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Dryden's beginnings-Close of the poetic age-Cause of literary decline and regen-

eration ....


11. Family, Education-Studies - Reading-Habits-- Position-Character-Audience

-Friendships-Quarrels-Harmony of his life and talent...
III. The theatres re-opened and transformed-The new public and the new taste-Dia.

matic theories of Dryden-His judgment of the old English theatre-His judg-
ment of the new French theatre-Composite works-Incongruities of his drama
-Tyrannic Love-Grossness of his characters-- The Indian Emperor Aureng

sebe, Almanzor

IV Style of his drama-Rhymed verse-Flowery diction-Pedantic tirades-Want of

agreement between the classical style and romantic events-How Dryden bcaa

rows and mars the inventions of Shakspeare and Milton-Why this drama feh

to the ground..


V. Merits of this drama-Characters of Antony and Don Sebastian-Otway-Life



VI. Dryden as a writer-Kind, scope, and limits of his mind-Clumsiness in flattery

and obscenity-Heaviness in dissertation and discussion-Vigor and funda-
mental uprightness...

VII How literature in England is occupied with politics and religion--Political

poems of Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel, The Medal-Religious poems,
Religio Laici, The Hind and the Panther-Bitterness and virulence of these

poems—Mac Flecknoe....
VIII. Rise of the art of writing-Difference between the stamp of mind of the artistic and

classic ages-Dryden's manner of writing-Sustained and oratorical diction., 38.:
IX. Lack of general ideas in this age and this stamp of mind-Dryden's translations-

Adaptations-Imitations-Tales and letters-Faults-Merits-Gravity of his
character, brilliancy of his inspiration, fits and starts of poetic eloquence-

Alexander's Feast, a song in honor of St. Cecilia's Day.....

X. Dryden's latter days—Wretchedness-Poverty-Wherein his work is incomplete



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The Rebolution.

The moral revolution of the seventeenth century--It advances side by side with

the political revolution.....


Brutality of the people--Gin Riots-Corruption of the great- Political manners

-Treachery under William III. and Anne-Venality under Walpole and Buto
- Private manners-The roisterers—The atheists-Chesterfied's Letters His

polish and morality-Gay's Beggars' Opera–His elegance and satire........ 389
Principles of civilization in France and England-Conversation in France ; how

it ends in a revolution-Moral sense in England; how it ends in a reformation. 391

Religion-Visible signs--Its profound sentiment—Religion popular-Lifelike-



The pulpit-Mediocrity and efficacy of preaching-Tillotson-His heaviness and

solidity-Barrow His abundance and minuteness-South-His harshness and

energy_Comparison of French and English preachers...


Thcology-Comparison of the French and English apologetics-Sherlock, Stil-

lingfleet, Clarke-Theology not speculative but moral-The greatest minds

are on the side of Christianity--Impotence of speculative philosophy-Berkeley,

Newton, Locke, Hume, Red-Development of moral philosophy--Smith,

Price, Hutcheson...

The Constitution-Sentiment of right-Locke's Essay on Government --Theory

of personal right accepted-Maintained by temperament, pride, anı 'nterest

-Theory of personal right applied-Put in practice by elections, the press, the



Parliamentary eloquence-Its energy and harshness-Lord Chatham-Junius-Fox

Issue of the century's labors- Economic and moral transformation-Comparison of

Reynolds' and Lely's portraits-Contrary doctrines and tendencies in France
and England-Revolutionists and Conservatives, Judgment of Barke and the

English people on the French revolution....


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Addison and Swift in their epoch--Wherein they are alike and unlile..
The man-Education and culture-Latin verses Voyage in France and Italy-

Letter from Italy to Lord Halifax-Remarks on Italy--Dialogues on

Medals-Campaign-Gentleness and kindness--Success and happiness.... 413
II). Gravity and rationality-Solid studies and exact observation-His knowledge of

men and business habits-Nobility of his character and conduct-Elevation
of his morality and religion-How his life and character have contributed to

the pleasantness and usefulness of his writings ...

IV. The moralist-His essays are all moral— Against gross, sensual, or worldly life-

This morality is practical, and yet commonplace and desultory-How it relies

on reason and calculation-How it has for its end satisfaction in this world and

happiness in the other-Speculative meanness of his religious conception-

Practical excellence of his religious conception...


V. The literary man-Harmony of morality and elegance--The style that suits men of

the world--Merits of this style-Inconveniences-Addison as a critic-His
judgment of Paradise Lost-Agreement of his art and criticism-Limits of clas-
sical criticism and art-What is lacking in the eloquence of Addison, of the
Englishman and of the moralist.

VI Grave pleasantry - Humor - Serious and fertile imagination -- Sir Roger de

Coverley—The religious and the poetical sentiment-Vision of MirsaHow
the Germanic element subsists under Latin culture..

...... 499

1. Swift's début-CharacterPride-Sensitiveness—His life in Sir William Tem-

ple's house--At Lord Berkeley's Political life-Influence-Failure-Private

life-Lovemaking--Despair and insanity...

II. His wit-His power, and its limits-- Prosaic and positive mind-Holding a posi-

tion between vulgarity and genius-Why destructive..


III, The pamphleteer-How literature now concerns itself with politics-- Difference of

parties and pamphlets in France and England-Conditions of the literary pamph-
let-Of the effective pamphlet-Special and practical pamphlets- The Ex-
aminer-The Drapier's Letters-A Short Character of Thomas Earl
of Wharton-An Argument against Abolishing Christianity-Politica)

invective-Personal defamation- Incisive common sense-Grave irony: 141

IV. The poet-Comparison of Swift and Voltaire-Gravity and harshness of his jests--

Bickerstaff-Coarseness of his galantry-Cadenus and Vanessa-His prosaic

and realistic poetry- The Grand Question Debated-Energy and sadness of

his shorter poems-Verses on his own Death-His excesses...


V. The narrator and philosopher--A Tale of a Tub His opinion on religion,

science, philosophy and reason-How he maligns human intelligence---Gulliver's

Travels-His opinion on society, government, rank, and professions—How

he maligns human nature-Last pamphlets-Composition of his character and


The Nobelists.

Characteristic of the English novel-How it differs from others...
De Foe-His life-Energy, devotion, his share in politics-Spirit-Difference of

old and modern realists-Works-Career-Aim-Robinson Crusoe—How this
character is English–Inner enthusiasm-Obstinate will---Patience in work
-Methodical common sense-Religious emotions-Final piety..

III. Circumstances which gave rise to the novels of the eighteenth century-All these

novels are moral fictions and studies of character-Connection of the essay and
the novel-Two principal notions in morality–How they produce two kinds

of novels...
IV. Richardson-Condition and character-Connection of his perspicacity and his rigor

-Talent, minuteness, combinations-Pamela-Her mood-Principles-The
English wife-Clarissa Harlowe - The Harlowe family-Despotic and unsccia.
ble characteristics in England - Lovelace-Haughty and militant characteristics
in England--Clarissa – Her energy, coolness, logic-Kyr pedantry and scruples

-Sir Charles Grandison–Incongruities of automatic and edifying heroes
Richardson as a preacher-Prplixity, prudery, emphasis. .


1. Fielding-Mood, character, and life-Joseph Andrews-His conception of nature

-Tom Jones -Character of the squire-Fielding's heroes-Amelia-Faults

in her conception.....


VI. Smollett-Roderick Random-Peregrine Pickle-Comparison of Smollett and

Le Sage-Conception of life-Harshness of his heroes-Coarseness of his

pictures-Standing out of his characters - Humphrey Clinker ...
VII. Sterne-Excessive study of human particularities-Sterne's character-Eccentricity

-Sensibility-Obscenity-Why he depicts the diseases and degeneracies of human

VIII. Goldsmith-Purification of the novel-Picture of citizen life, upright happiness,

Protestant virtue- The Vicar of Wakefield—The English clergyman.

IX. Samuel Johnson-His authority-Person-Manners-Life-Doctrines-His opin-

ion about Voltaire and Rousseau-Style-Works..


X Hogarth---Moral and realistic painting--Contrast of English temperament and

morality-How morality has disciplined temperament...

The Poets.

1. Rule and realm of the classical spirit-Its characters, works, scope, and limits

How it is centred in Pope....
II. Pope-Education-Precocity-Beginnings—Pastoral peoms-Essay on Criticism

- Personal appearance-Mode of life-Character-Mediocrity of his passions

and ideas Largeness of his vanity and talent-Independent fortune and

assiduous labor.


III. Epistle of Eloisa to Abelard—What the passions become in artificial poetry-The

Rape of the Lock-Society and the language of society in France and England
-Wherein Pope's badinage is painful and displeasing-Tke Dunciadob-
scenity and vulgarities-Wherein the English imagination and drawing-room
wit are irreconcilable..

IV. Descriptive talent-Oratorical talent-Didactic poems-Why these poems are the

dua work of the Classical spirit- The Essay on Mar- His deism and optimism

Value of nis conceptions - How they are connected witb the dominals
izgle- How they are deformed in Pope's hands—Methods and perfectiou
of his style - Excellence of his portraits-- Why they are superior--Translation

of the Iliad--Change of taste during the past century.
lucongruity of the English mind and the classicai decorum--Prior-Gay -- Ancien

pastoral impossible in northern climates.- Conception of !he corintry natura! .

England. Thomson..
VI. Discredit of the drawing-room-Appearance of the man of teeling. Why itur

return to nature took place earlier in England than in France-Sterne-
Richardson-Mackenzie-Macpherson-Gray, Aken side, Beattie, Collins,
Young, Shenstone-Persistence of the classical form-Domination of the
period Johnson-The historical school-Robertson, Gibbon, Hume-Their
inlent and their limits-Beginning of the modern age....

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Ideas and Productions.

I. Changes in society-Rise of democracy, The French Revolution--Desire of

getting un-Changes in the human mind-New notion of causes German philos
ophy-Craving for the beyond..


II Robert Burns-His country-Family-Youth-Wretchedness-His yearnings and

efforts-Invectives against society and church-The Jolly Beggars -Attacks

conventional cant-His idea of natural life-Of moral life-Talent-

Spontaneity-Style-Innovations-SuccessAffectations-Studied letters and

academic verse--Farmer's life-Employment in the Excise Disgust-Excesses



III. Conservative rule in England-At first the Revolution affects the style only-

Cowper-Sickly refinement-Despair-Madness Retirement, The Taske

Modern idea of poetry_Of style...


The Romantic school-Its pretensions, Its tentatives—The two ideas of modern

literaturp-Histors enter into literature Lamb. Coleridge. Southev. Moore


-Faults of this school-Why it succeeded less in England than elsewhere

Sir Walter Scott- Education-Antiquarian studies-Aristocratic tastes-Life
-Poems--Novels-Incompleteness of his historical imitations-Excellence of
his national pictures-His interiors- Amiable raillery-Moral aim-Place in
modern civilization-Development of the novel in England-Realism and
uprightness-Wherein this school is cockneyfied and English..

Philosophy enters into literature-Wordsworth-Character-Condition-Life-

Painting of the moral life in the vulgar life-Introduction of the colorless
style and psychological divisions-Faults of this kind of literature-Loftiness
of Wordsworth's sonnets—The Excursion- Austere beauty of this Protestant
poetry-Shelley-Imprudences-Theories—Fancy-Pantheism-Ideal charac-
ters-Life-like scenery-General tendency of the new literature-Gradual
introduction of continental ideas. ...


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Lord Byron.

I. The Man-Family-Impassioned character-Precocious loves--Life of excess

Combative character-Revolt against opinion-English Bards and Scotch
Reviewers — Bravado and rashness - Marriage - Extravagance of adverse

opinion-Departure-Political life in Italy-Sorrows and violence...

The poet-Reasons for writing-Manner of writing.---How his poetry is personal

-Classical taste-How this gift served him-Childe Harold-The hero-The

scenery–The style......


II) His short poems-Oratorical manner-Melodramatic effects—Truth of his descrip-

tions of scenery-Sincerity of sentiments-Pictures of sad and extreme emotions
-Dominant idea of death and despair-Mazeppa, The Prisoner of Chillon,
The Siege of Corinth, The Corsair, Lara-Analogy of this conception with

the Edda and Shakspeare-Darkness.
IV. Manfred-Comparison of Manfred and Faust-Conception of legend and life in

Goethe-Symbolical and philosophical character of Faust- Wherein Byron
is inferior to Goethe-Wherein he is superior-Conception of character and
action in Byron-Dramatic character of his poem-Contrast between the uni.
versal and the personal poet.....:

V. Scandal in England-Constraint and hypocrisy of manners-How and by what law

moral canceptions vary-Life and morals of the south-Beppo-Don Juan-
Transformation of Byron's talent and style-Picture of sensuous beauty and
happinesss-Haidée-How he combats British cant-Human hypocrisy--His
idea of man-Of woman-Donna Julia—The shipwreck—The capture of Ismail

- Naturalness and variety of his style-Excess and wearing out of his poetic
vein-His drama-Departure for Greece, and death....


VI. Position of Byron in his age-Disease of the age-Divine conceptions of happiness

and life--The conception of such happiness by literature-By the sciences

Future stability of reason-Modem conception of nature....



1. The past—The Saxon invasion-How it established the race and determined the

character-The Norman Conquest-How it modified the character and estab-

lished the Constitution...


II. The Renaissance-How it manifested the national mind-The Reformation-How

it fixed the ideal—The Restoration-How it imported classical culture and mis-
led the national mind-The Revolution--How it developed classical culture
and restored the national mind.

III. The modern age-How European ideas widened the national mould.


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The Nobel.-Dickens.


Connection of the different elements of each talent-Importance of the imaginative



Lacidity and intensity of imagination in Dickens-Boldness and vehemence of his

fancy-How with him inanimate objects are personified and impassioned-

Whérein his conception is akin to intuition-How he describes idiots and mad-


II The objects to which he directs his enthusiasm-His trivialities and minutenesgao

Wherein he resembles the painters of his country- Wherein he differs frona

George Sand--Miss Ruth and Geneviève--A journey in a coach....


IV Vehemence of the emotions which this kind of imagination must produce-His

pathos-Stephen, the factory hand-His humor-Why he attains to buffoonery

and caricature - Recklessness and nervous exaggeration of his gayety.


$ 2.-The PUBLIC.

I. English novels are compelled to be moral-Wherein this constraint modifies the idea

of love-Comparison of love in George Sand and Dickens-Pictures of the

young girl and the wife-Wherein this constraint qualifies the idea of passion-

Comparison of passions in Balzac and Dickens-Inconvenience of this


conclusion-How comic or odious masks are substituted for natural characters

-Comparison of Pecksniff and Tartuffe-Why unity of action is absent in




1. Two classes of characters-Natural and instinctive characters--Artificial and posi-

tive characters-- Preference of Dickens for the first-Aversion against the



II. The hypocrite-Mr. Pecksniff-Wherein he is English-Comparison of Pecksniff

and Tartuffe-The positive man-Mr. Gradgrind— The proud man-Mr. Dom-

bey-Wherein these characters are English...
III. Children-Wanting in French literature - Little Joas and David Copperfield-

Men of the lower orders..


IV. The ideal man according to Dickens-Wherein this conception corresponds to a

public need-Opposition of culture and nature in England-Reassertion of sen,

sitiveness and instinct oppressed by conventionalism and rule-Success of


The Nobel continued.—Thacketag.

L' Abundance and excellence of novels of manners in England-Supenority of Dickens
and Thackeray --Comparisca between them.....

II. The satirist- His moral intentions—His moral dissertations....

III Comparison of raillery in France and England-Difference of the two tempera
ments, tastes, and minds....


IV. Superiority of Thackeray in bitter and serious satire-Serious irony-Literary

snobs Miss Blanche Amory--Serious caricature-Miss Hoggarty...

V. Solidity and

precision of this satirical conception-Resemblance of Thackeray and
Swift-The duties of an ambassador.

VI Misanthropy of Thackeray-Silliness of his heroines-Silliness of love-Inbred
vice of human generosities and exaltations.....

...... $12

VI.. His levelling tendencies--A want of characters and society in England-Aversions

and preferences—The snob and the aristocrat-Portraits of the king, the great

court noble, the county gentleman, the town gentleman-Advantages of thir

aristocratic institution-Exaggeration of the satire.........


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