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Criticism and History.-Macaulay.


The vocation and position of Macaulay in England. ..


His Essays, Agreeable character and utility of the style-Opinions-Philosophy.

Wherein it is English and practical-His Essay on Bacon-The true object,

according to him, of the sciences--Comparison of Bacon with the ancients.: 627


His criticism-Moral prejudices-Comparison of criticism in France and England-

Why he is religious-Connection of religion and Liberalism in England-

Macaulay's Liberalism-Essay on Church and State.


IV. His passion for political liberty-How he is the orator and historian of the Whig
party-Essays on the Revolution and the Stuarts.....

V. His talent--Taste for demonstration-Taste for development-Oratorical character

of his mind-Wherein he differs from classic orators-His estimation for par-
ticular facts, experiment on the senses, personal reminiscences-Importance of
decisive phenomena in every branch of knowledge-Essays on Warren Has-
tings and Clive....



English marks of his talent-Rudeness--Humor-Poetry.


VII. His work-Harmony of his talent, opinion, and work-Universality, unity, interest

of his history-Picture of the Highlands-James II. in Ireland-The Act of

TolerationThe Massacre of Glencoe-Traces of amplification and rhetoric. 610
VIII. Comparison of Macaulay with French historians-Wherein he is classical-Wherein

he is English-Intermediate position of his mind between the Latin and the
Germanic mind...


hilosophy and History.—Carlyle.



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His strangenesses, obscurities, violence-Fancy and enthusiasm-Crudeness and



Humor-Wherein it consists-It is Germanic-Grotesque and tragic pictures-

Dandies and Poor Slaves—The Pigs' Catechism-Extreme tension of his mind
and nerves...


Barriers which hold and direct him—Perception of the real and of the sublime.... 654

His passion for exact and demonstrated fact-His search after extinguished feel-

ings-Vehemence of his emotion and sympathy-Intensity of belief and vision

-Past and Present-Cromwell's Letters and SpeechesHistorical mysticism

-Grandeur and sadness of his visions-How he represents the world after his

own mind...


Every object is a group, and every employment of human thought is the reproduc.

tion of a group-Two principal modes of reproducing it, and two principal
modes of mind-Classification-Intuition-Inconvenience of the second process
-It is obscure, hazardous, destitute of proofs-It tends to affectation and ex.
aggeration-Hardness and presumption which it provokes-Advantages of this
kind of mind-Alone capable of reproducing the object-Most favorable to
original invention-The use made of it by Carlyle



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Whercin consists the modern and German form of mind-How the aptitude for

opiversal ideas has renewed the science of language, mythology, æsthetics,
nistory, exegesis, theology, and metaphysics-How the metaphysical bent has
transformed poetry;

Capital idea derived thence-Conception of essential and complimentary parts
New conception of nature and man...

Inconvenience of this aptitude-Gratuitous hypothesis and vague abstraction-
Transient discredit of German speculations.

How each nation may reforge them --Ancient examples: Spain in the sixteenth

and seventeenth centuries—The Puritans and Jansenists in the seventeenth
century-France in the eighteenth century-By what roads these ideas may
enter France-Positivism--Criticism

By what roads these ideas may enter England-Exact and positive mind-Ion
passioned and poetic inspiration-Road followed by Carlyle.


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Philosophy.—Stuart Mill,

Philosophy in England-Organization of positive science-Lack of general ideas 675

Why metaphysics are wanting-Authority of religion....


Indications and splendor of free thought-New exegesis-Staart Mill-His works

--His order of mind—To what school of philosophers he belongs-Value of
higher speculation in human civilization....


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Theory of definitioner. Its importancoRefutation of the old theory-There ire
no definitions of things, but of names only...

Theory of proof-Ordinary theory-Its refutation-What is the really funda-
mental part of a syllogism ?..

Theory of axioms-Ordinary theory- Its refutation-Axioms are only truths of
experience of a certain class.

Theory of induction-The cause of a fact is only its invariable antecedent-

Experience alone proves the stability of the laws of nature-What is a law?-
By what methods are laws discovered ?-The methods of agreement, of dif-

ferences, of residues, of concomitant variations...
Examples and applications--Theory of dew.

Deduction-Its province and method...

Comparison of the methods of induction and deduction-Ancient employment of

the first-Modern use of the second-Sciences requiring the first-Sciences

requiring the second-Positive character of Mill's work-His predecessors. 699

Limits of our knowledge-It is not certain that all events happen according to laws

-Chance in nature.


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Talent and work-First attempts-Wherein he was opposed to preceding poets-
Wherein he carried on their spirit.....

First period-Female characters-Delicacy and refinement of sentiment and style

-Variety of his emotions and of his subjects-Literary curiosity and poetic
dilettantism-The Dying Swan-The Lotos-Eaters...

Second period-Popularity, good fortune, and life-Permanent sensibility and

virgin freshness of the poetic temperament,Wherein he is at one with nature
-Locksley Hall-Change of subject and style-Violent outbreak and personal

Return of Tennyson to his first style-In Memoriam-Elegance, coldness, and

lengthiness of this poem- The subject and the talent must harmonize-What
subjects agree with the dilettante artist- The Princess-Comparison with As
You Like It-Fanciful and picturesque world-How Tennyson repeats the

dreams and the style of the Renaissance...
How Tennyson repeats the ingenuousness and simplicity of the old cpic-The

Idylls of the King. Why he has restored the epic of the Round Table-Purity
and elevation of his models and his poetry-Elaine-Morte d'Arthur-Want
of individual and absorbing passion-Flexibility and disinterestedness of his
mind-Talent for metamorphosis, embellishment, and refinement..


His public-Society in England-Country comfort - Elegance-Education-Habits

--Wherein Tennyson suits such a society-Society in France-Parisian life-

Its pleasures Display-Conversation-Boldness of mind-Wherein Alfred de

Musset suits such a society-Comparison of the two societies and of the two



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the bustorian might place himself for a given period, say a series of ages, or in the nurse

poul, or with some particular people ; he might study, describe, relate, all the evente all the transformations, all the revolutions which had been accomplished in the interna. man ; and when he had finished his work, he would have a history of civilization amongst the people and in the period he had selected.-Guizot, Civilization in Europe, p. 25.


HISTORY has been transformed, within into existence all alone. It is but a a hundred years in Germany, within mould, like a fossil shell, an imprint, sixty years in France, and that by the like one of those shapes embossed in study of their literatures.

stone by an animal which lived and It was perceived that a literary work perished. Under the shell there was is not a mere individual play of imagin- an animal, and behind the document ation, the isolated caprice of an excited there was a man. Why do you study brain, but a transcript of contemporary the shell, except to bring before you manners, a manifestation of a certain the animal ? So you study the docukind of mind. It was concluded that ment only to know the man. The shell we might recover, from the monuments and the document are lifeless wrecks, of literature, a knowledge of the man- valuable only as a clue to the entire ner in which men thought and felt cen- and living existence. We must get turies ago. The attempt was made, hold of this existence, endeavor to reand it succeeded.

create it. It is a mistake to study the Pondering on these modes of feeling document, as if it were isolated. This and thought, men decided that they were were to treat things like a simple facts of the highest kind. They saw scholar, to fall into the error of the chat these facts bore reference to the bibliomaniac. Neither mythology nor most important occurrences, that they languages exist in themselves; but only explained and were explained by them, men, who arrange words and imagery that it was necessary thenceforth to according to the necessities of their give them a rank, and a most impor- organs and the original bent of their tant rank, in history. This rank they intellects. A dogma is nothing in it. have received, and from that moment self; look at the people who have history has undergone a complete made it,-a portrait, for instance, of the change : in its subject-matter, its sys- sixteenth century, say the stern power

. lem, its machinery, the appreciation of ful face of an English archbishop or laws and of causes. It is this change, martyr. Nothing exists except through such as it is and must be, that we shall some individual man; it is this indi. bere endeavor to exhibit.

vidual with whom we must become ac

quainted. When we have established I.

the parentage of dogmas, or the classi

fication of poems, or the progress of What is your first remark on turning constitutions, or the transformation of over the great, stiff leaves of a folio, idioms, we have only cleared the soil : the yellow sheets of a manuscript,ma genuine history is brought into existpoem, a code of laws, a confession of ence only when the historian begins to taith? This, you say, did not come unravel, across the lapse of time, the


living nan, toiling, impassioned, en-| their genealogies on their finger i trenched in his customs, with his voice order to obtain the right of sittir. and features, his gestures and his dress, down in the presence of ti e King c distinct and complete as he from whom Queen. On that head consult St. Sa we have just parted in the street. Let mon and the engravings of Pérelle, as us endeavor, then, to annihilate as far for the present age you have consulted as possible this great interval of time, Balzac and the water-colors of Eugène which prevents us from seeing man Lami. Similarly, when we read a with our eyes, with the eyes of our Greek tragedy, our first care should be bead. What have we under the fair to realize to ourselves the Greeks, that glazed pages of a modern poem? A is, the men who live half naked, in the modern poet, who has studied and gymnasia, or in the public squares, travelled, a man like Alfred de Musset, under a glowing sky, face to face withi Victor Hugo, Lamartine, or Heine, in the most beautiful and the most noble a black coat and gloves, welcomed by landscapes, bent on making their the ladies, and making every evening bodies lithe and strong, on conversing, his fifty bows and his score of bon- discussing, voting, carrying on patri: mots in society, reading the papers in otic piracies, nevertheless lazy and tem the morning, lodging as a rule on a perate, with three urns for their furnisecond floor; not over gay, because he ture, two anchovies in a jar of oil for has nerves, and especially because, in their food, waited on by slaves, so as this dense democracy where we choke to give them leisure to cultivate their one another, the discredit of the dig- understanding and exercise their limbs, nities of office has exaggerated his pre- with no desire beyond that of having tensions while increasing his impor- the most beautiful town, the most tance, and because the keenness of his beautiful processions, the most beauti feelings in general disposes him some ful ideas, the most beautiful men. On what to believe himself a deity. This this subject, a statue such as the Meis what we take note of under' modern leager or the Theseus of the Parthenon, Meditations or Sonnets. Even so, or still more, the sight of the Mediterunder a tragedy of the seventeenth cen- ranean, blue and lustrous as a silken tury we have a poet, like Racine for in- tụnic, and the islands that stud it with stance, elegant, staid, a courtier, a fine their massive marble outlines : add to talker, with a majestic wig and rib- these twenty select phrases from Plato boned shoes, at heart a royalist and a and Aristophanes, and they will teach Christian, who says, “God has been you much more than a multitude of sò gracious to me, that in whatever dissertations and commentaries. Y And company I find myself I never have so again, in order to understand an occasion to blush for the gospel or the Indian Purana, begin by imagining to king ; ”* clever at entertaining the yourself the father of a family, who; prince, and rendering for him into good “having seen a son on his son's knees," French the “ old French of Amyot ; "retires, according to the law, into soli rery respectful to the great, always tude, with an axe and a pitcher under knowing his place; as assiduous a banyan tree, by the brook-side, talks and reserved at Marly as at Versailles, no more, adds fast to fast, dwells naked amidst the regular pleasures of polished between four fires, and under that ter and ornate nature, amidst the saluta- rible sun, which devours and renews dions, graces, airs, and fopperies of the without end all things living; who, for braided lords, who rose early in the weeks at a time, fixes his imagination morning to obtain the promise of being first upon the feet of Brahma, next appointed to soine office in case of the upon his knee, next upon his thigh, death of the present hoider, and next upon his navel, and so on, untii, amongst charming ladies who count beneath the strain of this intense medi

tation, hallucinations begin to appear, • Mary Wollstonecraft, in her Historical until all the forms of existence, mingled and Moral View of the French Revolution, p; and transformed the one with the other, 25, says, in quoting this passage, “ What could be expected from the courtier who could write quaver before a sight dazzled and gid in these terms to Madame de Maintenon.-TR. Idy, until the motionless nan, catching

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