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states men, the most polished and best | In fact, at that tin e Italy clearly led ir. educated men in the world, who knew every thing, and civilization was to be how to speak, and drew their ideas not drawn thence, as from its spring from books, but from things, living What is this civilization which is thus ideas, ani which entered of themselves imposed on the whole of Europe, into living souls. Across the train of whence every science and every ele. hooded school men and sordid cavil- gance comes, whose laws are obeyed lers the two adult and thinking ages in every court, in which Surrey, Sid were united, and the moderns, silencing ney, Spenser, Shakspeare sought he infantine or snuffling voices of the their models and materials ?
It was middle age, condescended only to con- pagan in its elements and its birth ; in rerse with the noble ancients. They its language, which is but Latin, hardly accepted their gods, at least they un changed ; in its Latin traditions and derstand them, and keep them by their recollections, which no gap has inter. eide. In poems, festivals, on hangings, | rupted; in its constitution, whose old almost in all ceremonies, they appear, i municipal life first led and absorbed not restored by pedantry merely, but the feudal life; in the genius of its kept alive by sympathy, and endowed race, in which energy and joy always by the arts with a life as flourishing abounded. More than a century be. and almost as profound as that of their fore other nations,-from the time of earliest birth. After the terrible night Petrarch, Rienzi, Boccaccio,—the Ital. of the middle age, and the dolorous ians began to recover the lost antiquity legends of spirits and the damned, it to set free the manuscripts buried in was a delight to see again Olympus the dungeons of France and Germany, shining upon us from Greece; its heroic to restore, interpret, comment upon, and beautiful deities once more ravish: study the ancients, to make themselves ing the heart of men ; they raised and Latin in heart and mind, to compose instructed this young world hy speak in prose and verse with the polish of ing to it the language of passion and Cicero and Virgil, to hold sprightly genius; and tt is age of strong deeds, converse and intellectual pleasures as free sensualit's, bold invention, had the omament and the fairest flower of only to follow its own bent, in order to life.* They adopt not merely the exdiscover in to m its masters and the ternals of the life of the ancients, but eternal promo /rs of liberty and beauty. its very essence, that is, preoccupation
Nearer it's was another paganism, with the present life, forgetfulness of that of Ita’y, the more seductive be the future, the appeal to the senses, cause mos, modern, and because it the renunciation of Christianity. “We circulaie tresh sap in an ancient must enjoy,” sang their first poet, Lostock ; that more attractive, because renzo de Medici, in his pastorals and more sensuous and present, with its triumphal songs;
“there is no certain. wo 3b’p of force and genius, of pleas- ty of to-morrow." In Pulci the mock. ure and voluptuousness. The rigorists ing incredulity breaks out, the bold and tnew this well, and were shocked at it sensual gayety, all the audacity of the Ascnam writes :
free-thinkers, who kicked aside in dis “ These bee the inchantementes of Circes, gust the worn-out monkish frock of the Tought out of Italie to marre mens maners in
middle age. It was he who, in a jest: Eng and ; much, by example of ill life, but ing poem, puts at the beginning of each nore by preceptes of fonde bookes, of late
canto a Hosanna, an In principio, or a sansiatec out of Italian into English, sold in every shop in London. ... There bee mce of sacred text from the mass-book + these angratious bockes set out in Printe wythin these fewe oronethes, than have bene • Ma il vero e principal ornemento dell' sene in England many score yeares before. ... animo in ciascuno penso io che siano le letters, Than they have in more reverence the triumphes benchè i Franchesi solamente conoscano la cf Petrarche : than the Genesis of Moses : nobilità dell'arme
et tutti i litterati tengon They make more account of Tullies offices, per vilissimi buccini. Castiglione, il Corto than 5. Paules epistles: of a tale in Bocace giano, ed. 1585, p. 112. than a storie of the Bible." *
+ See Burchard (the Pope's Steward), ac
count of the festival at which Lucretia Borgia * Ascham, The Scholemaster (1570), ed. Ar- was present. Letters of Aretinus, Life of C ber, 1870, first book, 78 et passim.
When he had been inquiring what the Son; ghastly martyrs, dried up with soul was, and how it entered the body, fasts, with entranced eyes; knotty-fin. he compared it to jam covered up in gered saints with sunken chests, -all white bread quite hot. What would the touching or lamentable visions of become of it in the other world ? the middle age have vanished: the “Some people think they will there train of godheads which are now devel. discover becafico's, plucked ortolans, oped show nothing, but Sourishing excellent wine, good beds, and there- frames, noble, regular feat ares, and fore they follow the monks, walking fine easy gestures; the names, the behind them. As for us, dear friend, names only, are Christian. The new we shall go into the black valley, Jesus is a "crucified Jupiter,” as Pulci where we shall hear no more Alle called him; the Virgins which Raphael luias.” y/f you wish for a more serious sketched naked, before covering them thinker, listen to the great patriot, the with garments, * are beautiful girls Thucydides of the age, Machiavelli, quite earthly, related to the Fornarina who, contras ing Christianity and pa- The saints which Michel Angelo ar. ganism, says that the first places “su- ranges and contorts in heaven in his preme happiness in humility, abjection, picture of the Last Judgment are ar contempt for human things, while the assembly of athletes, capable of fight. other makes the sovereign good con- ing well and daring much. A martyr. sist in greatness of soul, force of body, dom, like that of Saint Laurence, is a and all the qualities which make men fine ceremony in which a beautiful to be feared." Whereon he boldly young man, without clothing, lies concludes that Christianity teaches amidst fifty men dressed and grouped man "to support evils, and not to do as in an ancient gymnasium. Is there great deeds; ” he discovers in that one of them who had macerated him inner weakness the cause of all oppres- self? Is there one who had thought sions ; declares that “the wicked saw with anguish and tears of the judgment that they could tyrannize without fear of God, who had worn down and sub over men, who, in order to get to para- dued his flesh, who had filled his heart dise, were more disposed to suffer than with the sadness and sweetness of the to avenge injuries." Through such gospel ? They are too vigorous for that, sayings, in spite of his constrained they are in too robust health; their genuflexions, we can see which reli- clothes fit them too well; they are too gion he prefers. The ideal to which all ready for prompt and energetic action efforts were turning, on which all We might make of them strong sol. thoughts depended, and which com- diers or superb courtesans, admirable pletely raised this civilization, was the in a pageant or at a ball. So, all that strong and happy man, possessing all the spectator accords to their halo of the powers to accomplish his wishes, glory, is a bow or a sign of the cross ; and disposed to use them in pursuit of after which his eyes find pleasure in his happiness.
them; they are there simply for the If you would see this idea in its enjoyment of the eyes. What_the grandest operation, you must seek it spectator feels at the sight of a Florin the arts, such as Italy made them entine Madonna, is the splendid creaand carried throughout Europe, ra:sing ture, whose powerful body and fine or transforming the national schools growth bespeak her race and her with such originality and vigor, that vigor; the artist did not paint moral all art likely to survive is derived from expression as nowadays, the depth of hence, and the population of living fig. a soul tortured and refined by three ures with which they have covered our cent.ies of culture. They confine walls, denotes, like Gothic architecture themselves to the body, to the extent or French tragedyog unique epoch of hu- even of speaking enthusiastically o man intelligence. The attenuated me. the spinal column itself, “ which is diæval Christ-a miserable, distorted, and bleeding earth-worm; the pale and
* See nis sketches at Oxford, and those of
Fra Bartolomeo at Florence. See also the agly Virgin--a poor old peasant wo- Martyrdom of St. Laurence, by Baccio Buendi man, fainting beside he cross of her | Delli.
magnificent of the shoulder-blades,
§ 2. Por,RY. which in the movements of the arm "produce an admirable effect.” “You
1. will next draw the bone which is situ
Transplanted into different races ated between the hips. It is very fine, and climates, this paganism receives and is called the sacrum. The im. from each, distinct features and a dis portant point with them is to represent tinct character. In England it be. the nude well. Beauty with them is hat of the complete skeleton, sinews sance is the Renaissance of the Saxon
comes English ; the English Renais which are linked together and tight- genius. Invention recommences; and enec, the thighs which support the io invent is to express one's genius trink, the strong chest breathing freely, A Latin race can only invent log ea the pliant neck. What a pleasure 10 pressing Latin ideas; a Saxon race by be naked! How good it is in the full expressing Saxon ideas; and we shall light to rejoice in a strong body, well, find in the new civilization and poetry firmed muscles, a spirited and bold descendants of Cædmon and Adhelm, scull The splendid goddesses reap- of Piers Plowman, and Robin Hood pear in their primitive nudity, not dreaming that they are nude ; you see
II. from the tranquillity of their look, the simplicity of their expression, that they
Old Puttenham says: have always been thus, and that shame “ In the latter end of the same king (Henry has not yet reached them. The soul's the eighth) reigne, sprong up a new company of life is not here contrasted, as amongst elder and Henry Earle of Surrey were the two
court'y makers, of whom Sir Thomas Wyat th us, with the body's life; the one is not chieftaines, who having travailed into Italie, so lowered and degraded, that we dare and there tasted the sweete and stately measures not show its actions and functions; and stile of the Italian Poesie, as novices newly they do not hide them ; man does not crept out of the schooles of Dante, Arioste, and
Petrarch, they greatly pollished our rude and dream of being all spirit. They rise, homely maner of vulgar Poesie, from that it as of old, from the luminous sea, with had bene before, and for that cause may justly their rearing steeds tossing up their be sayd the first reformers of our English
meetre and stile.". manes, champing the bit, inhaling the briny savor, whilst their companions Not that their style was very original, wind the sounding-shell; and the spec- or openly exhibits the new spirit: the tators,t accustomed to handle the middle age is nearly ended, but not sword, to combat naked with the dag- quite. By their side Andrew Borde, ger or double-handled blade, to ride John Bale, John Heywood, Skelton on perilous roads, sympathize with the himself, repeat the platitudes of the proud shape of the bended back, the old poetry and the coarseness of the effort of the arm about to strike, the old style. Their manners, hardly relong quiver of the muscles, which, from fined, were still half feudal; on the neck to heel, swell out, to brace a field, before Landrecies, the English man, or to throw him.
commander wrote a friendly letter to
the French governor of Térouanne, to * Benvenuto Cellini, Principles of the Art ask him “if he had not some gentlemen of Design. | Life of Cellini. Compare also these exer
disposed to break a lance in honcs of sises which Castiglione prescribes for a well- the ladies," and promised to send six educared man, in his Cortegiano, ed. 1585,
p. champions to meet them.X Parades, 55:--" Peró voglio che il nostro cortigiano sia combats, wounds, challenges, love, perfetto cavaliere d'ogni sella. ... Et perchè degli Italiani è peculiar laude il cavalcare bene appeals to the judgment of God, pen. alla brida, il maneggiar con raggione massima- ances,--all these are found in the life mente cavalli aspri, il corre lance, il giostare, of Surrey as in a chivalric romance. sia in questo de meglior Italiani.
Nel torneare, tener un passo, combattere una sbarra. A great lord, an earl, a relative of the sia buono tra il miglior francesi. Nel gio king, who had figured in processions care a canne, correr torri, lanciar haste e dardi, and ceremonies, had made war, com sia tra Spagnuoli eccellente. Conveniente manded fortresses, ravaged countries, è ancor sapere saltare, e correre ; .... ancor nobile exercitio il gioco di palla. Non di * Puttenham, The Arte of English Poeså minor laude estimo il voltegiar a cavallo.' ed. Arber, -569, book i. ch. 31, p. 74.
mounted to the assault, fallen in the records his griefs, regretung his beloved breach, had been saved by his servant, Wyatt, his friend Clere, his companion, magnificent, sumptuous, irritable, am the young Duke of Richmond, all deal bitious, four times imprisoned, finally in their prime. Alone, a prisoner av beheaded. At the coronation of Anne Windsor, he recalls the happy days Boleyn he wore the fourth sword; at they have passed together : the marriage of Anne of Cleves he was
So cruel pris on how could betide, alas, one of the challengers at the jousts.
As proud Windsor, where I in lust and joy, Denounced and placed in durance, he With a Kinges son, my childish vears did fered to fight in his shirt against an pass, á -med adversary. Another time he was
In greater feast than Priam's son of licy, pat in prison for having eaten flesh in Where each sweet place returns a taste full Lent. No wonder if this prolongation of chivalric manners brought with it a
The large green courts, where we were
wont to hove, prolongation of chivalric poetry ; if in With eyes cast up into the Maiden's tower, an age which had known Petrarch, And easy sighs, such as folk draw in love. poets displayed the sentiments of
The stately seats, the ladies bright of hue, Petrarch. Lord Berners, Sackville, The dances short, long tales of great de Sir Thomas Wyatt, and Surrey, in the
light, first rank, were like Petrarch plaintive
With words and looks, that tigers could bui and platonic lovers. It was pure love Where each of us did plead the other's right. to which Surrey gave expression; for
The palme-play, where, despoiled for the his lady, the beautiful Geraldine, like
game, Beatrice and Laura, was an ideal per: With dazed eyes oft we by gleams of love sonage, and a child of thirteen years. H Have miss'd the ball, and got sight of our And yet, amid this languor of mys.
To bait her eyes, which kept the leads tical tradition, a personal feeling had sway. In this spirit which imitated,
The secret thoughts, imparted with such and that badly at times, which still
trust ; groped for an outlet, and now and then The wanton talk, the divers change of admitted into its polished stanzas the
play; old, simple expressions and stale meta
The friendship sworn, each promise kept so
just, phors of heralds of arms and trouvères, Wherewith we past the winter night away. there was already visible the Northern
And with his thought the blood forsakes th • melancholy, the inner and gloomy emo
face ; tion. This feature, which presently, The tears berain my cheeks of deadly at the finest moment of its richest
hue : blossom, in the splendid expansiveness
The which, as soon as sobbing sighs, alas!
Up-supped have, thus I my plaint renew · of natural life, spreads a sombre tint over the poetry of Sidney, Spenser, O place of bliss! renewer of my woes !
Give me account, where is my noble fere ? Shakspeare, already in the first poet
Whom in thy walls thou dost each night en separates this pagan yet Teutonic world
close ; from the other, wholly. voluptuous, To other lief; but unto me most dear. which in Italy, with lively and refined Echo, alas ! that doth my sorrow rue, irony, had no taste, except for art and Returns thereto a hollow sound of plaint." p.easure. Surrey translated the Ecclesiastes into verse. Is it not singular, soul, to which he gives vent :
So in love, it is the sinking of a weary to End such a book in his hand ? A “ For all things having life, sometime hath disenchantment, a sad or bitter dreami
The bearing ass, the dra wing ox, and every ness, an innate consciousness of the
other beast; vanity of human things, are never The peasant, and the post, that serves at u jacking in this country and in this race; assays; the inhabitants support life with diffi
The ship-boy, and the galley-slave, have time
to take their ease; culty, and know how to speak of death.
Save I, alas! wł.omre of force doth se Surrey's finest verses bear witness constrain, thus soon to his serious bent, this instinctive and grave philosophy. He * Surrey's Poems, Pickering, 1831, D. 17.
To wail the day, and wake the night, continu- And if that love and truth were gone, ally in pain,
Io her it might be found alone. From pensiveness to plaint, from plaint to For in her mind no thought there is bitter tears,
But how she may be true, I wis; From tears to painful plaint again ; and thus
And tenders thee and all thy heale, my life it wears.'
And wishes both thy health and weal;
And loves thce eve:í as far forth than That which brings joy to others brings As any woman may a man ; aim grief :
And is thine own, and so she says ;
And cares for thee ten thousand ways. The soote season, that bud and bloom forth Of thee she speaks on thee she thinks ; brings,
With thee she eats, with thee she drinks ; With green hath clad the hill, and eke the With thee she talks, with thee she moans vale.
With thee she sighs, with thee she groans
1 The nightingale with feathers new she sings ; With thee she says 'Farewell mine own! The turtle to her mate hath told her tale. When thou, God knows, full far art gone. Summer is come, for every spray now And even, to tell thee all aright, springs ;
To thee she says full oft. Good night!' The hart has hung his old head on the pale ; And names thee oft her own most dear, The buck in brake his winter coat he flings ; Her comfort, weal, and all her cheer; The fishes flete with new repaired scale ; And tells her pillow all the tale The adder all her slough away she slings;
How thou hast done her woe and bale; The swift swallow pursueth the flies smale ; And how she longs, and plains for thee, The busy bee her honey now she mings; And says, “Why art thou so from me?' Winter is worn that was the flowers' bale. Am I not she that loves thee best! And thus I see among these pleasant things Do I not wish thine ease and rest? Each care decays, and yet my sorrow Seek I not how I may thee please ? springs !”
Why art thou then so from thine ease!
If I be she for whom thou carest, For all that, he will love on to his last For whom in torments so thou farest, sigh.
Alas! thou knowest to find me here,
Where I remain thine own most dear. “Yea, rather die a thousand times, than once Thine own most true, thine own most just, tç false my faith ;
Thine own that loves thee still, and must ; And if my feeble corpse, through weight of Thine own that cares alone for thee, wotul smart
As thou, I think, dost care for me; Do fail, or fa'nt, my will it is that still she And even the woman, she alone, keep my heart.
That is full bent to be thine own.' And wher, this carcass here to earth shall be refar'd,
Certainly it is of his wife † that he is I do bequeath my wearied ghost to serve her thinking here, not of an imaginary afterward.”
Laura. The poetic dream of Petrarch An infinite love, and pure as Pe- has become the exact picture of deep trarch's ; and she is worthy of it. In and perfect conjugal affection, such as the midst of all these studied or imi- yet survives in England ; such as a!! lated verses, an admirable portrait the poets, from the authoress of the stands out, the simplest and truest we Nut-brown Muid to Dickens, t have can imagir e, a work of the heart now, never failed to represent. and not of the memory, which behind the Madonna of chivalry shows the
III. English wife, and beyond feudal gal
An English Petrarch : no juster title lantry domestic bliss. Surrey alone, could be given to Surrey, for it exprese restless, hears within him the firm es his talent as well as his dispositior. *ones of a good friend, a sincere coun. In fact, like Petrarch, the oldest of the nellor Hope, who speaks to him thus : humanists, and the earliest exact write) For I assure thee, even by oath,
of the modern tongue, Surrey intro And thereon take my hand and troth, duces a new style, the manly style, That she is one the worthiest,
which marks a great change of the The truest, and the faithfullest;
* Ibid. Th“ gentlest and the meekest of mind
“ A description of the restless stata That here on earth a man may find :
of the lover when absent from the mistrem o his heart," p. 78.
In another piece, Complaint on the Abanice * Surrey's Poems. “ The faithful lover de- of her Lover being upon ihe Sea, he speaks is Jareth his prins and his uncertain joys, and with direct terms of his wife, almost as attection ruly hope recomforteth his woful heart," p. 53.ately,
Ibid. " Descr ption of Spring, wherein Greene, Beaumont and Fletcher, Webster. every thing renewo save ouy the lover,” p. 3. Shakspeare, Ford, Otway, Richardson, De Vos Ibid. p. 56
Fielding, Dickens, Thackeray, etc.