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The Belief in Satanic Miracles, having been universal among Protestants and Roman

Catholics, passed away by a silent and unreasoning process under the influence of
Civilisation-Witchcraft arose from a vivid Realisation of Satanic Presence acting
on the Imagination—and afterwards on the Reason-Its Existence and Importance
among Savages—The Christians attributed to Magic the Pagan Miracles—Constantine
and Constantius attempted to subvert Paganism by persecuting Magic-Magical
Character soon attributed to Christian Rites-Miracle of St. Hilarion-Persecution
suspended under Julian and Jovian, but afterwards renewed-Not entirely due to ·
Ecclesiastical Influence~Compromise between Christianity and Paganism-Prohib-
ited Pagan Rites continue to be practised as Magic-From the Sixth to the Twelfth
Century, extreme Superstition with little Terrorism, and, consequently, little Sorcery
- Effects of Eclipses, Comets, and Pestilence on the Superstition-The Cabalists,
Psellus—The Revival of Literature in the Twelfth Century produced a Spirit of Re-
bellion which was encountered by Terrorism-which, acting on the Popular Creed,
produced a bias towards Witchcrast—The Black Death-Influence of the Reforma-
tion in stimulating Witchcraft-Luther-The Inquisitors—The Theology of Witch-
craft-First Evidence of a Rationalistic Spirit in Europe-Wier-answered by

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Miracles related by the Fathers and Medieval Writers as ordinary and undoubted Occur-

rences-Rapid Growth of Scepticism on the Subject since the Reformation-The
Sceptical Habit of Mind acts more powerfully on Contemporary than on Historical
Narrations—Among the early Protestants, the Cessation of Miracles supposed to
bave taken place when the Fathers passed away-Persecution regarded by some Eng-
lish Divines as a Substitute for Miracles—Opinions of Locke and Newton on the
Subject-Tendencies of the Eighteenth Century adverse to the Miraculous-Middle-
ton-Discussion of his Principles by Church, Dodwell, Gibbon, Hume, Farmer, War-
burton, and Douglas-General Abandonment of the Patristic Miracles-Rise of
Tractarianism-Small Place Catholic Miracles occupied in the Discussion it evoked-
Weakness of the common Arguments against the continuance of Miracles—Develop-
ment of Continental Protestantism into Rationalism-Rationalistic Tendencies in
Roman Catholic Countries-Origin and Decline of the Evidential School in England
-Modification of the Conception of Miracles-Reasonableness of the Doctrine of
Interference-Summary of the Stages of Rationalism in its relation to the Miracu-
lous-Its Causes-Its Influence on Christianity . . . . 153

A

CHAPTER III.

ÆSTHETIC, SCIENTIFIC, AND MORAL DEVELOPMENTS OF RATIONALISM.

The Expectation of Miracles grows out of the Religious Conceptions of an early Stage of

Civilisation, and its Decline implies a general Modification of Religious Opinions-
Fetishism probably the First Stage of Religious Belief-Examples of Fetish Notions
in the Early Church-Patristic Opinions concerning the Cross and the Water of Bap-
tism-Anthropomorphism the next Stage-Men then ascribe the Government of the
Universe to Beings like themselves; but, being unable to concentrate their Attention
on the Invisible, they fall into Idolatry—Idolatry a Sign sometimes of Progress, and
sometimes of Retrogression-During its continuance, Art is the most faithful Expres-
sion of Religious Realisation—Influence of the National Religions on the Art of Per-
sia, Egypt, India, and Greece—The Art of the Catacombs altogether removed from
Idolatry-Its Freedom from Terrorism-Its Symbolism-Progress of Anthropomor-
phism-Position of the First Person of the Trinity in Art-Growing Worship of the
Virgin-Strengthened by Gnosticism-by Dogmatic Definitions-by Painting, Celi-
bacy, and the Crusades-Its Moral Consequences Growth of Idolatrous Conceptions
-Stages of the Veneration of Relics— Tendency towards the Miraculous invests
Images with peculiar Sanctity—The Portrait of Edessa—The Image at Paneas-Con-
version of the Barbarians makes Idolatry general-Decree of Illiberis—The Icono-
clasts—The Second Council of Nice-St. Agobard—Mahometanism the sole Example
of a great Religion restraining Semi-barbarians from Idolatry-Three Causes of its
Success-Low Condition of Art during the Period of Mediæval Idolatry-Difference

between the Religious and Æsthetic Sontiment-Aversion to Innovation-Contrast
· between the Pagan and Christian Estimate of the Body-Greek Idolatry faded into

Art-Its Four Stages—A corresponding Transition takes place in Christendom-Greek
Influence on Art-Iconoclasm-Tradition of the Deformity of Christ-The Byzantine
Style-Broken by a Study of Ancient Sculpture renewed by Nicolas of Pisa—Chris-
tian School of Giotto and Fra Angelico-Corresponded with the Intellectual Charac-
ter of the Time-Influence of Dante-Apocalyptic Subjects Progress of Terrorism
in Art-Increase of Scepticism--Religious Paintings regarded simply as Studies of the
Beautiful-Influence of Venetian Sensuality-Sensuality favourable to Art-Parallel
of Titian and Praxiteles—Influence of the Pagan Sculpture-History of Greek
Statues after the rise of Christianity-Reaction in favour of Spiritualism led by Savo-
narola—Complete Secularisation of Art by Michael Angelo—Cycle of Painting con-
pleted-A corresponding Transition took place in Architecture-Fluctuations in the
Estimate in which it has been held represent Fluctuations of Religious Sentiments,
Decline of Gothic Architecture-Brunelleschi–St. Peter's— Intellectual Importance
of the History of Art-The Euthanasia of Opinions-Continued Revolt against An-
thropomorphism-Results from the Totality of the Influences of Civilisation, but es-
pecially from the Encroachments of Physical Science on the old Conceptions of the
Government of the Universe-In tho Early Church, Science was subordinated to
Systems of Scriptural Interpretation-Allegorical School of Origen-St. Augustine De Genesi-Literal School-Controversy about the Antipodes--Cosmas–Virgilius–Rise of the Copernican System-Condemnation of Foscarini and of Galileo-Influence of Theology on the Progress of Science-Opinion of Bacon-Astronomy displaces the Ancient Notion of Man's Position in the Universe-Philosophical Importance of Astrology-Refutation by Geology of the Doctrine of the Penal Nature of Death-Increasing Sense of Law-Reasons why apparently Capricious Phenomena were especially associated with Religious Ideas-On Lots-Irreligious Character attributed to Scientific Explanations-Difference between the Conception of the Divinity in a Scientific and Unscientific Age-Growth of Astronomy--Comets-Influence of Paracelsus, Bayle, and Halley-Rise of Scientific Academies–Ascendency of the Belief in Law–Harsher Features of Theology thereby corrected— The Morphological Theory of the Universe—Its Influence on History—Illegitimate Effects of Science-Influence on Biblical Interpretation-La Peyrère-Spinoza-Kant-Lessing-Moral Development accompanies the Intellectual Movement Illustrations of its Nature--Moral Genius–Relations of Theology to Morals—Complete Separation in Antiquity-Originality of the Moral Type of Christianity-Copceptions of the Divinity-Evanescence of Duties unconnected with our Moral Nature-History of Religious TerrorismPatristic Conception of Hell—Origen and Gregory of Nyssa-Faint Notions of the Jews and Heathens on the Subject-Doctrine of Purgatory-Scotus Erigena-Extreme Terrorism of the Fourteenth Century—Destruction of Natural Religion by the Conception of Hell-Its Effect in habituating Men to contemplate the Sufferings of others with complacency– Illustration of this from Tertullian—and from the History of Persecution--and from that of Torture-Abolition of Torture in France, Spain, Prussia, Italy, and Russia—Relations between the prevailing Sense of the Enormity of Sin and the Severity of the Penal Code-Decline of the Mediæval Notions of Hell due partly to the Progress of Moral Philosophy, and partly to that of Psychology, Apparitions and the Belief in Hell the Corner-stones of the Psychology of the Fathers -Repudiation of Platonism-Two Schools of Materialism-Materialism of the Middle Ages-Impulse given to Psychology by Averroes—and by the Mystics of the Fourteenth Century-Descartes-Swinden, Whiston, Horbery-Change in the Ecclesiastical Type of Character-Part taken by Theologians in ameliorating the English Penal Code–First Impulse due to Voltaire and Beccaria-Bentham-Elimination of the Doctrine of Future Torture from Religious Realisations

Page 202

CHAPTER IV.

ON PERSECUTION.

PART 1.

THE ANTECEDENTS OF PERSECUTION. Persecution is the result, not of the personal Character of the Persecutors, but of the

Principles they profess--Foundations of all Religious Systems are the Sense of Virtue and the Sense of Sim--Political and Intellectual Circumstances determine in each System their relative Importance-These Sentiments gradually converted into Dogmas, under the Names of Justification by Works and Justification by Faith-Dogmas unfaithful Expressions of Moral Sentiments—The Conception of Hereditary Guilt-Theories to account for it—The Progress of Democratic Habits destroys itIts dogmatic Expression the Doctrine that all Men are by Nature doomed to Damnation-Unanimity of the Fathers concerning the Non-salvability of unbaptised Infants--Divergence concerning their Fate--The Greek Fathers believed in a LimboThe Latin Fathers denied this Augustine, Fulgentius-Origen associates the Doctrine with that of Pre-existence-Pseudo-baptisms of the Middle Ages-The Reformation produced conflicting Tendencies on the subject, diminishing the sense of the Efficacy of Ceremonies, increasing that of imputed Guilt—The Lutherans and Calvinists held a Doctrine that was less superstitious but more revolting than that of Catholicism-Jonathan Edwards-Dogmatic Character of early Protestantism-Rationalism appeared with Socinus-Antecedents of Italian Rationalism-Socinus rejects Original Sin-as also does Zuinglius-Rationalistic Tendencies of this ReformerRapid Progress of his View of Baptism—The Scope of the Doctrine of the Condemnation of all Men extends to Adults—Sentiments of the Fathers on the Damnation of the Heathen-Great Use of this Doctrine of Exclusive Salvation in consolidating the Power of the Church--and in abbreviating the Paroxysms of the ReformationThe Protestants almost all accepted it-Protest of Zuinglius-Opposition between Dcgmatic and Natural Religion resulting from the Doctrine-Influence on Predestinarianism---Augustine-Luther De Serro Arbitrio--Calvin and Beza-Injurious Influence of the Doctrine of Exclusive Salvation on Morals—and on the sense of Truth - Pious Frauds-- Total Destruction in the Middle Ages of the Sense of Truth resulting from the Influence of Theology-The Classes who were most addicted to Falsehood proclaimed Credulity a Virtue-Doctrine of Probabilities of Pascal and CraigRevival of the Sense of Truth due to Secular Philosophers of the Seventeenth Century—Causes of the Influence of Bacon, Descartes, and Locke—The Decline of Theological Belief a necessary Antecedent of their Success . . . Page 353

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