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weak our hearts are, and how subtile the Adversary is, and what way the deceitfulness of our hearts and the vain world make for his temptations. The Lord give them truth of heart to Him. Let them seek Him in truth, and they shall find Him.

My love to the dear little ones; I pray for grace for them. I thank them for their Letters; let me have them often.

Beware of my Lord Herbert's resort to your house. If he do so, it may occasion scandal, as if I were bargaining with him. Indeed, be wise, you know my meaning. Mind Sir Henry Vane of the business of my Estate. Mr. Floyd knows my whole mind in that matter.

If Dick Cromwell and his Wife be with you, my dear love to them. I pray for them; they shall, God willing, hear from me. I love them very dearly. Truly I am not able as yet to write much; I am weary, rest thine,




Betty' and 'he' are Elizabeth Claypole and her Husband; of whom, for the curious, there is a longwinded intricate account by Noble, but very little discoverable in it. They lived at Norborough, near Market Deeping, but in Northamptonshire; where, as already intimated, the Lady Protectress, Widow Elizabeth Cromwell, after the Restoration, found a retreat. They had at least three sons and daughters.' Claypole became Master of the Horse' to Oliver; sat in Parliament; made an elegant appearance in the world :-but dwindled sadly after his widowhood; his second marriage ending in 'separation,' in a third quasi-marriage, and other confusions, poor man! But as yet the Lady Claypole lives; bright and brave. Truly they are dear to me, very dear.'





Dick Cromwell and his Wife' seem to be up in Town on a visit;-living much at their ease in the Cockpit, they. Brother Henry, in these same days, is out in the King's County' in Ireland; doing hard duty at Ballybawn,' and elsewhere,+-the distinguished Colonel Cromwell. And Deputy Ireton, with his labors, is wearing himself to death. In the same house, one works, another goes idle.

'The Lord Herbert' is Henry Somerset, eldest son of the now

* Cole Mss., xxxiii., 37: a copy; copies are frequent. † ii., 375, &c.

Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, p. 102).

Marquis of Worcester,-of the Lord Glamorgan whom we knew slightly at Ragland, in 'Irish Cessations' and such like; whose Century of Inventions is still slightly known to here and there a reader of Old Books. This Lord Herbert,' it seems, 'became Duke of Beaufort after the Restoration.' For obvious reasons, you are to beware of his resort to your house at present.' A Papist of the Papists; which may give rise to commentaries. One stupid Annotator on a certain Copy of this Letter says, 'His Lordship had an intrigue with Mrs. Claypole ;'-which is evidently downright stupor and falsehood, like so much else,


UPON the Surrender of Edinburgh Castle due provision had been made for conveyance of the Public Writs and Registers to what quarter the Scotch Authorities might direct; and Passes' under the Lord General's hand duly granted for that end. Archibald Johnston, Lord Register, we conclude, had superintended the operation; had, after much labor, bundled the Public Writs properly together into masses, packages; and put them on shipboard, considering this the eligiblest mode of transport towards Stirling and the Scotch head-quarters at present. But now it has fallen out, in the middle of last month, that the said ship has been taken, as many ships and shallops on both sides now are; and the Public Writs are in jeopardy: whereupon ensues correspondence; and this fair Answer from my Lord General.

To the Honorable Archibald Johnson, Lord Register of Scotland: These.'

Edinburgh, 12th April, 1651.


Upon the perusal of the Passes formerly given for the safe passing of the Public Writs and Registers of the Kingdom of Scotland, I do think they* ought to be restored: and they shall be so, to such persons as you shall appoint to receive them; with passes for persons and vessels, to carry them to such place as shall be appointed :-so that it be done within one month next following.

* The Writs and Registers.

I herewith send you a Pass for your Servant to go into Fife, and to return with the other Clerks; I rest,

Your servant,

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Warriston's answer, written on Monday, the 12th being Saturday, is given also in Thurloe. The Lord General's phrase, 'perusal of the Passes,' we now find, means 'reperusal,' new sight of them; which, Archibald earnestly urges, is impossible; the original Passes being now far off in the hands of the Authorities, and the Writs in a state of imminent danger, lying in a ship at Leith, as Archibald obscurely intimates, which the English Governor has got his claws over, and keeps shut up in dock; with a considerable leak in her too: very bad stowage for such goods.† Which obscure intimation of Archibald's becomes lucid to us, as to the Lord General it already was, when we read this sentence of Bulstrode's, under date 22d March, 1650–1:‘Letters that the Books and Goods belonging to the' Scotch 'King and Regis. ter were taken by the Parliament's ships; and another ship, laden with oats, meal, and other provisions, going to Fife: twenty-two prisoners. For captures and small sea-surprisals abound in the Frith at present; the Parliament-ships busy on one hand; and the Captain of the Bass,' the Shippers of Wemyss,' and the like active persons doing their duty on the other,—whereby infinite' biscuit,' and such small ware, is from time to time realized.§

Without doubt the Public Writs were all re-delivered, according to the justice of the case; and the term of 'one month,' which Archibald pleads hard to get lengthened, was made into two, or the necessary time. Archibald's tone towards the Lord General is anxiously respectful, nay submissive and subject. In fact, Archibald belongs, if not by profession, yet by invincible tendency, to the Remonstrant Ker-and-Strahan Party; and looks dimly forward to a time when there will be no refuge for him, and the like of him, but Cromwell. Strahan,' in the month of January last, is already excommunicated, and solemnly deliv


* Thurloe, i.,117. Records of the Laigh Parliament House.

†Thurloe, ibid.

Whitlocke, p. 490.

§ Balfour, iv., 204, 241, 251, &c.

ered to the Devil, in the Church of Perth.**
have to look for, from a Quasi-Malignant set of men!


This Archibald, as is well known, sat afterwards in Cromwell's Parliaments; became one of Cromwell's Lords ;'-and ultimately lost his life for these dangerous services. Archibald Johnston of Warriston; loose-flowing Bishop Burnet's uncle by the Mother's side: a Lord Register of whom all the world has heard. Redactor of the Covenanters' Protests, 1637 and onwards; redactor perhaps of the Covenant itself; canny lynx-eyed Lawyer, and austere Presbyterian Zealot; full of fire, of heavy energy and gloom: in fact, a very notable character;-of whom our Scotch friends might do well to give us farther elucidations. Certain of his Letters edited by Lord Hailes,† a man of fine intelligence, though at that time ignorant of this subject, have proved well worth their paper and ink. Many more, it appears, still lie in the Edinburgh Archives. A good selection and edition of them were desirable. But, alas, will any human soul ever again love poor Warriston, and take pious pains with him, in this world? Properly it turns all upon that; and the chance seems rather dubious !

This is what you


THAT Note to Warriston, and the Letter to Elizabeth Cromwell, as may have been observed, are written on the same day, Saturday, 12th April, 1651. Directly after which, on Wednesday, the 16th, there is a grand Muster of the Army on Musselburgh Links; preparatory to new operations. Blackness Fort has surrendered; Inchgarvie Island is beset by gunboats: Colonel Monk, we perceive, who has charge of these services, is to be made Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance and now there is to be an attack on Burntisland with gunboats, which also, one hopes, may succeed. As for the Army, it is to go westward this same afternoon; try whether cautious Lesley, straitened or assaulted from

* Balfour, iv., 240.

† Memorials and Letters in the reign of Charles I. (Glasgow, 1766.)

both west and east, will not come out of his Stirling fastness, so that some good may be done upon him. The Muster is held on Musselburgh Links; whereat the Lord General, making his appearance, is received with shouts and acclamations,' the sight of him infinitely comfortable to us.* The Lord General's health is somewhat re-established, though he has had relapses, and still tends a little towards ague. 'About three in the afternoon' all is on march towards Hamilton; quarters mostly in the field there.' Where the Lord General himself arrives, on Friday night, late; and on the morrow afternoon we see Glasgow again.

Concerning which here are two notices from opposite points of compass, curiously corroborative of one another; which we must not withhold. Face-to-face glimpses into the old dead actualities; worth rescuing with a Cromwell in the centre of them.

The first is from Baillie ;† shows us a glance of our old friend Carstairs withal. Read this fraction of a Letter: "Reverend and dear brother, For preventing of mistakes," lest you should think us loose-laced Remonstrant sectarian individuals, 66 we have thought meet to advertise you that Cromwell having come to Hamilton on Friday late, and to Glasgow on Saturday with a body of his Army, sooner than we could well with safety have retired ourselves," there was nothing for it but to stay and abide him here! "On Sunday forenoon he came unexpectedly to the High Inner Kirk; where quietly he heard Mr. Robert Ramsay," unknown to common readers, "preach a very honest sermon, pertinent to his" Cromwell's " In the afternoon he came, as unexpectedly, to the High Outer Kirk; where he heard Mr. John Carstairs," our old friend, "lecture, and” a “Mr. James Durham preach, graciously, and weel to the times as could have been desired." So that you see we are not of the loose-laced species, we! "And generally all who preached that day in the Town gave a fair enough testimony against the Sectaries."-Whereupon, next day, Cromwell sent for us to confer with him in a friendly manner. "All of us did meet to advise," for the case was grave: however, we have decided to go; nay are just go


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