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OF

ENGLISH LITERATURE

BY H. A. TAINE, D.C.L.

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH BY H. VAN LAUM,

One of the Masters at the Edinburgh Academy.

COMPLETE IN ONE VOLUME

NEW YORK:

HURST AND COMPANY,

122 NASSAU STREET.

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This edition of TaiNK'S HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURF has bee:

carefully revised and compared with the original. All the quotations have

been collated and verified anew, and no trouble has been spared to make

it as accurate as possible

For the favorable reception this translation has met with from the press and the public, I feel much indebted.

1

H. VAN LAUN

THE ACADEMY

EDINBURGH, May 31, 1873

MARVER
UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY
1262

TROW'S
PRINTING AND BOOKBINDING COMPANY,

NEW YORK

CONTENTS.

.....

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INTRODUCTION.

PAGE
Iistorical documents serve only as a clue to reconstruct the visible individual...

17
The outer man is only a clue to study the inner, invisible man....

kg
The state and the actions of the inner and invisible man have their causes in certain

general ways of thought and feeling.

Chief causes of thoughts and feelings. Their historical effects.

The three primordial forces

1. Race.........

23

II. Surroundings..

24

III. Epoch..

25

History

is a mechanical and psychological problem. Within certain limits man

foretell..

26

Production of the results of a primordial cause. Common elements. Composition of
groups. Law of mutual dependence. Law of proportional influences.....

27

Law of formation of a group. Examples and indications.

29

Tieneral problem and future of history. Psychological method. Value of literature.

Purpose in writing this book..

30

The Saxons.
1. Their original country. Soil, sea, sky, climaie-Their new country--A moist land

and a thankless soil-Ináuence of climate on character..

II. Their bodily structure-Food-Manners—Uncultivated instincts, German and Eng-

lish.

III Noble instincts in Germany-The individual—The family-The state--Religion

--The Edda - Tragi-heroic conception of the world and of mankind..
IV. Noble instincts in England - Warrior and chieftain-Husband and wife--The

poem of Beowulf, Barbarian society and the barbarian hero.....
V. Pagan poems--Kind and force of sentiments-Bent of mind and speech--Force of

impression ; harshness of expression.
VI. Christian poems-Wherein the Saxons are predisposed to Christianity-How

converted-Their view of Christianity-Hymns of Cædmon-Funeral hymn

- Poem of Judith--Paraphrase of the Bible.
VII Why Latin culture took no hold on the Saxons--Reasons drawn from the Saxon

conquest-Bede, Alcuin, Alfred- Translations--Chronicles-Compilations-
Impotence of Latin writers-Reasons drawn from the Saxon character-Adhelm

-Alcuin--Latin verse-Poetic dialogues-Bad taste of the Latin writers...

VIII. Contrast of German and Latin races-Character of the Saxon race--Its endurance

under the Normaa cunquesi.

55

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