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A week after, we find the General very serious ; writing thus to the Lord President Bradshaw.

LETTER LXXXVII.

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COPPERSPATH,' of which the General here speaks, is the country pronunciation of Cockburnspath ; name of a wild rock-and-river chasm, through which the great road goes, some miles to the eastward of Dunbar. Of which we shall hear again. A very wild road at that time, as may still be seen.

The ravine is now spanned by a beautiful Bridge, called Pease Bridge, or Path's Bridge, which pleasure parties go to visit.

To the Right Honorable the Lord President of the Council of State :

These.

My LORD,

Musselburgh, 30th July, 1650. We marched from Berwick upon Monday, being the 22d of July; and lay at my Lord Mordington's house, Monday night, Tuesday, and Wednesday. On Thursday we marched to Copperspath; on Friday to Dunbar, where we got some small pittance from our ships ; from whence we marched to Haddington.

On the Lord's day, hearing that the Scottish Army meant to meet us at Gladsmoor, we labored to possess the Moor before them; and beat our drums very early in the morning. But when we came there, no considerable body of the Army appeared Whereupon Fourteen-hundred horse, under the command of Major-General Lambert and Colonel Whalley, were sent as a vanguard to Musselburgh, 10 see likewise if they could find out and attempt anything upon the Enemy; I marching in the heel of them with the residue of the Army. Our party encountered with some of their horse ; but they could not abide us. We lay at Musselburgh, encamped close, that night; the Enemy's Army lying between Edinburgh and Leith, about four miles from us, entrenched by a Line flankered from Edinburgh to Leith; the guns also from Leith scouring most parts of the Line, so that they lay very strong.

Upon Monday, 29th instant, we were resolved to draw up to them, to see if they would fight with us. And when we came upon the place, we resolved to get our cannons as near them as we could; hoping thereby to annoy them. We likewise perceived that they had some force upon a Hill that overlooks Edinburgh, from whence we might be annoyed; and' did resolve to send up a party to possess the said Hill; -which

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prevailed: but, upon the whole, we did find that their Army were not easily to be attempted. Whereupon we lay still all the said day; which proved to be so sore a day and night of rain as I have seldom seen, and greatly to our disadvantage; the Enemy having enough to cover them, and we nothing at all considerable.* Our soldiers did abide this difficulty with great courage and resolution, hoping they should speedily come to fight. In the morning, the ground being very wet, 'and' our provisions scarce, we resolved to draw back to our quarters at Musselburgh, there to refresh and revictual.

The Enemy, when we drew off, fell upon our rear; and put them into some little disorder : but our bodies of horse being in some readiness, came to a grabble with them ;-where indeed there was a gallant and hot dispute; the Major-Generalf and Colonel Whalley being in the rear; and the Enemy drawing out great bodies to second their first affront. Our men charged them up to the very trenches, and beat them in. The Major-General's horse was shot in the neck and head; himself run through the arm with a lance, and run into another place of his body,

ken prisoner by the Enemy, but rescued immediately by Lieutenant Empson of my regiment. Colonel Whalley, who was then nearest to the Major-General, did charge very resolutely; and repulsed the Enemy, and killed divers of them upon the place, and took some prisoners, without any considerable loss. Which indeed did so amaze and quiet them, that we marched off to Musselburgh, but they dared not send out a man to trouble us. We hear their young King looked on upon this, but was very ill satisfied to see their men do no better.

We came to Musselburgh that night; so tired and wearied for want of sleep, and so dirty by reason of the wetness of the weather, that we expected the Enemy would make an infall upon us. Which accordingly they did, between three and four of the clock, this morning; with fifteen of their most select troops, under the command of Major-General Montgomery and Strahan, two champions of the Church :-upon which business there was great hope and expectation laid. The Enemy came on with a great deal of resolution ; beat in our guards, and put a regiment of horse in some disorder : but our men, speedily taking the alarm, charged the Enemy; routed them, took many prisoners, killed a great many of them ; did execution 'to' within a quarter of a mile of Edinburgh; and, I am informed, Strahant was killed there, besides divers

* Near a little village named, I think, Lichnagarie,'—means, Lang Niddery (Hodgson, p. 132).

† Lambert. # We shall hear of Strahan again, not killed.' This Montgomery is the

men more.

other Officers of quality. We took the Major to Strahan's regiment, Major Hamilton; a Lieutenant-Colonel, and divers other Officers, and persons of quality, whom yet we know not. Indeed this is a sweet beginning of your business, or rather the Lord's; and I believe is not very satisfactory to the Enemy, especially to the Kirk party. We did not lose any in this business, so far as I hear, but a Cornet; I do not hear of four

The Major-General will, I believe, within few days be well to take the field. And I trust this work, which is the Lord's, will prosper in the hands of His servants.

I did not think advisable to attempt upon the Enemy, lying as he doth: but surely this would sufficiently provoke him to fight if he had a mind to it. I do not think he is less than Six or Seven thousand horse, and Fourteen or Fifteen thousand foot. The reason, I hear, that they give out to their people why they do not fight us, is, Because they expect many bodies of men more out of the North of Scotland; which when they come, they give out they will then engage. But I believe they would rather tempt us to attempt them in their fastness, within which they are entrenched; or else hoping we shall famish for want of provisions ;-which is very likely to be, if we be not timely and fully supplied. I remain,

My Lord,
Your most humble servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL.

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*P.S.' I understand since writing of this Letter, that Major-General Montgomery is slain.*

Cautious David Lesley lies thus within his Line flankered' from Leith shore to the Calton Hill, with guns to 'scour'it; with outposts or flying parties, as we see, stationed on the back slope of Salisbury Crags or Arthur's Seat; with all Edinburgh safe behind him, and indeed all Scotland safe behind him for supplies : and nothing can tempt him to come out. The factions and distractions of Scotland, and its Kirk Committees and State Commit. tees, and poor Covenanted King and Courtiers, are many; but Lesley, standing steadily to his guns, persists here. His Army, it appears, is no great things of an Army : altogether governed by the Committee of Estates and Kirk,' snarls an angry Uncove

Earl of Eglinton's son Robert, neither is he slain' (Douglas's Scotch Peerage, i., 503).

* Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, pp. 85, 6).

nanted Courtier, whom the said Committee has just ordered to take himself away again ; altogether governed by the Committee of Estates and Kirk,' snarls he, “and they took especial care in their levies not to admit any Malignants or Engagers' (who had been in Hamilton's Engagement); placing in command, for most part, Ministers' Sons, Clerks and other sanctified creatures, who hardly ever saw or heard of any sword but that of the spirit!'* The more reason for Lesley to lie steadily within his Line here. Lodged in · Bruchton Village, which means Broughton, now a part of Edinburgh New Town; there in a cautious solid manner lies Lesley; and lets Cromwell attempt upon him. It is his history, the military history of these two, for a month to come.

Meanwhile the General Assembly have not been backward with their Answer to the Cromwell Manifesto, or · Declaration of the English Army to all the Saints in Scotland,' spoken of above. Nay, already while he lay at Berwick, they had drawn up an eloquent Counter-Declaration, and sent it to him; which he, again, has got some godly Ministers' of his to declare against and reply to: the whole of which Declarations, Replies and Rereplies shall, like the primary Document itself, remain suppressed on the present occasion.t But along with this · Reply by some godly Ministers, the Lord General sends a Letter of his own, which is here:

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LETTER LXXXVIII.

To the General Assembly of the Kirk of Scotland ; or, in case of their not sitting, To the Commissioners of the Kirk of Scotland: These.

Musselburgh, 3d August, 1650. - SIRS,

Your Answer to the Declaration of the Army we have seen. Some godly Ministers with us did, at Berwick, compose this Reply; which I thought fit to send you.

That you or we, in these great Transactions, answer the will and

* Sir Edward Walker : Historical Discourses (London, 1705), p. 162. 7 Titles of them, copies of several of them, in Parliamentary History, xix.

mind of God, it is only from His grace and mercy to us. And therefore, having said as in our Papers, we commit the issue thereof to Him who disposeth all things, assuring you that we have light and comfort increasing upon us, day by day; and are persuaded that, before it be long, the Lord will manifest His good pleasure, so that all shall see Him; and His People shall say, This is the Lord's work, and it is marvellous in our eyes : this is the day that the Lord hath made ; we will be glad and rejoice therein.-Only give me leave to say, in a word, “thus much :'

You take upon you to judge us in the things of our God, though you know us not,—though in the things we have said unto you, in that which is entitled the Army's Declaration, we have spoken our hearts as in the sight of the Lord who hath tried us. And by your hard and subtle words you have begotten prejudice in those who do too much, in matters of conscience,—wherein every soul is to answer for itself to God,—depend upon you. So that some have already followed you, to the breathing-out of their souls :* . and others continue still in the way wherein they are led by you,—we fear, to their own ruin.

And no marvel if you deal thus with us, when indeed you can find in your hearts to conceal from your own people the Papers we have sent you; who might thereby see and understand the bowels of our affections to them, especially to such among them as fear the Lord. Send as many of your Papers as you please amongst ours ;t they have a free passage. I fear them not. What is of God in them, would it might be embraced and received !-One of them lately sent, directed To the Under-officers and Soldiers in the English Army, hath begotten from them this enclosed Answer; which they desired me to send to you: not a crafty politic one, but a plain simple spiritual one ;—what kind of one it is God knoweth, and God also will in due time make manifest.

And do we multiply these things,f as men; or do we them for the Lord Christ and His People's sake? Indeed we are not, through the grace of God, afraid of your numbers, nor confident in ourselves. We could,—I pray

do not think we boast,-meet your Army, or what you have to bring against us. We have given,-humbly we speak it before our God, in whom all our hope is,—some proof that thoughts of that kind prevail not upon us. The Lord hath not hid His face from us since our approach so near unto you.

Your own guilt is too much for you to bear: bring not therefore upon yourselves the blood of innocent men,-deceived with pretences of King and Covenant; from whose eyes you hide a better knowledge! I am persuaded that divers of you, who lead the People, have labored to build * In the Musselburgh Skirmish, &c.

+ Our people. | Papers and Declarations.

God you

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