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other predatory parties rapidly enough to Appleby,—as it were by the very wind of him ; like a coming mastiff smelt in the gale by vermin. They are swifter than he, and get to Scotland, by their dexterity and quick scent, unscathed. • Across to Kelso about September 8th.*

Mulgrave in those years is a young Edmund Sheffield, of whom I as yet know nothing more whatever.--Will Hill' is perhaps William Hill, a Puritan Merchant in London, ruined out of a large estate ' by lending for the public service; who, this Summer, and still in this very month, is dunning the Lords and Commons, the Lords with rather more effect, to try if they cannot give him some kind of payment, or shadow of an attempt at pay. ment,- he having long lain in jail for want of his money. A zealous religious, and now destitute and insolvent man; known to Oliver ;-and suggests himself along with the Mulgraves by the contrast of "Friends high and low.' Poor Hill did, after infinite struggling, get some kind of snack at the Bishops' Lands by and by.t

The young Baron' now born is father (I suppose); he or his brother is father, of the far-famed, high-gifted, half-delirious Duke of Wharton.

On the 8th of September, Cromwell is at Durham, scaring the Monro fraternity before him; and publishes the following

DECLARATION.

WHEREAS the Scottish Army, under the command of James Duke of Hamilton, which lately invaded this Nation of England, is, by the blessing of God upon the Parliament's Forces, defeated and overthrown, and some thousands of their soldiers and officers are now prisoners in our hands; so that, by reason of their great number, and want of sufficient guards and watches to keep them so carefully as need requires (the Army being employed upon other duty and service of the Kingdom), divers may escape away; and many, both since and upon the pursuit, do lie in private places in the country.

I thought it very just and necessary to give notice to all, and accordingly do declare, That if any Scottishmen, officers or soldiers, lately members of the said Scottish Army, and taken or escaped in or since the late Fight and pursuit, shall be found straggling in the countries, or running away from the places assigned them to remain in till the pleasure of the Parliament, or of his Excellency the Lord General be known,-It will be accounted a very good and acceptable service to the Country and Kingdom of England, for any person or persons to take and apprehend all such Scottishmen; and to carry them to any Officer having the charge of such prisoners; or, in defect of such Officer, to the Committee or Governor of the next Garrison for the Parliament within the County where they shall be so taken; there to be secured and kept in prison, as shall be found most convenient.

* Rushworth, vii., 1250, 3, 9, 60. † Commons Journals, vi., 29, 243.

Ibid., vii., 1260.

And the said Committee, Officer, or Governor respectively, are desired to secure such of the said prisoners as shall be so apprehended and brought unto them, accordingly. And if any of the said Scottish officers or soldiers shall make any resistance, and refuse to be taken or render themselves, all such persons well-affected to the service of the Parliament and Kingdom of England, may and are desired to fall upon, fight with, and slay such refusers: but if the said prisoners shall continue and remain within the places and guards assigned for the keeping of them, That then no violence, wrong, nor injury be offered to them by any means.

Provided also, and special care is to be taken, That no Scottishman residing within this Kingdom, and not having been a member of the said Army, and also, 'That none such of the said Scottish prisoners as shall have liberty given them, and sufficient passes to go to any place appointed, may be interrupted or troubled hereby.

OLIVER CROMWELL.* • Durham,' 8th September, 1648.

LETTER XLIII.

FAIRFAX is still at Colchester, arranging the ransoms,' and confused wrecks of the Siege there; Cromwell has now reached Berwick,t all the Monroes now fairly across the Tweed. Lieutenant Colonel Cowell,' I conclude, was mortally wounded at Preston Battle ; and here has the poor Widow been, soliciting and lamenting.

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For his Excellency the Lord Fairfax, General of all the Parliament's

Armies : These.

• Berwick,' 11th September, 1648. MY LORD,

Since we lost Lieutenant-Colonel Cowell, his Wife came to me near Northallerton, much lamenting her loss, and the sad condition she and her children were left in.

He was ap honest worthy man. He spent himself in your and the Kingdom's service. He being a great Trader in London, deserted it to serve the Kingdom. He lost much monies to the State; and I believe few outdid him. He hath a great arrear due to him. He left a Wife and three small children but meanly provided for. Upon his deathbed he commended this desire to me, That I should befriend his to the Parliament or to your Excellency. His Wife will attend you for Letters to the Parliament; which I beseech you to take into a tender consideration. I beseech you to pardon this boldness to Your Excellency's most humble servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL.*

On the 19th June, 1649, Widow Cowell' is ordered to be paid her Husband's Arrears by the Committee at Haberdashers' Hall.t One hopes she received payment, poor woman! Upon his death-bed her Husband commended this desire to me.'

In the very hours while this Letter is a writing, Monday, 11th September, 1648, Monro, now joined with the Earl of Lanark, presents himself at Edinburgh : but the Whiggamore Raid, all the force of the West Country, 6000 strong, is already there; draws out on the crags be-east the Town,' old Leven in the Castle ready to fire withal ; and will not let him enter. Lanark and Monro move west to Stirling ; meet Argyle and the Whiggamores, make some Treaty or Armistice, and admit them to be the real · Committee of Estates,' the Hamilton Faction having ended. I Here are two Letters of one date, directly on the back of these

Occurrences.

* Lansdowne Mss., 1236, fol. 85. + Commons Journals, vi., 237,

I Guthry, pp. 288-97.

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For the Right Honorable the Lord Marquis of Argyle, and the rest

of the well-affected Lords, Gentlemen, Ministers, and People now in arms in the Kingdom of Scotland: Present.

* Near Berwick,' 16th September, 1648. My LORDS AND GENTLEMEN,

Being (in prosecution of the common Enemy) advanced, with the Army under my command, to the borders of Scotland, I thought fit, to prevent any misapprehension or prejudice that might be raised thereupon, to send your Lordships these Gentlemen, Colonel Bright, Scoutmaster-General Rowe, and Mr. Stapylton, to acquaint you with the reasons thereof: concerning which I desire your Lordships to give them credence. I remain,

My Lords,
Your very humble servant,

OLIVER CROMWELL.*

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Colonel Bright and Scoutmaster Rowe are persons that often occur, though somewhat undistinguishably in the Old Pamphlets. Bright, in the end of this month, was sent over, ' from Berwick' apparently, to take possession of Carlisle now ready to surrender to us.t Scoutmaster' is the Chief of the Corps of Guides,' as soldiers now call them. As to Stapylton or Stapleton, we have to remark that, besides Sir Philip Stapleton, the noted Member for Boroughbridge, and one of the Eleven, who is now banished and dead, there is a Bryan Stapleton now Member for Aldbo. rough: he in January last was Commissioner to Scotland ; but this present Stapylton is still another. Apparently, one Robert Stapylton ; a favorite Chaplain of Cromwell's; an Army-Preacher, a man of weight and eminence in that character. From his following in the rear of the Colonel and the Scoutmaster, instead of taking precedence in the Lieutenant-General's Letter as an M.P. would have done, we may infer that this Reverend Robert Stapyl. ton is the Cromwell Messenger,--sent to speak a word to the Clergy in particular.

* Thurloe, i., 100.

| Cromwelliana, p. 48. Commons Journals, V., 442; Whitlocke, p. 290.

Scoutmaster Rowe, William Rowe, appears with an enlarged sphere of influence, presiding over the Cromwell spy-world, in a very diligent, expert and almost respectable manner, some years afterwards, in the Milton State-Papers. His counsel might be useful with Argyle ; his experienced eye, at any rate, might take a glance of the Scottish Country, with advantage to an invading General.

Of the Reverend Mr. Stapylton's proceedings on this occasion we have no notice : but he will occur afterwards in these Let. ters; and two years hence, on Cromwell's second visit to those Northern parts, we find this recorded : · Last Lord's Day,' 29th September, 1650, Mr. Stapylton preached in the High Church, of Edinburgh, while we were mining the Castle !—forenoon and afternoon, before his Excellency with his Officers; where was a great concourse of people ; many Scots expressing much affection at the doctrine, in their usual way of groans.' In their usual way of groans, while Mr. Stapylton held forth : consider that !--Mr. Robert, 'at 10 o'clock at night on the 3d September' next year, writes, “ from the other side of Severn,' a copious despatch concerning the Battle of Worcester,t and then disappears from History.

The following Letter, of the same date, was brought by the same Messengers for the Committee of Estates.

**

LETTER XLV.

For the Right Honorable the Commillee of Estates for the Kingdom of

Scotland: These.

Near Berwick,' 16th September, 1648. RIGHT HONORABLE,

Being upon my approach to the borders of the Kingdom of Scotland, I thought fit to acquaint you of the reason thereof.

It is well known how injuriously the Kingdom of England was lately invaded by the Army under Duke Hamilton ; contrary to the Covenant and “to' our leagues of amity, and against all the engagements of love

* Cromwelliana, p. 92.

† Ibid., p. 113.

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