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Dryden's beginnings-Close of the poetic age-Cause of literary decline and regen-
11. Family, Education-Studies - Reading-Habits-Position-Character-Audience
matic theories of Dryden-His judgment of the old English theatre-His judg-
-Tyrannic Love-Grossness of his characters, The Indian Emperor Aureng
IY Style of his drama—Rhymed verse-Flowery diction-Pedantic tirades—Want of
agreement between the classical style and romantic events-How Dryden bc -
rows and mars the inventions of Shakspeare and Milton-Why this drama fell
V. Merits of this drama-Characters of Antony and Don Sebastian-Otway-Life
VI, Dryden as a writer-Kind, scope, and limits of his mind-Clumsiness in flattery
and obscenity-Heaviness in dissertation and discussion-Vigor and funda-
VII How literature in England is occupied with politics and religion-Political
poems of Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel, The Medal-Religious poems,
Religio Laici, The Hind and the Panther-Bitterness and virulence of these
VIII. Rise of the art of writing-Difference between the stamp of mind of the artistic and
classic ages-Dryden's manner of writing-Sustained and oratorical diction., 38:
IX. Lack of general ideas in this age and this stamp of mind-Dryden's translations
Adaptations-Imitations-Tales and letters-Faults-Merits-Gravity of his
character, brilliancy of his inspiration, fits and starts of poetic eloquence-
Alexander's Feast, a song in honor of St. Cecilia's Day...:
X. Dryden's latter days—Wretchedness-Poverty—Wherein his work is incomplete
1. The moral revolution of the seventeenth century-It advances side by side with
the political revolution....
II. Brutality of the people-Gin Riots-Corruption of the great- Political manners
-Treachery under William III. and Anne-Venality under Walpole and Bute
-Private manners—The roisterers—The atheists-Chesterfied's Letters-His
polish and morality-Gay's Beggars' Opera–His elegance and satire.... 389
III. Principles of civilization in France and England Conversation in France ; how
it ends in a revolution-Moral sense in England; how it ends in a reformation. 391
IV. Religion-Visible signs--Its profound sentiment-Religion popular-Lifelike-
V. The pulpit-Mediocrity and efficacy of preaching-Tillotson-His heaviness and
solidity-Barrow-His abundance and minuteness-South-His harshness and
energy_Comparison of French and English preachers....
VI. Theology-Comparison of the French and English apologetics-Sherlock, Stil-
lingfileet, Clarke-Theology not speculative but moral - The greatest minds
of personal right accepted-Maintained by temperament, pride, anı 'nterest
Vill Parliamentary cloquence-Its energy and harshness-Lord Chatham - Junius-Fox
IX Issue of the century's labors—Economic and moral transformation-Comparison of
Reynolds' and Lely's portraits-Contrary doctrines and tendencies in France
and England-Revolutionists and Conservatives-Judgment of Barks and the
English people on the French revolution...
Addison and Swift in their epoch-Wherein they are alike and unlile..
II. The man-Education and culture-Latin verses Voyage in France and Italy,
Letter from Italy to Lord Halifax-Remarks on Italy--Dialogues on
Medals—CampaignGentleness and kindness-Success and happiness..... 419
II). Gravity and rationality-Solid studies and exact observation-His knowledge of
men and business habits-Nobility of his character and conduct-Elevation
the pleasantness and usefulness of his writings...
IV. The moralist-His essays are all moral--Against gross, sensual, or worldly life-
This morality is practical, and yet commonplace and desultory-How it relies
on reason and calculation-How it has for its end satisfaction in this world and
happiness in the other-Speculative meanness of his religious conception-
Practical excellence of his religious conception..
V. The literary man-Harmony of morality and elegance--- The style that suits men of
the world--Merits of this style-Inconveniences-Addison as a critic-His
judgment of Paradise Lost-Agreement of his art and criticism-Limits of clas-
sical criticism and art-What is lacking in the eloquence of Addison, of the
Englishman and of the moralist.
VI Grave pleasantry, Humor - Serious and fertile imagination -- Sir Roger de
Coverley—The religious and the poetical sentiment-Vision of Mirsa-How
the Germanic element subsists under Latin culture..
1. Swift's début--Character-Pride-Sensitiveness-His life in Sir William Tem-
ple's house-At Lord Berkeley's-Political life--Influence-Failure-Private
life-Lovemaking-Despair and insanity....
II. His wit-His power, and its limits-Prosaic and positive mind--Holding a posi-
tion between vulgarity and genius-Why destructive..
III, The pamphleteer-How literature now concerns itself with politics-Difference of
parties and pamphlets in France and England-Conditions of the literary pamph-
invective-Personal defamation, Incisive common sense-Grave irony: .. 141
IV. The poet-Comparison of Swift and Voltaire-Gravity and harshness of his jests--
Bickerstaff-Coarseness of his galantry-Cadenus and Vanessa-His prosaic
and realistic poetry- The Grand Question Debated-Energy and sadness of
his shorter poems—Verses on his own Death-His excesses...
The narrator and philosopher-A Tale of a Tub His opinion on religion,
science,philosophy and reason-How he maligns human intelligence~Gulliver's
Travels-His opinion on society, government, rank, and professions—How
he maligns human nature--Last pamphlets-Composition of his character and
old and modern realists-Works--Career-Aim-Robinson Crusoe-How this
novels are moral fictions and studies of character-Connection of the essay and
-Talent, minuteness, combinations--Pamela-Her mood-Principles-The
-Sir Charles Grandison-Incongruities of automatic and edifying heroes
1. Fielding-Mood, character, and life-Joseph Andrews-His conception of nature
Tom Jones -Character of the squire-Fielding's heroes-Amelia--Faults
Smollett-Roderick Random- Peregrine Pickle-Comparison of Smollett and
Le Sage--Conception of life-Harshness of his heroes-Coarseness of his
pictures-Standing out of his characters---Humphrey Clinker.....
VII. Sterne-Excessive study of human particularities-Sterne's character-Eccentricity
-Sensibility-Obscenity-Why he depicts the diseases and degeneracies of humaa
VIII. Goldsmith-Purification of the novel-Picture of citizen life, upright happiness,
Protestant virtue-The Vicar of Wakefield—The English clergyman.
IX Samuel Johnson-His authority-Person-Manners-Life-Doctrines-His opin-
ion about Voltaire and Rousseau-Style-Works...
X Hogarth-Moral and realistic painting --Contrast of English temperament and
1. Rule and realm of the classical spirit-Its characters, works, scope, and limits-
How it is centred in Pope...
- Personal appearance-Mode of life-Character-Mediocrity of his passions
Rape of the Lock-Society and the language of society in France and England
Jua. work of the classical spirit- The Essay on Mar- His deism and optimism
Value of nis conceptions - How they are connected witb the dominans
of the Iliad--Change of taste during the past century..
pastoral impossible id northern climates. Conception of the country natura! .
VI. Discredit of the drawing-room-Appearance of the man of teeling.-- Why the
return to nature took place earlier in England than in France-Sterne-
Richardson-Mackenzie-Macpherson-Gray, Aken side, Beattie, Collins,
Young, Shenstone-Persistence of the classical form-Domination of the
period—Johnson-The historical school-Robertson, Gibbon, Humc-Thoir
inlent and their limits-Beginning of the modern age....
BOOK IV.-MODERN LIFE.
1. Changes in society-Rise of democracy,The French Revolution--Desire al
getting in-Changes in the human mind-New notion of causes-German philor
ophy-Craving for the beyond....
Rebert Burns-His country-Family-Youth-Wretchedness-His yearnings and
efforts-Invectives against society and church-The Jolly Beggars -Attacks
conventional cant- His idea of natural life-of moral life-Talent-
Spontaneity-Style-Innovations-Success-Affectations-Studied letters and
academic verse Farmer's life--Employment in the Excise Disgust-Excesses
III. Conservative rule in England-At first the Revolution affects the style only,
Cowper-Sickly refinement--Despair-Madness Retirement, The Taske
IV. The Romantic school-Its pretensions, Its tentatives—The two ideas of modern
literatura History enter into literaturen Lamb. Coleridge. Soutbev. Moore
Painting of the moral life in the vulgar life--Introduction of the colorless
The Man-Family-Impassioned character-Precocious loves-Life of excess—
Combative character-Revolt against opinion-English Bards and Scotch
Reviewers — Bravado and rashness — Marriage - Extravagance of adverse
opinion-Departure-Political life in Italy-Sorrows and violence...
1. The poet-Reasons for writing-Manner of writing.--How his poetry is personal
-Classical taste-How this gift served him-Childe Harold-The hero-The
II) His short poems-Oratorical manner-Melodramatic effects, Truth of his descrip-
tions of scenery-Sincerity of sentiments-Pictures of sad and extreme emotions
IV. Manfred-Comparison of Manfred and Faust--Conception of legend and life in
Goethe-Symbolical and philosophical character of Faust-Wherein Byron
is inferior to Goethe-Wherein he is superior-Conception of character and
action in Byron-Dramatic character of his poen-Contrast between the uni-
versal and the personal poet..
V. Scandal in England-Constraint and hypocrisy of manners-How and by what law
moral conceptions vary-Life and morals of the south-Beppo-Don Juan-
- Naturalness and variety of his style-Excess and wearing out of his poetic
vein-His drama--Departure for Greece, and death...
VI. Position of Byron in his age-Disease of the age-Divine conceptions of happiness
and life-The conception of such happiness by literature-By the sciences
1. The past, The Saxon invasion-How it established the race and determined the
character-The Norman Conquest-How it modified the character and estab-
lished the Constitution...
II. The Renaissance-How it manifested the national mind-The Reformation-How
it fixed the ideal—The Restoration-How it imported classical culture and mis-
led the national mind-The Revolution-How it developed classical culture
and restored the national mind.
III. The modern age-How European ideas widened the national mould.
IV Society-Family,Arts, Philosophy-Religion.....
V. What forces have produced the present civilization, and are working out the futura
Connection of the different elements of each talent-Importance of the imaginative
l. Lacidity and intensi*y of imagination in Dickens--Boldness and vehemence of his
fancy-How with him inanimate objects are personified and impassioned-
Whérein his conception is akin to intuition-How he describes idiots and mad-
II The objects to which he directs his enthusiasm–His trivialities and minuteness
Wherein he resembles the painters of his country- Wherein he differs from
George Sand--Miss Ruth and Geneviève--A journey in a coach....
IV Vehemence of the emotions which this kind of imagination must produce-His
pathos--Stephen, the factory hand-His humor-Why he attains to buffoonery
and caricature - Recklessness and nervous exaggeration of his gayety.
I, English novels are compelled to be moral-Wherein this constraint modifies the idea
of love-Comparison of love in George Sand and Dickens-Pictures of the
young girl and the wife-Wherein this
constraint qualifies the idea of passion-
Comparison of passions in Balzac and Dickens-Inconvenience of this foregons
conclusion-How comic or odious masks are substituted for natural characters
-Comparison of Pecksniff and Tartuffe-Why unity of action is absent in
1. Two classes of characters-Natural and instinctive characters---Artificial and posi-
tive characters-Preference of Dickens for the first-Aversion against the
II. The hypocrite-Mr. Pecksniff-Wherein he is English-Comparison of Pecksnif
and Tartuffe-The positive man-Mr. Gradgrind— The proud man-Mr. Dom-
III. Children-Wanting in French literature--Little Foas and David Copperfield
The ideal man according to Dickens-Wherein this conception corresponds to a
public need Opposition of culture and nature in England-Reassertion of sen,
sitiveness and instinct oppressed by conventionalism and rule--Success of
The Nobel continued.—Thackeray.
L' Abundance and excellence of novels of manners in England-Supenority of Dickens
§ 1.—THB SATIRIST.
snobs Miss Blanche Amory--Serious caricature-Miss Hoggartý... бо)
precision of this satirical conception-Resemblance of Thackeray and
Swift-The duties of an ambassador.
Vli. His levelling tendencies--A want of characters and society in England-Aversions
and preferences—The snob and the aristocrat-Portraits of the king, the great
court noble, the county gentleman, the town gentleman-Advantages of thir
aristocratic institution-Exaggeration of the satire..oto....