not the wil

and the individual. * Ford's Broken Heart, iii. 5.

Cymbeline, iv. 2.



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They make them sweet, like the south which Rubens sets his nyn phs dancwind, which with its gentle breath ing: causes the violets to bend their heads, “Thro'yon same bending plain abashed at the slightest reproach, al- That flings his arms down to the main, ready half bowed down by a tender And thro' these thick woods, have I run,

Whose bottom never kiss'd the sin and dreamy_melancholy.* Philaster,

Since the lusty spring began.” speaking of Euphrasia, whom he takes to be a page, and who has disguised “For to that holy wood is consecrate irrself in order to be near him, says: A virtuous well, about whose flow'ry banks

The nimble-footed fairies dance their rounda Hunting the buck,

By the pale moon-shine, dipping oftentimes I found him sitting by a fountain-side,

Their stolen children, so to make them frer Of which he borrow'd some to quench his From dying flesh, and dull mortality."

And paid the nymph again as much in tears. “ See the dew-drops, how they kiss
A garland lay him by, made by himself, Ev'ry little flower that is ;
Of many several flowers, bred in the bay, Hanging on their velvet heads,
Stuck in that mystic order, that the rareness Like a rope of christal beads.
Delighted me : But ever when he turn'd See the heavy clouds low falling
His tender eyes upon 'em, he would weep, And bright Hesperus down calling
As if he meant to make 'em grow again. The dead Night from underground.” 1
Seeing such pretty helpless innocence
Dwell in his face, I asked him all his story.

These are the plants and the aspects He told me, that his parents gentle dy'd,

of the ever fresh English country, now Leaving him to the mercy of the fields, enveloped in a pale diaphanous mist, Which gave him roots ; and of the crystal now glistening under the absorbing

springs, Which did not stop their courses ; and the sun, teeming with grasses so full of sun,

sap, so delicate, that in the midst of Which still, he thank'd him, yielded him his their most brilliant splendor and their

light. Then he took up his garland, and did shew

most luxuriant life, we feel that toWhat every flower, as country people hold,

morrow will wither them. There, on Did signify; and how all, order'd thus, a summer night, the young men and Express'd' his grief: And, to my thoughts, girls, after their custom, t go to gather

did read The prettiest lecture of his country art

Aowers and plight their troth. Amoret That could be wishod. ... I gladly enter and Perigot are together ; Amoret, tain'd him,

“ Fairer far Who was as glad to follow; and have got The trustiest, loving'st, and the gentlest boy Than the chaste blushing morn, or that fair That ever master kept." +

That guides the wand'ring seaman thro' tha The idyl is self-produced among these

deep,” human flowers: the dramatic action is modest like a virgin, and tender as a stopped before the angelic sweetness wife, says to Perigot: of their tenderness and modesty.

“ I do believe thee : 'Tis as hard for me Sometimes even the idyl is born com

To think thee false, and harder, than for plete and pure, and the whole theatre thee is occupied by a sentimental and poet- To hold me foul.” § ical kind of opera. There are two or Strongly as she is tried, her heart, three such plays in Shakspeare; in once given, never draws back. Peri rude Jonson, The Sad Shepherd; in got, deceived, driven to despair, perFletcher The Faithful Shepherdess. suaded that she is unchaste, strikes Ridiculous titles nowadays, for they her with his sword, and casts her emind us of the interminable plati- bleeding to the ground. The “sullen tudes of d'Urfé, or the affected con- shepherd ” throws her into a well ; ceits of Florian; charming titles, if we but the god lets fall“ a drop from h.s note the sincere and øverflowing poetry watery locks” into the wound;, the which they contain. X Amoret, the faith- chaste Aesh closes at the touch of the ful shepherdess, lives in an imaginary

* Beaumont and Fletcher, The Faithia country, full of old gods, yet English, Shepherdess, i.

Ibid. ii. like the dewy verdant landscapes in See the description in Vathan Drake,

Shakspeare and his Times. • The death of Ophelia, the obsequies of § Beaumont and Fletcher, I'he ri usu Imogen

Philaster, i. Shepherdess, i.



divine water, and the maiden, recover. | as we as a perfect opposition of the ing, goes once more in search of him feminine instinct ending in excessive she loves :

self-abandonment, and of masculine “ Speak, if thou be here, harshness ending in murdercus inflexi My Perigot! Thy Amoret, thy dear, bility. Thus built up and thus proCalls on thy loved name. • 'Tis thy vided, the drama of the age was en

friend, Thy Amoret; come hither, to give end

abled to bring out the inner depths of To these consumings. Look up, gentle boy, man, and to set in motion the mos I have forgot those pains and dear annoy powerful human emotions; to bring I suffer'd for thy sake, and am content To be thy love again. Why hast thou rent

upon the stage Hamlet and Lear, Those curled locks, where I have often hung Ophelia and Cordelia, the death of Ribbons, and damask-roses, and have fung Desdemona and the butcheries of Mar Waters distill'd to make thee fresh and gay, beth Sweeter than nosegays on a bridal day? Why dost thou cross thine arms, and hang

thy face Down to thy bosom, letting fall apace,

CHAPTER III. From those two little Heav'ns, upon the

ground, Show'rs of more price, more orient, and more

Ben Jonson. round, Than those that hang upon the moon's pale

I brow? Cease these complainings, shepherd! I am

WHEN a new civilization brings a new

art to light, there are about a dozen The same I ever was, as kind and free, men of talent who partly express the And can forgive before you ask of me: Indeed, I can and will." *

general idea, surrounding one or two

men of genius who express it thoroughWho could resist her sweet and sad ly, Guillen de Castro, Perez de Monsmile? Still deceived, Perigot wounds talvan, Tingo de Molina, Ruiz de her again ; she falls, but without an. Alarcon, Agustin Moreto, surrounding ger.

Calderon and Lope de Vega; Crayer, So this work hath end!

Van Oost, Rombouts, Van Thulden, Farewell, and live! be constant to thy friend That loves thee next.”

Van Dyck, Honthorst, surrounding

Rubens; Ford, Marlowe, Massinger. A nymph cures her, and at last Peri- Webster, Beaumont, Fletcher, surgot, disabused, comes and throws him- rounding Shakspeare and Ben Jonson. self on his knees before her. She The first constitute the chorus, the stretches out her arms; in spite of all others are the leading men. They that he had done, she was not changed : sing the same piece together, and at

“I am thy love, times the chorist is equal to the solc Thy Amoret, for evermore thy love! Strike once more on my naked breast, I'll dramas which I have just referred to,

artist; but only at times. Thus, in the prove As constant still. Oh, could'st thou love me the poet occasionally reaches the sum. yet,

mit of his art, hits upon a complete How soon could I my former griefs for character, a burst of sublime passion; get!" 1

then he falls back, gropes amid qualified Such are the touching and poetical successes, rough sketches, feeble im. igures which these poets introduce in itations, and at last takes refuge in the heir dramas, or in connection with tricks of his trade. It is not in him, heir dramas, amidst murders, assassi; but in great men like Ben Jonson and nations, the clash of swords, the howl Shakspeare, that we must look for the of slaughter, striving against the raging attainment of his idea and the fulness ren who adore or torment them, like of his art. “ Numerous were the wit. them carried to excess, transported by combats,” says Fuller, “betwixt him their tenderness as the others by their (Shakspeare) and Ben Jonson, which violence; it is a complete exposition, two I behold like a Spanish grea! • The Faithful Shepherdess, iv.

galleon and an English man-of-war Ibid. Ibid. v. Compare, as an illustration of the built far higher in learning ; solid, but

Master Jonson (like the former) was contrast of races, the Italian pastorals, Tasso's A minta, Guarini's II Pastor fido, etc.

slow in his performances Shak

speare, with the English man-of-war, / What we know of his life is in tar resser in bulk, but lighter in sailing, mony with his person: he suffered could turn with all tides, tack about and much, fought much, dared much. He take advantage of all wirids by the quick- was studying at Cambridge, when his ness of his wit and invention.” * Sucb stepfather, a bricklayer, recalled him, was Ben Jonson physically and morally and taught him to use the trowel. He and his portraits do but confirm this ran away, enlisted as a common soldier just and animated outline : a vigorous, and served in the English army, at tha heavy, and uncouth person; a broad time engaged against the Spaniards in and iong face, early disfigured by the Low Countries, killed and despoiled scurvy, a square jaw, large cheeks; his a man in single combat, “ in the view animal organs as much developed as of both armies." He was a man of those of his intellect : the sour aspect bodily action, and he exercised his of a man in a passion or on the verge limbs in early life.* On his return to of a passion; to which add the body England, at the age of nineteer., he of an athlete, about forty years of age, went on the stage for his livelihood, and "mountain belly, ungracious gait.” occupied himself also in touching up Such was the outside, and the inside dramas. Having been challenged, he is like it. He was a genuine English- fought a duel, was seriously wounded man, big and coarsely framed, ener- but killed his adversary; for this he getic, combative, proud, often morose, was cast into prison, and found himand prone to strange splenetic imag- self “nigh the gallows.” A Catholic inations. He told Drummond that for priest visited and converted him ; a whole night he imagined" that he quitting his prison penniless, at twenty saw the Carthaginians and Romans years of age, he married. At last, four fighting on his great toe.” | Not that years later, his first successful play was he is inelancholic by nature; on the acted. Children came, he must earn contrary, he loves to escape from him- bread for them; and he was not inself by free and noisy, unbridled merri. clined to follow the beaten track to the ment, by copious and varied converse, end, being persuaded that a fine philosassisted by good Canary wine, which ophy-a special nobleness and dignity he imbibes, and which ends by becom--ought to be introduced into comedy, ing a necessity to him. These great that it was nécessary to follow the exphlegmatic butchers' frames require a ample of the ancients, to imitate their generous liquor to give them a tone, severity and their accuracy, to be above and to supply the place of the sun the theatrical racket and the common which they lack. Expansive more improbabilities in which the vulgar de. over, hospitable, even lavish, with a lighted. He openly proclaimed his frank imprudent spirit, | making him intention in his prefaces, sharply railed forget himself wholly before Ďrum- at his rivals, proudly set forth on the mond, his Scotch host, an over rigid stage † his doctrines, his morality, his and malicious pedant, who has marred character. He thus made bitter en. his ideas and vilified his character.8 emies, who defamed him outrageously

and before their audiences, whom he * Fuller's Worthies, ed. Nuttall, 1840, 3 exasperated by the violence of his sols. iii. 284.

There is a similar hallucination to be met satires, and against whom he struggled sith in the life of Lord Castlereagh, who after- without intermission to the end. He nards committed suicide.

His character lies between those of Field- did more, he constituted himself a judge ng and Dr. Johnson.

of the public corruption, sharply at. Mr. David Laing remarks, however, in tacked the reigning vices, " fearing na Drum nond's defence, that as Jonson died August 6, 1637, Drummond survived soin de strumpet's drugs, nor affian's stab.” | cember 4, 1649, and no portion of these Notes his reputation, as Mr. Camp bell has re narkod, (Conversations) were made public till 1701, or no one can seriously believe it."-Archäolog sixty-two years after Drummond's death, and ica Scotica, vol. iv. page 243.-TR. seventy-four after Jonson's, which renders * At the age of forty-four he went to Scot quite nugatory all Gifford's accusations of land on foot. Drummond's having published them without † Parts of Crites and A sper. shame.' As to Drummond decoying Jonson I Every Man ort of his Hureur, i. ; Gill under his roof with any premeditated design on ford's Jonson, p. 30.

He treated his hearers like schoolboys, Fixed to the bed and boards, unlike to win and spoke to them always like a censor

Health, or scarce breath, as she had never

been.' and a master If necessary, he ventured further. His companions, Marston and His wife and children were dead; he Chapman, had been committed to pris. Dived alore, forsaken, waited on by an ou for some reflections on the Scotch in Vold womaa. Thus almost always sadly one of their pieces called “Eastward- and miserably, is dragged out and ends H«e;” and the report spreading that the last act of the human comedy they were in danger of losing their noses After so many years, after so many and ears, Jonson, who had written part sustained efforts, amid so much glory of he piece, voluntarily surrendered and genius, we find a poor shattered himself a prisoner, and obtained their body, drivelling and suffering, between pardon. On his return, amid the feast- ha servant and a priest. ng and rejoicing, his mother showed him a violent poison which she intend.

II. ed to put into his drink, to save him This is the life of a combatant froin the execution of the sentence ; and bravely endured, worthy of the seven "to show that she was not a coward,” teenth century by its crosses and its adds Jonson, “ she had resolved to energy; courage and force abounded drink frst.” We see that in vigorous throughout. Few writers have labored actions he found examples in his own more, and more conscientious v; his family. Toward the end of his life, knowledge was vast, and in this age of money was scarce with him; he was eminent scholars he was one of the liberal, improvident; his pockets always best classics of his time, as deep as he had holes in them, and his hand was al: was accurate and thorough, having ways ready to give; though he had studied the most minute details and written a vast quantity, he was still understood the true spirit of ancient obliged to write in order to live. Paral- life. It was not enough for him to ysis came on, his scurvy became worse, have stored his mind from the best dropsy set in. He could not leave his writers, to have their whole works conroom, nor walk without assistance. His tinually in his mind, to scatter his pages last plays did not succeed. In the whether he would or no, with recollecepilogue to the New Inn he says : tions of them. He dug into the orIf you expect more than you had to.night, ators, critics, scholiasts, grammarians, The maker is sick and sad. ...

and compilers of inferior rank; he All that his faint and falt'ring tongue doth picked up stray fragments; he took

crave, Is, that you not impute it to his brain,

characters, jokes, refinements, from That's yet unhurt, altho' set round with Athenæus, Libanias, Philostratus. He pain,

had so well entered into and digested It cannot long hold out."

the Greek and Latin ideas, that they His enemies brutally insulted him : were incorporated with his own. They “ Thy Pegasus

enter into his speech without incon. He had bequeathed his belly unto thee, gruity; they spring forth in him as To hold that little learning which is filed vigorous as at their first birth; he orig

Into thy guts from out thy emptye head." inates even when he remembers. On Inigo Jones, his colleague, deprived every subject he had this thirst for him of the patronage of the court. He knowledge, and this gift of mastering was obliged to beg a supply of money knowledge. He knew alchemy when from the Lord Treasurer, then from the he wrote the Alchemist. He is familiar Earl of Newcastle :

with alembics, retorts, receivers, as if “ Disease, the enemy, and his engineers,

he had passed his life seeking after the Want, with the rest of his concealed com- philosopher's stone. He explains in

cineration, calcination, imbibition, recHave cast a trench about me, now five tification, reverberation, as well as The muse not peeps out, one of hundred Agrippa and Paracelsus. If he speak days;

* Ben Jonson's Poems, ed. Bell, An Epistl. But lies blocked up and straitened, narrowed Mendicant, to Richard, Lord Weston, Lorn inn

High Treasurer (1631), p. 244.


years. ...

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