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Dryden's beginnings-Close of the poetic age-Cause of literary decline and regen-

eration ....


11. Family, Education-Studies - Reading-Habits-Position-Character-Audience
-Friendships-Quarrels-Harmony of his life and talent...

III. The theatres re-opened and transformed—The new public and the new taste-Dra.

matic theories of Dryden-His judgment of the old English theatre-His judg-
ment of the new French theatre--Composite works-Incongruities of his drama

-Tyrannic Love-Grossness of his characters, The Indian Emperor Aureng

sebe, Almanzor

IY Style of his drama—Rhymed verse-Flowery diction-Pedantic tirades—Want of

agreement between the classical style and romantic events-How Dryden bc -

rows and mars the inventions of Shakspeare and Milton-Why this drama fell

to the ground...

V. Merits of this drama-Characters of Antony and Don Sebastian-Otway-Life



VI, Dryden as a writer-Kind, scope, and limits of his mind-Clumsiness in flattery

and obscenity-Heaviness in dissertation and discussion-Vigor and funda-
mental uprightness...


VII How literature in England is occupied with politics and religion-Political

poems of Dryden, Absalom and Achitophel, The Medal-Religious poems,

Religio Laici, The Hind and the Panther-Bitterness and virulence of these

poems-Mac Flecknoe...


VIII. Rise of the art of writing-Difference between the stamp of mind of the artistic and

classic ages-Dryden's manner of writing-Sustained and oratorical diction., 38:

IX. Lack of general ideas in this age and this stamp of mind-Dryden's translations

Adaptations-Imitations-Tales and letters-Faults-Merits-Gravity of his

character, brilliancy of his inspiration, fits and starts of poetic eloquence-

Alexander's Feast, a song in honor of St. Cecilia's Day...:

X. Dryden's latter days—Wretchedness-Poverty—Wherein his work is incomplete


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The Rebolution.


1. The moral revolution of the seventeenth century-It advances side by side with

the political revolution....

II. Brutality of the people-Gin Riots-Corruption of the great- Political manners

-Treachery under William III. and Anne-Venality under Walpole and Bute

-Private manners—The roisterers—The atheists-Chesterfied's Letters-His

polish and morality-Gay's Beggars' Opera–His elegance and satire.... 389

III. Principles of civilization in France and England Conversation in France ; how

it ends in a revolution-Moral sense in England; how it ends in a reformation. 391

IV. Religion-Visible signs--Its profound sentiment-Religion popular-Lifelike-



V. The pulpit-Mediocrity and efficacy of preaching-Tillotson-His heaviness and

solidity-Barrow-His abundance and minuteness-South-His harshness and

energy_Comparison of French and English preachers....


VI. Theology-Comparison of the French and English apologetics-Sherlock, Stil-

lingfileet, Clarke-Theology not speculative but moral - The greatest minds
are on the side of Christianity--Impotence of speculative philosophy-Berkeley,
Newton, Locke, Hume, Red-Development of moral philosophy-Smith,
Price, Hutcheson...

TIL The Constitution-Sentiment of right-Locke's Essay on Government Theory

of personal right accepted-Maintained by temperament, pride, anı 'nterest
-Theory of personal right applied- Put in practice by elections, the press, the


Vill Parliamentary cloquence-Its energy and harshness-Lord Chatham - Junius-Fox


IX Issue of the century's labors—Economic and moral transformation-Comparison of

Reynolds' and Lely's portraits-Contrary doctrines and tendencies in France

and England-Revolutionists and Conservatives-Judgment of Barks and the

English people on the French revolution...


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1. Swift's début--Character-Pride-Sensitiveness-His life in Sir William Tem-

ple's house-At Lord Berkeley's-Political life--Influence-Failure-Private

life-Lovemaking-Despair and insanity....

II. His wit-His power, and its limits-Prosaic and positive mind--Holding a posi-

tion between vulgarity and genius-Why destructive..


III, The pamphleteer-How literature now concerns itself with politics-Difference of

parties and pamphlets in France and England-Conditions of the literary pamph-
let-Of the effective pamphlet-Special and practical pamphlets-The Ex-
aminer-The Drapier's Letters-A Short Character of Thomas Earl
of Wharton-An Argument against Abolishing Christianity Political

invective-Personal defamation, Incisive common sense-Grave irony: .. 141

IV. The poet-Comparison of Swift and Voltaire-Gravity and harshness of his jests--

Bickerstaff-Coarseness of his galantry-Cadenus and Vanessa-His prosaic

and realistic poetry- The Grand Question Debated-Energy and sadness of

his shorter poems—Verses on his own Death-His excesses...


The narrator and philosopher-A Tale of a Tub His opinion on religion,

science,philosophy and reason-How he maligns human intelligence~Gulliver's

Travels-His opinion on society, government, rank, and professions—How

he maligns human nature--Last pamphlets-Composition of his character and


...... 49

The Nobelists.
Characteristic of the English novel-How it differs from others:
De Foe-His life-Energy, devotion, his share in politics-Spirit-Difference of

old and modern realists-Works--Career-Aim-Robinson Crusoe-How this
character is English-Inner enthusiasm-Obstinate will-Patience in work
-Methodical common sense-Religious emotions--Final piety.

III. Circumstances which gave rise to the novels of the eighteenth century-All these

novels are moral fictions and studies of character-Connection of the essay and
the novel-Two principal notions in morality-How they produce two kinds

of novels...
IV. Richardson-Condition and character-Connection of his perspicacity and his rigor

-Talent, minuteness, combinations--Pamela-Her mood-Principles-The
English wife-Clarissa Harlowe- The Harlowe family-Despotic and unsccia-
ble characteristics in England-Lovelace-Haughty and militant characteristics
in England--Clarissa-Her energy, coolness, logic —Kyr pedantry and scruples


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The Poets.

1. Rule and realm of the classical spirit-Its characters, works, scope, and limits-

How it is centred in Pope...
II. Pope-Education-Precocity-Beginnings-Pastoral peoms- Essay on Criticism

- Personal appearance-Mode of life-Character-Mediocrity of his passions
and ideas-Largeness of his vanity and talent-Independent fortune and
assiduous labor...

III. Epistle of Eloisa to Abelard-What the passions become in artificial poetry, The

Rape of the Lock-Society and the language of society in France and England
-Wherein Pope's badinage is painful and displeasing-Tke Dunciad-Ob-
scenity and vulgarities—Wherein the English imagination and drawing-room
wit are irreconcilable...

IV. Descriptive talent-Oratorical talent-Didactic poems—Why these poems are the

Jua. work of the classical spirit- The Essay on Mar- His deism and optimism

Value of nis conceptions - How they are connected witb the dominans
izgle- How they are deformed in Pope's hands-Methods and perfection:
of his style - Excellence of his portraits--Why they are superior-Translation

of the Iliad--Change of taste during the past century..
Lucongruity of the English mind and the classicai decorum--Prior-Gay --Ancien

pastoral impossible id northern climates. Conception of the country natura! .

England-• Thomson..

VI. Discredit of the drawing-room-Appearance of the man of teeling.-- Why the

return to nature took place earlier in England than in France-Sterne-

Richardson-Mackenzie-Macpherson-Gray, Aken side, Beattie, Collins,

Young, Shenstone-Persistence of the classical form-Domination of the

period—Johnson-The historical school-Robertson, Gibbon, Humc-Thoir

inlent and their limits-Beginning of the modern age....

... od

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IV. The Romantic school-Its pretensions, Its tentatives—The two ideas of modern

literatura History enter into literaturen Lamb. Coleridge. Soutbev. Moore



-Faults of this school-Why it succeeded less in England than elsewhere
-Sir Walter Scott- Education-Antiquarian studies–Aristocratic tastes-Life
-Poems--Novels-Incompleteness of his historical imitations-Excellence of
his national pictures-His interiors-Amiable raillery-Moral aim-Place in
modern civilization-Development of the novel in England-Realism and
uprightness-Wherein this school is cockneyfied and English..

Philosophy enters into literature-Wordsworth-Character-Condition-Life-

Painting of the moral life in the vulgar life--Introduction of the colorless
style and psychological divisions-Faults of this kind of literature-Loftiness
of Wordsworth's sonnets The Excursion- Austere beauty of this Protestant
poetry--Shelley-Imprudences-Theories-Fancy-Pantheism-Ideal charac-
ters-Life-like scenery-General tendency of the new literature-Gradual
introduction of continental ideas......


Lord Byron.

The Man-Family-Impassioned character-Precocious loves-Life of excess—

Combative character-Revolt against opinion-English Bards and Scotch

Reviewers — Bravado and rashness — Marriage - Extravagance of adverse

opinion-Departure-Political life in Italy-Sorrows and violence...

1. The poet-Reasons for writing-Manner of writing.--How his poetry is personal

-Classical taste-How this gift served him-Childe Harold-The hero-The

scenery—The style.....


II) His short poems-Oratorical manner-Melodramatic effects, Truth of his descrip-

tions of scenery-Sincerity of sentiments-Pictures of sad and extreme emotions
-Dominant idea of death and despair-Mazeppa, The Prisoner of Chillon,
The Siege of Corinth, The Corsair, Lara-Analogy of this conception with
the Edda and Shakspeare-Darkness..


IV. Manfred-Comparison of Manfred and Faust--Conception of legend and life in

Goethe-Symbolical and philosophical character of Faust-Wherein Byron

is inferior to Goethe-Wherein he is superior-Conception of character and

action in Byron-Dramatic character of his poen-Contrast between the uni-

versal and the personal poet..


V. Scandal in England-Constraint and hypocrisy of manners-How and by what law

moral conceptions vary-Life and morals of the south-Beppo-Don Juan-
Transformation of Byron's talent and style-Picture of sensuous beauty and
happinesss-Haidée-How he combats British cant-Human hypocrisy--His
idea of man-Of woman-Donna Julia—The shipwreck-The capture of Ismail

- Naturalness and variety of his style-Excess and wearing out of his poetic

vein-His drama--Departure for Greece, and death...


VI. Position of Byron in his age-Disease of the age-Divine conceptions of happiness

and life-The conception of such happiness by literature-By the sciences
Future stability of reason-Modem conception of nature.....


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II. Commerce-Industry.........


III. Agriculture...

IV Society-Family,Arts, Philosophy-Religion.....

V. What forces have produced the present civilization, and are working out the futura




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The Nobel.-Dickens.


Connection of the different elements of each talent-Importance of the imaginative


l. Lacidity and intensi*y of imagination in Dickens--Boldness and vehemence of his

fancy-How with him inanimate objects are personified and impassioned-

Whérein his conception is akin to intuition-How he describes idiots and mad-


II The objects to which he directs his enthusiasm–His trivialities and minuteness

Wherein he resembles the painters of his country- Wherein he differs from

George Sand--Miss Ruth and Geneviève--A journey in a coach....


IV Vehemence of the emotions which this kind of imagination must produce-His

pathos--Stephen, the factory hand-His humor-Why he attains to buffoonery

and caricature - Recklessness and nervous exaggeration of his gayety.



I, English novels are compelled to be moral-Wherein this constraint modifies the idea

of love-Comparison of love in George Sand and Dickens-Pictures of the

young girl and the wife-Wherein this

constraint qualifies the idea of passion-

Comparison of passions in Balzac and Dickens-Inconvenience of this foregons

conclusion-How comic or odious masks are substituted for natural characters

-Comparison of Pecksniff and Tartuffe-Why unity of action is absent in




1. Two classes of characters-Natural and instinctive characters---Artificial and posi-

tive characters-Preference of Dickens for the first-Aversion against the



II. The hypocrite-Mr. Pecksniff-Wherein he is English-Comparison of Pecksnif

and Tartuffe-The positive man-Mr. Gradgrind— The proud man-Mr. Dom-
bey-Wherein these characters are English...


III. Children-Wanting in French literature--Little Foas and David Copperfield

Men of the lower orders...


The ideal man according to Dickens-Wherein this conception corresponds to a

public need Opposition of culture and nature in England-Reassertion of sen,

sitiveness and instinct oppressed by conventionalism and rule--Success of


.......... bor


The Nobel continued.—Thackeray.

L' Abundance and excellence of novels of manners in England-Supenority of Dickens
and Thackeray --Comparisca between them....

II. The satirist- His moral intentions-His moral dissertations...

III Cumparison of raillery in France and England-Difference of the two tempera
ments, tastes, and minds...

IV. Superiority of Thackeray in bitter and serious satire-Serious irony-Literary

snobs Miss Blanche Amory--Serious caricature-Miss Hoggartý... бо)
V. Solidity and

precision of this satirical conception-Resemblance of Thackeray and

Swift-The duties of an ambassador.
VI Misanthropy of Thackeray-Silliness of his heroines-Silliness of love-Inbred
vice of human generosities and exaltations.....


Vli. His levelling tendencies--A want of characters and society in England-Aversions

and preferences—The snob and the aristocrat-Portraits of the king, the great

court noble, the county gentleman, the town gentleman-Advantages of thir

aristocratic institution-Exaggeration of the satire..oto....



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