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strongly entrenched at Torwood, secured by bogs and brooks, cannot be forced out. We take Calendar House, and do other insults, before their eyes; they will not come out. Cannonadings there are, from opposite Hills;' but not till it please the Enemy can there be any battle. David Lesley, second in rank, but real leader of the operations, is at his old trade again. The Problem is becoming difficult. We decide to get across into Fife; to take them in flank, and at least cut off an important part of their supplies.

Here is the Lord General's Letter on the result of that enterprise. Farther details of the Battle which is briefly spoken of here, still remembered in those parts as the Battle of Inverkeithing,-may be found in Lambert's own Letter concerning it.* 'Sir John Brown, their Major-General,' was once a zealous Parliamenteer; 'Governor of Abingdon,' and much else; but the King gained him, growls Ludlow, by the gift of a pair of silk stockings,'-poor wretch! Besides Brown, there are Massey, and various Englishmen of mark with this Malignant Army. Massey's Brother, a subaltern person in London, is one of the conspirators with Christopher Love.-The Lord General has in the interim made his Third Visit to Glasgow; concerning which there are no details worth giving here.† Christopher Love, on the 5th of this month, was condemned to die.‡


For the Honorable William Lenthall, Speaker of the Parliament of England: These.

Linlithgow, 21st July, 1651.


After our waiting upon the Lord, and not knowing what course to take, for indeed we know nothing but what God pleaseth to

* North Ferry, 22 July, 1651 (Whitlocke, p. 472): the Battle was on Sunday, the 20th. See also Balfour, iv., 313.

† Whitlocke, p. 471; Milton State-Papers, p. 84 (11 July, 1651). Wood, iii., 278, &c.

teach us of His great mercy,—we were directed to send a Party to get us a landing on the Fife coast' by our boats, whilst we marched towards Glasgow.

On Thursday morning last, Colonel Overton, with about one-thousand four-hundred foot and some horse and dragoons, landed at the North Ferry in Fife; we with the Army lying near the Enemy (a small river parted us and them), and having consultations to attempt the Enemy within his fortifications: but the Lord was not pleased to give way to that counsel, proposing a better way for us. The Major-General 'Lambert' marched, on Thursday night, with two regiments of horse and two regiments of foot, for better securing the place; and to attempt upon the Enemy, as occasion should serve. He getting over, and finding a considerable body of the Enemy there (who would probably have beaten our men from the place if he had not come), drew out and fought them; he being about two regiments of horse, with about four-hundred of horse and dragoons more, and three regiments of foot; the Enemy five regiments of foot, and about four or five of horse. They came to a close charge, and in the end totally routed the Enemy; having taken about forty or fifty colors, killed near two-thousand, some say more; have taken Sir John Brown, their Major-General, who commanded in chief,-and other Colonels and considerable Officers killed and taken, and about five or six hundred prisoners. The Enemy is removed from their ground with their whole Army; but whither we do not certainly know.

This is an unspeakable mercy. I trust the Lord will follow it until He hath perfected peace and truth. We can truly say, we were gone as far as we could in our counsel and action; and we did say one to another, we know not what to do. Wherefore it's sealed upon our hearts, that this, as all the rest, is from the Lord's goodness, and not from man. I hope it becometh me to pray, That we may walk humbly and self-denyingly before the Lord, and believingly also. That you whom we serve, as the Authority over us, may do the work committed to you, with uprightness and faithfulness,—and thoroughly, as to the Lord. That you may not suffer anything to remain that offends the eyes of His jealousy. That common weal may more and more be sought, and justice done impartially. For the eyes of the Lord run to and fro; and as He finds out His enemies here, to be avenged on them, so will He not spare them for whom he doth good, if by his lovingkindness they become not good. I shall take the humble boldness to represent this Engagement of David's, in the Hundred-and-nineteenth Psalm, verse Hundred-and-thirty-fourth, Deliver me from the oppression of man, so will I keep Thy precepts.

I take leave, and rest,

Sir, your most humble servant,


P.S. The carriage of the Major-General, as in all other things so in this, is worthy of your taking notice of; as also the Colonels Okey, Overton, Daniel, West, Lydcot, Syler, and the rest of the Officers.*

Matters now speedily take another turn. At the Castle of 'Dundas' we are still on the South side of the Frith; in front of the Scotch lines, though distant: but Inchgarvie, often tried with gunboats, now surrenders; Burntisland, by force of gunboats and dispiritments, surrenders: the Lord General himself goes across into Fife. The following Letters speak for themselves.


'To the Right Honorable the Lord President of the Council of State : These.'

Dundas, 24th July, 1651.

MY LORD, It hath pleased God to put your affairs here in some hopeful way, since the last Defeat given to the Enemy.

I marched with the Army very near to Stirling, hoping thereby to get the Pass; and went myself with General Dean, and some others, up to Bannockburn; hearing that the Enemy were marched on the other side towards our forces in Fife. Indeed they went four or five miles on towards them; but hearing of my advance, in all haste they retreated back, and possessed the Park, and their other works. Which we viewed; and finding them not advisable to attempt, resolved to march to Queensferry, and there to ship over so much of the Army as might hopefully be master of the field in Fife. Which accordingly we have almost perfected; and have left, on this side, somewhat better than four regiments of horse, and as many of foot.

I hear now the Enemy's great expectation is to supply themselves in the West with recruits of men, and what victual they can get: for they may expect none out of the North, when once our Army shall interpose between them and St. Johnston. To prevent their prevalency in the West, and making incursions into the Borders of England,†





Newspapers (in Parl. Hist., xix., 494; and Cromwelliana, p. 105). Sir Harry Vane, who reads the Letter in Parliament, judges it prudent to stop here (Commo is Journals, vi., 614).

Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, p. 107).


To the Right Honorable the Lord President of the Council of State:


Linlithgow, 26th July, 1651.

MY LORD, We are, with ten regiments of foot, and ten of horse, in Fife, and eight cannon, ready for the field. We have discovered the Enemy, which we found to be their whole Army. We thought they would have fought us; but they retreated.

Our Party is made so strong on the other side the Water, that they are fit to fight the Enemy, if they can be brought to engage. They are sufficient to check any attempt of theirs from breaking into England.

Inchgarvie, a Castle upon a rock between Queensferry and the neck of the land, is surrendered; with sixteen pieces of ordnance, and all the ammunition in it,-except the soldiers' swords, with which and their baggage they marched away. "I rest,

'Your most humble servant,' OLIVER CROMWELL.†


To my very loving Brother, Richard Mayor, Esquire, at Hursley:


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Burntisland,' 28th July, 1651.


I was glad to receive a Letter from you; for indeed anything that comes from you is very welcome to me. I believe your expectation of my Son's coming is deferred. I wish he may see a happy delivery of his Wife first, for whom I frequently pray.

I hear my Son hath exceeded his allowance, and is in debt. Truly I cannot commend him therein; wisdom requiring his living within compass, and calling for it at his hands. And in my judgment, the reputation arising from thence would have been more real honor than what

* The Enemy.

† Newspapers (in Parliamentary History, xix., 498).

Noble's registers are very defective! These Letters, too, were before the poor man's eyes.

attained the other way. I believe vain men will speak well of him that does ill.

I desire to be understood that I grudge him not laudable recreations, nor an honorable carriage of himself in them; nor is any matter of charge, like to fall to my share, a stick* with me. Truly I can find in my heart to allow him not only a sufficiency but more, for his good. But if pleasure and self-satisfaction be made the business of a man's life, 'and' so much cost laid out upon it, so much time spent in it, as rather answers appetite than the will of God, or is comely before His Saints,-I scruple to feed this humor; and God forbid that his being my Son should be his allowance to live not pleasingly to our heavenly Father, who hath raised me out of the dust to be what I am!

I desire your faithfulness (he being also your concernment as well as mine) to advise him to approve himself to the Lord in his course of life; and to search His statutes for a rule to conscience, and to seek grace from Christ to enable him to walk therein. This hath life in it, and will come to somewhat: what is a poor creature without this? This will not abridge of lawful pleasures; but teach such a use of them as will have the peace of a good conscience going along with it. Sir, I write what is in my heart: I pray you communicate my mind herein to my Son, and be his remembrancer in these things. Truly I love him, he is dear to me; so is his Wife; and for their sakes do I thus write. They shall not want comfort nor encouragement from me, so far as I may afford it. But indeed I cannot think I do well to feed a voluptuous humor in my Son, if he should make pleasures the business of his life,in a time when some precious Saints are bleeding, and breathing out their last, for the safety of the rest. Memorable is the speech of Uriah to David (Second Samuel, xi. 11).*

Sir, I beseech you believe I here say not this to save my purse; for I shall willingly do what is convenient to satisfy his occasions, as I have opportunity. But as I pray he may not walk in a course not pleasing to the Lord, so 'I' think it lieth upon me to give him, in love, the best counsel I may; and know not how better to convey it to him than by so good a hand as yours. Sir, I pray you acquaint him with these thoughts of mine. And remember my love to my Daughter; for whose sake I

* Stop.


† And Uriah said unto David, The Ark, and Israel, and Judah abide in tents; and my lord Joab, and the servants of my lord, are encamped in the open fields shall I then go into mine house, to eat and to drink, and to lie with my wife? As thou livest, and as thy soul liveth, I will not do this thing.'

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