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had of due quality for battering Pembroke. In the beginning of June,* Hugh Peters' went across to Milford Haven, and from the Lion, a Parliament Ship riding there, got 'two drakes, two demi-culverins, and two whole culverins,' and safely conveyed them to the Leaguer; with which new implements an instantaneous essay was made, and a 'storming' thereupon followed, but without success.
Several bodies of horse' are mentioned as deserting, or taking quarter and service on the Parliament side. It is over these that Lehunt is to be appointed Colonel; and to Fairfax as General-in-chief of all the Parliament's Forces raised or to be raised,' it belongs to give him and his subordinates the due commissions.
July 5th. Young Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, son of the assassinated Duke; he with his Brother Francis, with the Earl of Holland, and others who will pay dear for it, started up about Kingston on Thames with another open Insurrectionary Armament; guided chiefly by Dutch Dalbier, once Cromwell's instructor, but now gone over to the other side. Fairfax and the Army being all about Colchester in busy Siege, there seemed a good opportunity here. They rode towards Riegate, these Kingston Insurgents, several hundreds strong but a Parliament Party ' under Major Gibbons' drives them back; following close, comes to action with them between Nonsuch Park and Kingston,' where the poor Lord Francis, Brother of the Duke, fell mortally wounded ;-drives them across the river into Hertfordshire;' into the lion's jaws. For Fairfax sent a Party out from Colchester; overtook them at St. Neot's; and captured, killed, or entirely dissipated them.‡ Dutch Dalbier was hacked in pieces, 'so angry were the soldiers at him.' The Earl of Holland stood his trial afterwards; and lost his head. The Duke of Buckingham got off;-might almost as well have died with poor Brother Francis here, for any good he afterwards did. Two pretty youths, as their Vandyke Portraits in Hampton Court still tes tify; one of whom lived to become much uglier!
† Rushworth, Cromwelliana.
* Cromwelliana, p. 40.
July 8th. Duke Hamilton, with the actual Scotch Army, is ' at Annan' on the Western Border, ready to step across to England. Not quite Forty thousand; yet really about half that number, tolerably effective. Langdale, with a vanguard of Three thousand Yorkshiremen, is to be guide: Monro, with a body of horse that had long served in Ulster, is to bring up the rear. The great Duke dates from Annan, 8th July, 1648.* Poor old Annan ;-never such an Army gathered, since the Scotch James went to wreck in Solway Moss, above a hundred years ago!† Scotland is in a disastrous, distracted condition; overridden by a Hamilton majority in Parliament. Poor Scotland will, with exertion, deliver its 'King from the power of Sectaries;' and is dreadfully uncertain what it will do with him when delivered! Perhaps Oliver will save it the trouble.
July 11th. Oliver at last is loose from Pembroke; drunken Colonel Poyer, Major-General Laughern and some others surrender 'at mercy;' a great many more on terms; and the Welsh War is ended. Cromwell hurries northward: by Gloucester, Warwick; gets 3,000 pairs of shoes' at Leicester; leaves his prisoners at Nottingham (with Mrs. Hutchinson and her Colonel, in the Castle there); joins Lambert among the Hills of Yorkshire, where his presence is much needed now.
July 27th. In these tumultuous months the Fleet too has partially revolted; 'set Colonel Admiral Rainsborough ashore,' in the end of May last. The Earl of Warwick, hastily sent thither, has brought part of it to order again; other part of it has fled to Holland, to the Young Prince of Wales. The Young Prince goes hopefully on board, steers for the coast of England; emits his summons and manifesto from Yarmouth roads, on the 27th of this month. Getting nothing at Yarmouth, he appears next week in the Downs; orders London to join him, or at least to lend him 20,000Z.§
* Rushworth, vii., 1184.
† James V., A.D. 1542.
At Barnard Castle, on the 27th July, his horse' joined (Rushworth, vii., 1211); he himself not till a fortnight after, at Wetherby farther south § Rushworth, vii.; 29 May, p. 1131; 8 June, 11 June, pp. 1145, 1151 27 July, pp. 1207, 1215, &c.
It all depends on Hamilton and Cromwell now. His Majesty from Carisbrook Castle, the revolted Mariners, the London Presbyterians, the Besieged in Colchester, and all men, are waiting anxiously what they now will make of it when they meet.
LETTERS XL., XLI.
THE Battle of Preston or Battle-and-Rout of Preston lasts three days; and extends over many miles of wet Lancashire country, -from 'Langridge Chapel a little on the east of Preston,' southward to Warrington Bridge, and northward also as far as you like to follow. A wide-spread, most confused transaction; the essence of which is, That Cromwell, descending the valley of the Ribble, with a much smaller but prompt and compact force, finds Hamilton flowing southward at Preston in very loose order; dashes in upon him, cuts him in two, drives him north and south, into as miserable ruin as his worst enemy could wish.
There are four accounts of this Affair by eye-witnesses, still accessible; Cromwell's account in these Two Letters; a Captain Hodgson's rough brief recollections written afterwards; and on the other side, Sir Marmaduke Langdale's Letter in vindication of his conduct there; and lastly the deliberate Narrative of Sir James Turner (alias Dugald Dalgetty,' say some). As the Affair was so momentous, one of the most critical in all these Wars, and as the details of it are still so accessible, we will illustrate Cromwell's own account by some excerpts from the others. Combining all which, and considering well, some image of this rude old tragedy and triumph may rise upon the reader.
Captain Hodgson, an honest-hearted, pudding-headed Yorkshire Puritan, now with Lambert in the Hill Country, hovering on the left flank of Hamilton and his Scots, saw Cromwell's face at Ripon, much to the Captain's satisfaction. 'The Scots,' says he, marched towards Kendal; we towards Ripon, where Oliver met us with horse and foot. We were then between Eight and Nine thousand: a fine smart Army, fit for action. We marched
up to Skipton; the Forlorn of the Enemy's horse,' Sir Marmaduke's, 'was come to Gargrave; having made havoc of the country, it seems, intending never to come there again.' 'Stout Henry Cromwell,' he gave them a check at Gargrave ;*—and better still is coming.
Here, however, let us introduce Sir James Turner, a stout pedant and soldier-of-fortune, original Dugald Dalgetty of the Novels, who is now marching with the Scots, and happily has a turn for taking Notes. The reader will then have a certain ubiquity, and approach Preston on both sides. Of the Scotch Officers, we may remark, Middleton and the Earl of Calendar have already fought in England for the Parliament; Baillie, once beaten by Montrose, has been in many wars, foreign and domestic; he is lefthand cousin to the Reverend Mr. Robert, who heard the Apprentices in Palaceyard bellowing "Justice on Strafford!" long since, in a loud and hideous manner. Neither of the Lesleys is here, on this occasion; they abide at home with the oppressed minority. The Duke, it will be seen, marches in extremely loose order; vanguard and rearguard very far apart,— and a Cromwell attending him on flank !
'At Hornby,' says the learned Sir James alias Dugald, 'a day's march beyond Kendal, it was advised, Whether we should march to Lancashire, Cheshire, and the Western Counties; or if we should go into Yorkshire, and so put ourselves in the straight road to London, with a resolution to fight all who would oppose us? Calendar was indifferent; Middleton was for Yorkshire; Baillie for Lancashire. When my opinion was asked, I was for Yorkshire; and for this reason only, That I understood Lancashire was a close country, full of ditches and hedges; which was a great advantage the English would have over our raw and undisciplined musketeers; the Parliament's Army consisting of disciplined and well-trained soldiers, and excellent firemen ; while on the other hand, Yorkshire was a more open country and full of heaths, where we might both make use of our horse, and come sooner to push of pike' with our foot. 'My Lord Duke was for
* Hodgson's Memoirs (with Slingsby's Memoirs, Edinburgh, 1808; a dull authentic Book, left full of blunders, of darkness natural and adscititious, by the Editor), pp. 114, 5.