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cue, near eight hours too late. It pleased God we sent them word by a nearer way, To march close, and be circumspect, and to make what haste they could to Wexford, by the sea-side. They had marched near eighteen miles, and were come within seven miles of Wexford (the foot being miserably wearied), when the Enemy gave the scouts of the rearguard an alarm. Whereupon they immediately drew up in the best order they could upon the sands, the sea on the one hand, and the rocks on the other; where the Enemy made a very furious charge; "and' overbearing our horse with their numbers, which, as some of their prisoners confess, were Fifteen rundred of their best horse, forced them in some disorder back to the foot. Our foot stood; forbearing their firing till the Enemy was come almost within pistol-shot, and then let fly very full in the faces of them: whereby some of them began to tumble; the rest running off in a very great disorder ;-and 'they' faced not about until they got above musket-shot off. Upon this our horse took encouragement; drawing up again; bringing up some foot to flank them. And a gentleman of ours, that had charged through before, being amongst them undiscerned, having put his signal into his hat as they did,—took his opportunity and came off; letting our men know, That the Enemy was in great confusion and disorder, and that if they could attempt another charge, he was confident good might be done on them. It pleased God to give our men courage; they advanced ; and, falling upon the Enemy, totally routed them; took two colors and divers prisoners, and killed divers upon the place and in the pursuit. I do not hear that we have two men killed ; and but one mortally wounded, and not five that are taken prisoners.

The quick march of our party made Inchiquin that he could reach them with nothing but his horse, hoping to put them to a stand until his foot came up; which if he had done, there had probably been no saving of a man of this party. Without doubt Inchiquin, Trevor, and the rest of those people, who are very good at this work, had swallowed up this party! And indeed it was, in human probability, lost; but God, that defeated Trevor in his attempt upon Venables (which Trevor, as I hear this night from the Enemy's camp, was shot through the belly, in this service, and is carried to Kilkenny,—and Sir Thomas Armstrong is also

dangerous camisado in the North lately; and was not far from ruining him, had the end corr onded with the beginni (see Carte, ii., 89). To which Cromwell alludes, by and by, in this Letter. Lord Inchiquin, a man of Royalist-Presbyterian tendencies, has fought long on various sides. The name Armstrong is not yet much of a ranter; but a new Sir Thomas will become famous under Titus Oates. Ludlow gives a curious account of this same running-fight on the sea-beach of Arcklow (i., 309). VOL. I.

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wounded), hath disappointed them, and poured shame upon them in this defeat; giving us the lives of a company of our dear friends, which I hope will be improved to His glory and their country's good.

Sir, having given you this account, I shall not trouble you much with particular desires. Those I shall humbly present to the Council of State. Only, in the general, give me leave humbly to offer what in my judgment I conceive to be for your service, with a full submission to you. We desire recruits. It is not good not to follow providences.* Your recruits, and the forces desired will not raise your charge, if your assignments already for the forces here do come to our hands in time. I should not doubt .but’ by the addition of assessments here, to have your charge in some reasonable measure borne; and the soldier upheld, without too much neglect or discouragement,—which sickness, in this country so ill agreeing with their bodies, puts upon them; and which'this Winter's-action, I believe not heretofore known by English in this country, subjects them to. To the praise of God I speak it, I scarce know one officer of forty amongst us that hath not been sick.

Wherefore I humbly beg, that the monies desired may be seasonably sent over; and those other necessaries, clothes, shoes, and stockings, formerly desired; that so poor creatures may be encouraged: and, through the same blessed Presence that has gone along with us, I hope, before it be long, to see Ireland no burden to England, but a profitable part of its Commonwealth. And certainly the extending your help in this way, at this time, is the most profitable means speedily to effect it. Craving pardon for this trouble, I rest, Your most humble and faithful servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL.

LETTER LXXX.

Commons Journals, 120 Decembris, 1649: “A Letter from the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was this day read. Ordered, That the said Letter be forthwith printed and published ;'-Lord Mayor to be sure and send it to all the Ministers next Lord's Day, who are to be, as they best may, the voice of our devout thankfulness for these great mercies.' Here is the Letter still extant for

pos. terity, with or without the thankfulness.

We cannot give the exact day of date. The Letter exists, * Beckonings of Providence. † Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, pp. 69-71).

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separate, or combined, with other matter, in various old Pamphlets ; but is nowhere dated ; and in fact, as the Entry in the Commons Journals may indicate, was never dated either as to place or time. The place we learn by the context : the time was after Saturday, November 24th,* and before December had yet begun ;-proba. bly enough, Sunday, November 25th.

For the Honorable William Lenthall, Speaker of the Parliament

of England : These.

• Before Waterford, -November, 1649. Mr. SPEAKER,

The Enemy being quartered between the two rivers of Nore and Barrow, and masters of all the passages thereupon ; and giving out their resolutions to fight us, thereby, as we conceived, laboring to get reputation in the countries, and occasion more strength, -it was thought fit our Army should march towards them. Which accordingly upon Thursday, the 15th instant, was done. The MajorGeneral and Lieutenant-Generalt (leaving me very sick at Ross behind them), with two battering guns, advanced towards Inistioge; a little walled Town about five miles from Ross, upon the Nore, on the south side thereof, which was possessed by the Enemy. But a party of our men under the command of Colonel Abbot, the night before, approaching the gates, and attempting to fire the same, the Enemy ran away through the River, leaving good store of provisions behind them.

Our Commanders hoped by gaining this Town to have gained a pass. I But indeed there fell so much sudden wet as made the River unpassable, by that time the Army was come up. Whereupon, hearing that the Enemy lay about two miles off upon the River, near Thomastown, a pretty large walled Town upon the Nore, on the north side thereof, having a bridge over the River,-our Army marched thither. But the Enemy had broken the bridge, and garrisoned the town; and in the view of our Army, marched away to Kilkenny,—seeming; though I believe they were double our number, to decline an engagement. Which they had the power to have necessitated us unto; but “which it’ was noways in our power, if they would stand upon the advantage of the Passes, to engage them unto ;-nor indeed was it in our power' to continue two days longer, having almost spent all the bread theyệ carried with them.

* See postea, pp. 406; and Whitlocke, 2d edition, p. 433. | Ireton, and Jones.

| A ford over the River. 8. They' and 'them' mean we and us: the swift-rushing sentence here alters its personality from first person to third, and so goes on.

Whereupon, seeking God for direction, they resolved to send a good party of horse and dragoons under Colonel Reynolds to Carrick; and to march the residue of the Army back towards Ross,—to gain more bread for the prosecution of that design, if by the blessing of God it should take. Colonel Reynolds marching with twelve troops of horse, and three troops of dragoons, came betimes in the morning to Carrick. Where, dividing himself into two parties,—whilst they were amazed with the one, he entered one of the Gates with the other. Which their soldiers perceiving, divers of them and their officers escaped over the River in boats : about an hundred officers and soldiers were taken prisoners, without the loss of one man on our part. In this place is a very good Castle, and one of the ancientest seats belonging to the Lord of Ormond, in Ireland: the same was rendered without any loss also, where were good store of provisions for the refreshing of our men.

The Colonel giving us speedy intelligence of God's mercy in this, we agreed to march, with all convenient speed, the residue of the Army up thither. Which accordingly was done, upon Wednesday and Thursday the 21st and 22d of this instant; and, through God's mercy, I was enabled to bear them company. Being come hither, we did look at it as an especial good hand of Providence to give us this place; inasmuch as it gives us a passage over the River Suir to the City of Waterford, and indeed into Munster to our shipping and provisions, which before were beaten from us out of Waterford Bay by the Enemy's guns. It hath given us also opportunity to besiege or block up Waterford; and we hope our gracious God will therein direct us also. It hath given us also the opportunity of our guns, ammunition, and victual; and indeed quarter for our horse, which could not have subsisted much longer: 80 sweet a mercy was the giving of this little place unto us.

Having rested there a night, and by noon of the next day gotten our Army over the River ;-leaving Colonel Reynolds with about One-hundred and fifty foot, his own six troops of horse, and one troop of dragoons, with a very little ammunition according to the smallness of our marching store ;-we marched away towards Waterford, upon Friday, the 23d; and on Saturday about noon came before the City. The Enemy, being not a little troubled at this unsuspected business (which indeed was the mere guidance of God), marched down with great fury towards Carrick, with their whole Army, resolving to swallow it

and upon Saturday the 24th, assault the place round, thinking to take it by storm. But God had.otherwise determined. For the troopers and the rest of the soldiers, with stones did so pelt them, they were forced to draw off; after continuing near four hours under the walls ;* “after having burnt the Gates, which our men barricaded up with stones; and likewise “having' digged under the walls, and sprung a small mine, which flew in their own faces. But they left about forty or fifty men dead under the Walls; and have drawn off, as some say, near 400 more, which they buried up and down the fields; besides what are wounded. And, as Inchiquin himself confessed in the hearing of some of their soldiers lately come to us, this' hath lost him above a thousand men.--The Enemy was drawing off his dead a good part of the night. They were in such haste upon the assault, that they killed their own trumpeter as he was returning with an Answer to the Summons sent by them. Both in the taking and defending of this place Colonel Reynolds his carriage was such as deserves much honor.†

up;

* The Castle.

Upon our coming before Waterford, I sent the Lieutenant-General with a regiment of horse, and three troops of dragoons, to endeavor the reducing of the Passage Fort: a very large Fort with a Castle in the midst of it, having five guns planted in it, and commanding the River better than Duncannon; it not being much above musket-shot over, where this Fort stands; and we can bring up hither ships of three-hundred tons, without any danger from Duncannon. Upon the attempt, though our materials were not very apt for the business, yet the Enemy called for quarter,—and had it, and we the place. We also possessed the guns which the Enemy had planted to beat our ships out of the Bay, two miles below. By the taking of this Fort, we shall much straiten Duncannon from provisions by water, as we hope they are not in a condition to get much by land; besides the advantage it is to us to have provisions to come up the River.

It hath pleased the Lord, whilst these things have been thus transacting here, to add to your interest in Munster, Bandon Bridge; the Town (as we hear) upon the matter, thrusting out young Jephson, who was their Governor ; or else he deserting it upon that jealousy. As also Kinsale, and the Fort there : out of which Fort Four-hundred men marched upon articles, when it was surrendered. So that good hand of the Lord, your interest in Munster is near as good already as ever it was since this War began. I sent a party about two days ago to my Lord of Broghil ; from whom I expect to have an account of all.

now,

by the

* Having only a very little ammunition and small use of guns (see Whitlocke, p. 418; Ludlow, &c.).

† We shall hear of Reynolds again.

I 'Young Jephson,' I suppose, is the son of Jephson, Member for Stock. bridge, Hants; one of those whom Pride purged away ;-not without reason, as is here seen,

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