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and brotherhood between the two Nations. And notwithstanding the
pretence of your late Declaration,* published to take with the people of
this Kingdom, the Commons of England in Parliament Assembled
declared the said Army so entering, Enemies to the Kingdom; and those
of England who should adhere to them, Traitors. And having re-
ceived command to march with a considerable part of their Army, to
oppose so great a violation of faith and justice,-what a witness God,
being appealed to,‡ hath borne, upon the engagement of the two Armies,
against the unrighteousness of man, not only yourselves, but this King-
dom, yea
and a great part of the known world will, I trust, acknow-
ledge. How dangerous a thing it is to wage an unjust war; much
more, to appeal to God the Righteous Judge therein! We trust He
will persuade you better by this manifest token of His displeasure; lest
His hand be stretched out yet more against you, and your poor People
also, if they will be deceived.

That which I am to demand of you is, The restitution of the Garrisons of Berwick and Carlisle into my hands, for the use of the Parliament and Kingdom of England. If you deny me herein, I must make our appeal to God; and call upon him for assistance, in what way He shall direct us ;-wherein we are, and shall be, so far from seeking the harm of the well-affected people of the Kingdom of Scotland, that we profess as before the Lord, That (what difference an Army, necessitated in a hostile way to recover the ancient rights and inheritance of the Kingdom under which they serve, can make§) we shall use our endeavor to the utmost that the trouble may fall upon the contrivers and anthors of this breach, and not upon the poor innocent people, who have been led and compelled into this action, as many poor souls now prisoners to us confess.

We thought ourselves bound in duty thus to expostulate with you, and thus to profess; to the end we may bear our integrity out before the world, and may have comfort in God, whatever the event be. Desiring your answer, 1 rest,

Your Lordships' humble servant,

*To be found in Rushworth; read it not!

†The grammar requires I having,' but the physiognomy of the sentence equires nothing.

on Preston Moor.

Means: so far as an Army, necessitated to vindicate its country by War, can make a discrimination.' The ancient rights and inheritance' are the right to choose our own King or No-King, and so forth.

| Thurloe, i., 100.

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The troubles of Scotland are coming thick. The 'Engagers,' those that 'engaged' with Hamilton are to be condemned; then, before long, come Resolutioners' and 'Protesters ;' and in the wreck of the Hamilton-Argyle discussions, and general cunctations,—all men desiring to say Yes and No instead of Yes or No, -Royalism and Presbyterianism alike are disastrously sinking.

The Lordships, for the present, send most conciliatory congratulatory response; have indeed already written in that strain 'from Falkirk,' where the Whiggamore Raid and Lanark were making their Armistice or Treaty. Whereupon follows

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To the Right Honorable the Earl of Loudon, Chancellor of the Kingdom of Scotland:

To be communicated to the Noblemen, Gentlemen, and Burgesses now in arms,* who dissented in Parliament from the late Engagement against the Kingdom of England.

Cheswick,† 18th September, 1648.


We received yours from Falkirk on the 15th September instant. We have had also a sight of your Instructions given to the Laird of Greenhead and Major Strahan; as also other two Papers concerning the Treaty between your Lordships and the Enemy; wherein your care of the interest of the Kingdom of England, for the delivery of the Towns‡ unjustly taken from them, and your' desire to preserve the unity of both Nations, appears. By which also we understand the posture you are in to oppose the enemies of the welfare and the peace of both Kingdoms; for which we bless God for His goodness to you; and rejoice to see the power of the Kingdom of Scotland in a hopeful way to be invested in the hands of those who, we trust, are taught of God to seek His honor, and the comfort of His people.

* The Whiggamore Raid,' as Turner calls it, now making a Treaty with Lanark, Monro, and the other Assignees of the bankrupt Hamilton con


† Cheswick, still a Manorhouse of the Family of Strangeways,' lies three or four miles south of Berwick, on the great road to Newcastle and London.

Berwick and Carlisle, which by agreement in 1646-7 were not to be garrisoned except by consent of both Kingdoms.

And give us leave to say, as before the Lord, who knows the secrets of all hearts, That, as we think one especial end of Providence in permitting the enemies of God and Goodness in both Kingdoms to rise to that height, and exercise such tyranny over His people, was to show the necessity of Unity amongst those of both Nations, so we hope and pray that the late glorious dispensation, in giving so happy success against your and our Enemies in our victories, may be the foundation of Union of the People of God in love and amity. Unto that end we shall, God assisting, to the utmost of our power endeavor to perform what may be behind on our part: and when we shall, through any wilfulness, fail therein, let this profession rise up in judgment against us, as having been made in hypocrisy,—a severe avenger of which God hath lately appeared, in His most righteous witnessing against the Army under Duke Hamilton, invading us under specious pretences of piety and justice. We may humbly say, we rejoice with more trembling* than to dare to do such a wicked thing.

Upon our advance to Alnwick, we thought fit to send a good body of our horse to the borders of Scotland, and thereby a summons to the Garrison of Berwick: to which having received a dilatory answer, I desired a safe-convoy for Colonel Bright and the Scoutmaster-General of this Army to go to the Committee of Estates in Scotland; who, I hope, will have the opportunity to be with your Lordships before this come to your hands,—and, according as they are instructed, will let your Lordships in some measure, as well as we could in so much ignorance of your condition, know our affections to you. And understanding things more fully by yours, we now thought fit to make you this 'present' return.

The command we received, upon the defeat Duke Hamilton, was, To prosecute this business until the Enemy were put out of a condition or hope of growing into a new Army, and the Garrisons of Berwick and Carlisle were reduced. Four regiments of our horse and some dragoons, who had followed the Enemy into the south parts,† being now come up; and this country not able to bear us, the cattle and old corn thereof having been wasted by Monro and the forces with him; the Governor of Berwick also daily victualling his Garrison from Scotland side; and the Enemy yet in so considerable a posture as by these Gentlemen and your Papers we understand,-still prosecuting their former design, having gotten the advantage of Stirling Bridge, and so much of Scotland at their backs to enable them thereunto; and your Lordships' condition not being such, at present, as may compel them to submit to

* Join trembling with your mirth' (Second Psalm). Uttoxeter and thereabouts.

the honest and necessary things you have proposed to them for the good of both Kingdoms: we have thought fit, out of the sense of duty to the commands laid upon us by those who have sent us, and to the end we might be in a posture more ready to give you assistance, and not be wanting to what we have made so large professions of,-to advance into Scotland with the Army.* And we trust, by the blessing of God, the common Enemy will thereby the sooner be brought to a submission to you. And we thereby shall do what becomes us in order to the obtaining of our Garrisons; engaging ourselves that, so soon as we shall know from you that the Enemy will yield to the things you have proposed to them, and we have our Garrisons delivered to us, we shall forthwith depart out of your Kingdom; and in the meantime be 'even' more tender towards the Kingdom of Scotland, in the point of charge, than if we

were in our own Kingdom.

If we shall receive from you any desire of a more speedy advance, we shall readily yield compliance therewith ;-desiring also to hear from you how affairs stand. This being the result of a Council of War, I present it to you as the expression of their affections and of my own; who am, My Lords,

Your most humble servant,

Cheswick, where Oliver now has his head-quarter, lies, as we said, some three or four miles south of Berwick, on the English side of Tweed. Part of his forces crossed the River, I think, this same day; a stray regiment had without order gone across the day before. The 'Laird of Greenhead,' Sir William Ker, is known in the old Scotch Books; still better, Major Strahan, who makes a figure on his own footing by and by. The AntiHamilton or Whiggamore Party are all inclined to Cromwell; inclined, and yet averse; wishing to say "Yes and No;" if that were possible!

The answer to this Letter immediately follows in Thurloe; but it is not worth giving. The intricate longwindedness of mere Loudons, Argyles and the like, on such subjects at this time of day, is not tolerable to either Gods or men. "We, Loudon, Argyle, and Company, are very sensible how righteously God


*Neither does the sentence end even here! It is dreadfully bad composition; yet contains a vigorous clear sense in it.

†Thurloe, i., 101.

who judgeth the Earth' has dealt with Hamilton and his followers; an intolerable, unconscionable race of men, tending towards mere ruin of religion, and grievously oppressive' to us. We hope all things from you, respectable Lieutenant-General. We have sent influential persons to order the giving up of Berwick and Carlisle instantly; and hope these Garrisons will obey them. We rest,-Humbly devoted,-Argyle, Loudon, and Company." Influential Persons: Friday last, the 22d September, the Marquis of Argyle, the Lord Elcho, Sir John Scot and others came as Commissioners from the Honest Party in Scotland to the Laird of Mordington's House at Mordington, to the LieutenantGeneral's quarters, two miles within Scotland. That night the Marquis of Argyle sent a trumpet to Berwick,"*-Berwick made delays, needed to send to the Earl of Lanark first. Lanark, it is to be hoped, will consent. Meanwhile the Lieutenant-General opens his parallels, diligently prepares to besiege, if necessary. Among these influential Persons, a quick reader notices 'Sir John Scot,'-and rejoices to recognize him, in that dim transient way, for the Director of the Chancery,' and Laird of Scotstarvet in Fife, himself in rather a staggering statet at present, worthy old gentleman!

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WHEREAS we are marching with the Parliament's Army into the Kingdom of Scotland, in pursuance of the remaining part of the Enemy who lately invaded the Kingdom of England, and for the recovery of the Garrisons of Berwick and Carlisle :

These are to declare, That if any Officer or Soldier under my command shall take or demand any money; or shall violently take any horses, goods or victual, without order; or shall abuse the people in any sort, he shall be tried by a Council of War; and the said person so

* Rushworth, vii., 1282.

† Scott of Scotstarvel's Staggering State of Scots Statesmen is the strange Title of his strange little Book: not a Satire at all, but a Homily on Life's Nothingness, enforced by examples; gives in brief compass, not without a rude Laconic geniality, the cream of Scotch Biographic History in that age, and unconsciously a curious self-portrait of the Writer withal.

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