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an opportunity towards Munster; and is for the present a very good refreshment for our men. We are able to say nothing as to all this, but that the Lord is still pleased to own a company of poor worthless creatures; for which we desire His name to be magnified, and that' the hearts of all concerned may be provoked to walk worthy of such continued favors. This is the earnest desire of

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Your most humble servant,
OLIVER CROMWELL.

P.S. Colonel Horton is lately dead of the Country-disease, leaving a Son behind him. He was a person of great integrity and courage. His former services, especially that of the last summer, I hope will be had in remembrance.*

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Poor Horton; he beat the Welsh at St. Fagan's, and did good service last summer;' and now he is dead of the 'Country-disease,'-a pestilence, raging in the rear of Famine and the Spoil of War. Famine has long reigned. When the War ended, Ludlow tells us, it was found necessary to issue a Proclamation that no lambs or calves should be killed for one year,' the stock of cattle being exhausted. Such waste had there been, continues he, in burning the possessions of the English, many of the Natives themselves were driven to starvation; and I have been informed by persons deserving credit, that the same calamity fell upon them even in the first year of the Rebellion, through the depredations of the Irish; and that they roasted men, and ate them, to supply their necessities.'t Such a War is worth ending at some cost!— In the Lord Lieutenant's Army, we learn elsewhere, there was an abundant supply, the country crowding in as to a good market, where sure prices were given, and fair dealing enforced; all manner of depredators being, according to the paper Proclamation, hanged in very authentic hemp. Much better supplied than any of the Irish Armies had ever been.'‡

* Newspapers (in Parl. History, xix., 224-6). † Ludlow, i., 338, 9.

‡ Carte, ii., 90.

LETTER LXXVIII.

HERE is a small glimpse of domesticity again, due to the Pusey Seventeen; very welcome to us in these wild scenes. Mayor has endorsed it at Hursley, 'Received 12th December, 1649.' 'Cousin Barton,' I suppose, is the Barton who boggled at some things in the Marriage-Contracts; a respectable man, though he has his crotchets now and then.

For my beloved Brother, Richard Mayor, Esquire, at Hursley: These.

Ross, 13th November, 1649.

DEAR BROTHER,

I am not often at leisure, nor now, to salute my friends; yet unwilling to lose this opportunity. I take it, only to let you know that you and your Family are often in my prayers. As for Dick, I do not much expect it from him, knowing his idleness; but I am angry with my Daughter as a promise-breaker. Pray tell her so;—but I hope she will redeem herself.

It has pleased the Lord to give us (since the taking of Wexford and Ross) a good interest in Munster, by the accession* of Cork and Youghal, which are both submitted; their Commanders are now with me. Divers other lesser Garrisons are come in also. The Lord is wonderful in these things; it's His hand alone does them; O that all the praise might be ascribed to Him!

me.

I have been crazy in my health; but the Lord is pleased to sustain I beg your prayers. I desire you to call upon my Son to mind the things of God more and more: alas, what profit is there in the things of this world ;-except they be enjoyed in Christ, they are snares. I wish he may enjoy his Wife so, and she him; I wish I may enjoy them both so.

My service to my dear Sister 'and' Cousin Ann; my blessing to my Children, and love to Cousin Barton and the rest.

Sir, I am,

Your affectionate brother and servant,
OLIVER CROMWELL.t

*access,' orig.

† Harris, p. 511; one of the Pusey set, preserved by Dunch, as intimated

above.

LETTER LXXIX.

THE General Blake' of this Letter is Admiral Blake: he, cooperating with Oliver, now dominates these waters. Prince Rupert, with the residue of the Revolted Ships, is lying close, for shelter from him, under the guns of Kinsale ;-verging, poor Prince, to a fugitive roaming sea-life, very like Piracy in some of its features. He abandoned it as desperate, before long. Poor Prince Maurice, sea-roving in like fashion, went to the bottom; sank, in the West Indies, mouse and man; and ended, none knows exactly where, when, or how. Rupert invented, or helped to invent, 'pinchbeck' in subsequent years, and did no other service to the public that I know of.

The defection of Cork and Youghal, full of English influences and complex distractions, followed naturally on Cromwell's successes. In Lady Fanshawe's Memoirs is a vivid account of the universal hurlyburly that took place at Cork, on the verge of this occurrence there: tremulous instant decision what you will do, which side you will join; swift packing in the dead of night; swift riding off, in any carriage, cart, or ass-cart you can bargain with for love or money! Poor Lady Fanshawe got to Galway, there to try it yet a little longer.

For the Honorable William Lenthall, Speaker of the Parliament of England: These.

Ross, 14th November, 1649.

SIR, About a fortnight since, I had some good assurance that Cork was returned to its obedience; and had refused Inchiquin, who did strongly endeavor to redintegrate himself there, but without any success. .* I did hear also that Colonel Townshend was coming to me with their submission and desires, but was interrupted by a Fort at the mouth of Cork Harbor. But having sufficient grounds upon the former information, and other confirmation out of the Enemy's camp that it was true, I desired General Blake, who was here with me, that he would repair thither in Captain Mildmay's Frigate, called the Nonsuch.

* See Carte, ii., 91.

Who, when they came thither, received such entertainment as these enclosed will let you see.

In the meantime the Garland, one of your third-rate Ships, coming happily into Waterford Bay, I ordered her, and a great Prize lately taken in that Bay, to transport Colonel Phayr* to Cork; whitherward he went, having along with him near Five-hundred foot, which I spared him out of this poor Army, and 1,500l. in money;—giving him such instructions as were proper for the promoting of your interest there. As they went with an intention for Cork, it pleased God the wind coming cross, they were forced to ride off from Dungarvan. Where they met Captain Mildmay returning with the Nonsuch Frigate, with Colonel Townsend aboard, coming to me; who advertised them that Youghal had also declared for the Parliament of England. Whereupon they steered their course thither; and sent for Colonel Gifford, Colonel Warden, Major Purden (who with Colonel Townsend have been very active instruments for the return both of Cork and Youghal to their obedience, having some of them adventured their ves twice or thrice to effect it), and the Mayor of Youghal aboard them; who accordingly immediately came and made tender of some propositions to be offered to me. But my Lord Broghil being on board the Ship, assuring them it would be more for their honor and advantage to desire no conditions, they said they would submit. Whereupon my Lord Broghil, Sir William Fenton, and Colonel Phayr, went to the Town; and were received,—I shall give you my Lord Broghil's own words,—" with all the real demonstrations of gladness an overjoyed people were capable of."

Not long after, Colonel Phayr landed his foot. And by the endeavors of the noble person† afore mentioned, and the rest of the gentlemen, the Garrison is put in good order; and the Munster officers and soldiers in that Garrison in a way of settlement. Colonel Phayr intends, as I hear, to leave Two-hundred men there, and to march with the rest overland to Cork. I hear by Colonel Townsend, and the rest of the gentlemen that were employed to me, that Baltimore, Castlehaven, Cappoquin, and some other places of hard names, are come in; as also that there are hopes of other places.

From Sir Charles Coot, Lord President of Connaught, I had a Letter, about three or four days since, That he is come over the Bann, and hath

* He of the King's Death Warrant.

Lord Broghil. The somewhat romantic story of Cromwell's first visit to him, and chivalrous conquest of him, at his lodgings in London, in the dusk of the evening,' is in Collins's Peerage (London, 1741), iv., 253; and in many other Books ;-copied from Morrice's Life of Orrery.

taken Coleraine by storm: and that he is in conjunction with Colonel Venables,―who I hear hath besieged Carrickfergus ; which if through the mercy of God it be taken, I know nothing considerable in the North of Ireland, but Charlemont, that is not in your hands.

We lie with the Army at Ross; where we have been making a bridge over the Barrow, and 'have' hardly yet accomplished 'it' as we could wish. The Enemy lies upon the Nore, on the land between the Barrow and it; having gathered together all the force they can get. Owen Roe's men, as they report them, are Six-thousand foot, and about Fourthousand horse, beside their own Army in this quarter:' and they give out they will have a day for it :—which we hope the Lord in His mercy will enable us to give them, in His own good time. In whom we desire our only trust and confidence may be.

Whilst we have lain here, we have not been without some sweet taste of the goodness of God. Your ships have taken some good prizes. The last was thus: There came-in a Dunkirk man-of-war with 32 guns; who brought in a Turkish man-of-war whom she had taken, and another ship of 10 guns laden with poor-john and oil. These two your ships took. But the man-of-war whose prizes these two were, put herself under the fort of Duncannon, so that your ships could not come near her. It pleased God we had two demi-cannon with the foot on the shore; which being planted, raked her through, killing and wounding her men: so that after ten shot she weighed anchor, and ran into your Fleet, with a flag of submission, surrendering herself. She was well-manned, the prisoners taken being Two-hundred and thirty.—I doubt the taking of prisoners of this sort will cause the wicked trade of Piracy to be endless. They were landed before I was aware and a hundred of them, as I hear, are gotten into Duncannon, and have taken up arms there; and I doubt the rest, that are gone to Waterford, will do us no good. The seamen, being so full of prizes and unprovided of victual, knew not how otherwise to dispose of them.

Another 'mercy' was this. We, having left divers sick men, both horse and foot at Dublin,-hearing many of them were recovered, sent them orders to march up to us; which accordingly they did. Coming to Arcklow, on Monday the first of this instant, being about 350 horse and about 800 foot,-the Enemy, hearing of them (through the great advantage they have in point of intelligence), drew together a body of horse and foot, near 3,000, which Inchiquin commanded. There went also, with this party, Sir Thomas Armstrong, Colonel Trevor, and most of their great ranters.* We sent fifteen or sixteen troops to their res

* Braggarts, great guns.

Trevor had given Venables, as above hinted, a

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