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offending shall be punished, according to the Articles of War made for the government of the Army in the Kingdom of England, which punishment is death.

Each Colonel, or other chief Officer in every regiment, is to transcribe a copy of this; and to cause the same to be delivered to each Captain in his regiment: and every said Captain of each respective troop and company is to publish the same to his troop or company; and to take a strict course that nothing be done contrary hereunto.

Given under my hand, this 20th September, 1648.
OLIVER CROMWELL.*

LETTER XLVII.

For the Right Honorable the Committee of Estates of the Kingdom of Scotland, at Edinburgh: These.

Norham, 21st September, 1648.

RIGHT HONORABLE,

We perceive that there was, upon our advance to the Borders, the last Lord's Day,t a very disorderly carriage by some horse; who, without order, did steal over the Tweed, and plundered some places in the Kingdom of Scotland: and since that, some stragglers have been alike faulty; to the wrong of the inhabitants, and to our very great grief of heart.

I have been as diligent as I can to find out the men that have done the wrong, and I am still in the discovery thereof; and I trust there shall be nothing wanting on my part that may testify how much we abhor such things: and to the best of my information I cannot find the least guilt of the fact‡ to lie upon the regiments of this Army, but upon some of the Northern horse, who have not been under our discipline and government, until just that we came into these parts.

I have commanded those forces away back again into England; and I hope the exemplarity of justice will testify for us our great detestation of the fact. For the remaining regiments, which are of our old forces, we may engage for them their officers will keep them from doing any such things: and we are confident that, saving victual, they shall not take anything from the inhabitants; and in that also they shall be so far from being their own carvers, as that they shall submit to have pro

* Newspapers in Cromwelliana, p.46.

† 21 September, 1648, is Thursday; last Sunday is 17th.

+

'fait.'

visions ordered and proportioned by the consent, and with the direction, of the Committees and Gentlemen of the Country, and not otherwise, if they* please to be assisting to us therein.

I thought fit, for the preventing of misunderstanding, to give your Lordships this account; and rest,

My Lords,

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Your most humble servant,
OLIVER CROMWELL.†

Upon our entrance into Scotland, a Regiment lately raised in the Bishoprick of Durham, under Colonel Wren, behaved themselves rudely; which as soon as the Lieutenant-General of this Army' Cromwell had notice of, he caused it to rendezvous on Tweed banks; and the Scottish people having challenged several horses taken from them by that Regiment, the Lieutenant-General caused the said horses to be restored back, and the plunderers to be cashiered. A Lieutenant that countenanced such deeds was delivered into the Marshal's hands; and the Colonel himself, conniving at them, and not doing justice upon the offenders when complaints were brought in to him, was taken from the head of his Regiment, and suspended from executing his place, until he had answered at a Council of War for his negligence in the performance of his duty. This notable and impartial piece of justice did take very much with the people; and the Regiment is ordered back into Northumberland' +-as we see.

The answer of Loudon Cancellarius' to this Letter from Norham is given in the old Newspapers.§ The date is Edinburgh, 28th September, 1648. Loudon of course is very thankful for such tenderness and kind civilities; thankful especially that the Honorable Lieutenant-General has come so near, and by the dread of him forced the Malignants at Stirling Bridge to come to terms, and leave the Well-affected at peace. A very great blessing to us 'the near distance of your forces at this time,'—though once (you ken varry weel, and Whitlocke kens) we considered

*These Committees.

†Thurloe, i. 103 (From the Public Records of Scotland, in the Laigh Parliament-House at Edinburgh).

+ Perfect Diurnal, October 2 to 9 (in Cromwelliana, p. 47). § Cromwelliana, p. 47.

you an incendiary, and I, O honorable Lieutenant-General, would so fain have had you extinguished,—not knowing what I did!

Norham lies on the South shore of the Tweed, some seven miles above Berwick:

*

'Day set on Norham's castled steep.'

Cromwell went across to Mordington, and met the 'Influential Persons,' on the morrow.

LETTER XLVIII.

' To the Honorable William Lenthall, Speaker of the House of Commons: These.

Berwick, 2d October, 1648.

'SIR,'

* * * Upon Friday, 29th September, came an Order from the Earl of Lanark, and divers Lords of his Party, requiring the Governor of Berwick to march out of the Town; which accordingly he did on Saturday, September 30th;—at which time I entered; and have placed a Garrison there for your use. The Governor would fain have capitulated for the English who were with him;' but we, having this advantage upon him, would not hear it: so that they are submitted to your mercy, and are under the consideration of Sir Arthur Haselrig; who, I believe, will give you a good account of them; and who hath already turned out the Malignant Mayor, and put an honest man in his

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room.

I have also received an Order for Carlisle; and have sent Colonel Bright, with horse and foot, to receive it; Sir Andrew Car and Colonel Scot being gone with him to require observance of the Order; there having been a Treaty and an agreement betwixt the two parties in Scotland, To disband all forces, except fifteen hundred horse and foot, under the Earl of Leven, which are to be kept to see all remaining forces disbanded.

Having some other things to desire from the Committee of Estates at Edinburgh for your service, I am myself going thitherward this day; and so soon as I shall be able to give you a further account thereof, I shall

*Scott's Marmion.

do it. In the meantime, I make it my desire that the Garrison of Berwick (into which I have placed a regiment of foot, which shall be attended also by a regiment of horse) may be provided for; and that Sir Arthur Haselrig may receive commands to supply it with guns and ammunition from Newcastle; and be otherwise enabled by you to furnish this Garrison with all other necessaries, according as a place of that importance will require. Desiring that these mercies may beget trust and thankfulness to God the only author of them, and an improvement of them to His glory and the good of this poor Kingdom, I rest,

Your most humble servant,
OLIVER CROMWELL.*

LETTER XLIX.

"

FOLLOWS here a small Note, enclosing a duplicate of the above Letter, for Fairfax; written chiefly to enforce the request as to Haselrig and Berwick,- Haselridge' and 'Barwick,' as Oliver here spells. Haselrig is Governor of Newcastle, a man of chief authority in those Northern regions.-Fairfax, who has been surveying, regulating, and extensively dining in Townhalls, through the Eastern Counties, is now at St. Albans,f-the Army's headquarters for some time to come.

To his Excellency the Lord Fairfax, at St. Albans: These.'

Berwick, 2d October, 1648.

MAY IT PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENCY,

I received your late Commissions, with your directions how they shall be disposed; which I hope I shall pursue to your satisfaction.

I having sent an account to the House of Commons, am bold (being straitened in time) to present you with a Duplicate thereof, which I trust will give you satisfaction. I hope there is a very good understanding between the Honest Party of Scotland and us here; better than some would have.-Sir, I beg of your Excellency to write to Sir A. Haselrig to take care of Berwick; he having at Newcastle all things necessary for the Garrison 'here,' which is left destitute of all, and may be lost if

Newspapers (Cromwelliana, p. 48).

† Since 16th September, Rushworth, vii., 1271.

this be not 'done.' I beg of your Lordship a Commission to be speeded to him. I have no more at present; but rest,

My Lord,

Your most humble servant,
OLIVER CROMWELL.*

In these weeks, once more, there is an intensely interesting Treaty going on in the Isle of Wight; Treaty of Forty Days with the King; solemn Parliamentary Commissioners on one hand, Majesty with due assistants on the other, very solemnly debating and negotiating day after day, for forty days and longer, in the town of Newport there. The last hope of Presbyterian Royalism in this world. Not yet the last hope of his Majesty; who still, after all the sanguinary ruin of this year, feels himself a tower of strength; inexpugnable in his divine right, which no sane man can question; settlement of the Nation impossible without him. Happily, at any rate, it is the last of the Treaties with Charles Stuart,--for History begins to be weary of them. Treaty which came to nothing, as all the others had done. Which indeed could come only to nothing; his Majesty not having the smallest design to abide by it; his Majesty eagerly consulting about 'escape' all the while,-escape to Ormond who is now in Ireland again, escape somewhither, anywhither ;-and considering the Treaty mainly as a piece of Dramaturgy, which must be handsomely done in the interim, and leave a good impression on the Public. Such is the Treaty of Forty Days; a mere torpor on the page of History; which the reader shall conceive for himself ad libitum. The Army, from head-quarters at St. Albans, regards him and it with a sternly watchful eye; not participating in the hopes of Presbyterian Royalism at all;-and there begin to be Army Councils held again.

As for Cromwell, he is gone forward to Edinburgh; reaches Seaton, the Earl of Winton's House, which is the head-quarters

* Sloane Mss., 1519, f. 92

Warwick, pp. 321-9; Rushworth, vii., &c., &c. Began 18th September; was lengthened out by successive permissions to the 18th, 25th, and even 27th of November.

His own Letters (in Wagstaff's Vindication of the Royal Martyr, in Carte's Ormond, &c.); see Godwin, ii., 608-23.

VOL. I.

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