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divine original of Christianity.-Our Lord, not only foretold his own death and resurrection, and that before the destruction of Jerusalem, and in that generation, the gospel should be very extensively preached; but he promised to invest his apostles and disciples with miraculous powers, and especially with the gift of tongues, in order to accomplish this object.—Now I desire to know, (whether any thing of this nature was ever undertaken, or laid as the foundation of their credit, .by any other authors of any doctrine, religion, sect, or heresy? Whether they ever made their

own violent death, and resurrection, the foundation of their veracity? Or promised the like pow'ers and assistances when they were risen, to those who should promote, or should embrace their doctrine? Or whether that, which no man else durst undertake, was not performed by the holy Jesus so effectually, as that his doctrine presently prevailed, and was received throughout the 'world, in spite of all the opposition of men and devils made against it; and wrought in Christians 'such a lasting faith, as time, and vice, though most concerned to do it, was never able to deface?' Whitby. To the fulfilment of these promises, the apostles (especially St. Paul,) in these epistles continually refer, as to facts most certainly known by those, to whom they wrote; and whichi none could deny or question. They appeal to the churches, whether they themselves had not exercised these miraculous gifts among them, pay, conferred them on others: they argue with them, from these gifts, as to the truth of their doctrine, when heretics perverted it; they appeal to these gifts, as deciding between them and their opposers; they lay down rules, for the behavior of the churches in respect of them; and they sharply reprove several instances of misconduct in this particular. Can it then be doubted, that supposing the epistles genuine, these miraculous gifts, were publicly exercised and conferred, and that all knew them to be so? And if this were the fact, was not the promise of Christ fulfilled? Is not Christianity from God? And can it be supposed, that the writers, who exercised and conferred these powers, in so conspicuous a manner were left to themselves, without the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, in addressing the churches on

the most important subjects, and transmitting their doctrine to posterity? The epistles in general are written in language which shews, that if genuine, they must have been

known by the churches, to which they were addressed, during the life of the writers: but can it be supposed, that such facts were spoken of as undeniable, during the lives of the writers; and yet, that no one of their opposers, either heretics or persecutors, (not to say their friends,) knowing that no such facts had taken place, should stand forth publicly to deny or confute them? -It is also undeniable, that most of the epistles were known, at a very early period, to other churches, as the writings of the apostles whose names they bear. In a short time translations were made of them into other languages, copious quotations were taken from them, and homilies, or expositions, were made on them. The churches, with one consent, acknowledged them as the word of God; and neither heretics, schismatics, nor opposers of the gospel, denied that they were the genuine writings of the apostles, and the standard records of Christianity. But had these epistles, bearing the name of this or the other apostle, been brought forward after their death, when no one, either in the church specially addressed, or in other churches, had ever before heard of them; can it be conceived, but that they would have been rejected as spurious? It is evident the claim would have been absurd, and the imposture manifest. Had they not been known during the life of the writers; at what time, or in what manner, could it have been possible to

palm them on the church, and obtain them the credit of apostolical writings? The epistle to the Hebrews, not bearing the name of St. Paul; that of James, which it seems at

that time, as well as in later ages, was supposed irreconcilable with the doctrine of St. Paul; the second epistle of Peter, which probably was written just before bis martyrdom, and was not generally known till after his death; and the second and third epistles of John, in which he only styles himself “the elder,” were not for some time received by the churches, as genuine; but shiews the scrupulous caution of the primitive Christians in this respect; and further inquiry, together with internal evidence, at length obtained the admission of them into the sacred canon. (Prefaces to the epistles to the Hebrews, James, the second of Peter, and the three epistles of John.) Yet very many writings, which, in some places, and for a time, were adınitted as apostolical and divine, were afterwards, on fuller investigation, rejected, and most of them have sunk

into oblivion. The epistolary part of the New Testament, while it more fully shews the accomplishment of the

ancient prophecies, concerning the establishment of the Messiah's kingdom, than even the historical part has done; contains also many remarkable prophecies, several of which have already received as remarkable an accomplishment; but some still remain to be fulfilled. (Notes, Rom. 11: 2 Thes. 2:1-12. 1 Tim. 4:1-5. 2 Tim. 3:1-5. 2 Pet. 2: 3:) This also constitutes an irrefragable proof, that they were written by inspiration of that God, who sees the end from the be

ginning Finally, it will appear, as we proceed, that the writers of these epistles speak of themselves, and of

each other, as authoritatively delivering the truth and will of God to mankind. Even the exceptions, (as they are supposed to be,) in a few instances, more undeniably established the general rule: for why should an apostle intimate, that he only gave his own opinion, and not a divine and authoritative injunction, in a particular case; unless conscious, and unless demanding his readers to allow, that in all other cases, he “spake as moved by the Holy Ghost?” But if they advanced these claims, what alternative is there, between admitting them to the full extent, or decidedly rejecting them? That is, What alternative is there, between receiving the apostolical epistles as the infallible word of God, and the standard of truth and duty; and wholly rejecting them as bold impostures? Had no such claims been advanced; it might have been allowed, that they were good men, right upon the whole, yet erroneous in some things: yet on this supposition where shall we find a divine standard of Christianity? But as the case is, either they are infalli. bly right, their doctrine divine, their writings the standard by which all other doctrines must be tried; or they claim for themselves and each other, what they had no right to claim. I would be very cautious, in venturing on this ground; but I am fully persuaded, and often feel most deeply grieved by the assurance, that far more injury is done to the cause of truth, by a half-hearted al. lowance, that the epistles (or other parts of scripture) are genuine, authentic, and instructive, but possibly in some things erroneous; than hy all the open attacks of infidels. For these plausi

ble statements leave us no standard of truth and duty; no way of discriminating between true doctrine and heresy; no divinely appointed exhibition of the Christian religion, with whicn all other exhibitions must be compared, and admitted or rejected as they agree or do not agree

with it. In the Acts of the Apostles, a history, or specimen, is given of the manner, in which the apostles and

their fellow-laborers fulfilled the former part of their risen Lord's commission given to them just before his ascension, “Go ye therefore and teach” (or make disciples uf) “all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” In the epistles is more fully shewn the particulars, and the way, in which they executed the latter part of it; “Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you.” (Notes, Matt. 28:19, 20. Mark 16:14-16.) The former therefore is more exactly suited to the case of missionaries, and persons in similar circumstances: the latter to stationary pastors and their flocks, as far as they are true believers. Both, however, are essentially requisite to an accurate and comprehensive view of Christianity, and of the office and duties of its ministers. The peculiar doctrines of the gospel are here more explicitly stated and explained, and their prac

tical tendency more argumentatively shewn, than in the historical books. The distinguishing truths, here laid down, have been kept in view through the whole of the preceding exposition: and it will therefore be unnecessary formally to answer those, who have endeavored to reconcile this part of the scripture, with systems of a contrary nature and tendency. It may, however, be proper to say, that the author has considered with much attention both Dr. Taylor's key to the epistle to the Romans, and the eminent Mr. Locke's comment on several of the epistles: but, deeply convinced, that both of these publications “darken counsel by words without knowledge;" he can only on some incidental matters deduce instruction from them. In general, if the various terms, used in scripture concerning Israel as a nation, be in the same, or nearly the same, sense to be applied to Christians under the New Testament, where is the type and the antitype? Where is the true Israel,” as distinguished from “Israel after the flesh?!? And where are we to

learn either the character, privileges, or duties of true believers? Several of the epistles were written on special occasions, but others were not. These special occa

sions, however, were of such a nature, as gave the most favorable opportunity for explaining doctrines, enforcing precepts, and giving admonitions and counsels, of the greatest importance to the church of Christ in every age. Nor has any thing ever yet been devised, more suited to render “the word of God of no effect,” than the notion, that we have little or nothing to do with this and the other part of scripture, and can conclude nothing general from it, because it was “written on a particular occasion." We begin with the epistles of the apostle Paul, who wrote, as well as labored, more abundantly

than all bis brethren. Fourteen of his epistles are reserved for our instruction. In all his writings we perceive evident proofs of a sound judgment, a talent for close reasoning, a lively imagination, and fervent affections: sometimes, yet not so often by far as many have supposed, he induces a measure of obscurity by long parentheses. All his abilities and endowments, however,

were directed and superintended by the Spirit of inspiration. The epistle to the Romans is placed first, though some others were written before it: but it was

addressed to the Christians, who resided in the capital city of that great empire, which then lorded it over the whole known world; and the epistle itself is one of the longest, and most comprehensive, of all that were written by the apostle. It is not known when, or by whom, the gospel was first preached at Rome; but it is conjectured, that it was carried thither by some of those Jews, who were converted at the day of Pentecost. (Acts 2:10.) Paul, however, had not yet visited that city; but, as 'the apostle of the Gentiles,' he deemed it proper to use this method of establishing the believers in the faith; and of giving them such a comprehensive view of the Christian religion, as might put them upon their guard against false teachers, of various descriptions. This epistle is the only part of the scripture, in which divine truth is delivered in a systematical method: and it is a proper model for any one, who intends to compile a body of divinity: After the introduction, the apostle opens his subject, (as it is reasonable to begin systematical treatises,) by shewing man's relations and obligations to God his Creator, and bis apostasy from his worship and service: he proceeds to prove the universal sinfulness of both Gentiles and Jews, and the impossibility of any man's justifying himself before God, by his own obedience. Having brought the whole world in guilty, deserving of wrath, and shut up under sin and condemnation; he pruceeds to state the method of salvation by the mercy of God, through the redemption of his Son, and the way of justification by faith in his blood, and the imputation of his righteousness, as “the righteousness of God, which is unto and upon all that believe.”. This he proves, illustrates, and exemplifies very fully: he next proceeds to shew that this way of justification is closely connected with sanctification, and evangelical obedience: he then states the believer's experience and conflicts; and displays his character, hopes, and privileges: and at length he leads our reflections back to the source of these blessings, in the eternal election, and sovereign love and mercy of God. Having thus stated and proved doctrines, and answered objections to them, and discussed several questions respecting the calling of the Gentiles and the rejection of the Jews, he applies the whole discourse by a variety of practical exhortations, precepts, and instructions, enforced by evangelical motives. And, having touched upon some particulars, suited to the circumstances of those times, he concludes with affectionate salutations, cautions and prayers; and with ascribing glory to God our Savior.

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AUL a servant of Christ, 5 By whom grace

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, rated unto e the gospel of God,

the faith 9 among all nations " for his 2 (Which " he had promised afore name; by his prophets in the holy scriptures,) 6 Among whom are ye also the

3 Concerning, his Son Jesus Christ called of Jesus Christ: our Lord, ' which was made of the seed 7 To u all that be in Rome, s beloved of David, according to the flesh; of God, y called to be saints: 2 Grace to

4 And * declared to be the Son of God || you and peace, from God our Father, with

power, "according to the Spirit of ho- and the Lord Jesus Christ. liness, by the resurrection from the dead:

[P-actical Observations. ]



& Acts 13:9. 21:40. 22:7,13. 26: Rev. 22:6. 1.14.

h 9. 8:2,3,2932. Ps. 2:7. Matt. 3. 15:16. 16:18. John 12:26. 3:17. 26:03. 27:43. Luke 1:35. 13:14 16. 15:16,20. Acts 27: Jobo 1:34.49. 3:16-18,35,36. 23. 2 Cor. 4:5. Gal. 1:10. Phil. 5:25. 10:30,36, 20:28,31. Acts 1:1. 2:11. 3:6,7. Tit. 11. Jam. 3:13. 8:37. 9:20.1 Cor. 1:9. Gal. 1:1. 2 Pet. 1:1. Jude 1. Rev. 1: 4:4. Col. 1:13-15. 1 Thes. 1: 1. 22-6,9.

10. 1 John 1:3. 3:8,23. 4:9,10, c 5. 11:13. Acts 9:15. 22:14,15, 15. 6:1,5,1013,20. Rev. 2:18. 21. 26:16-18. 1 Cor. 1:1. 9:1, i 2 Sam. 7:12-16. Ps. 89:36,37. 16—18. 15:9-10. 2 Cor. 1:1. Is. 9:6,7. Jer. 23:5,6. 33:15 11:5. 12:11. Gal. 1:1,11-17. 17,26. Am. 9:11. Matt. 1:1,20 Eph. 1:1. 3:5—7. 4:11. Col. 1: -23. 9:27. 12:23. 15:22. 22: 1,25. 1 Tim. 1:1,12. 2:7. 2 42-45. Luke 1:31.-33,69. 2: Tim. 1:11. Tit. 1:1. Heb. 6:4. 448. Joh. 7:42. Acts 2:30. 13: d Lev 20:24-26. Num. 16:9, 22,23, 2 Tim. 2:8. 10. Deut. 10:8. 1 Chr. 23:13. Is. k 8:3. 9:5. Gen. 3:15. John 1: 49:1. Jer. 1:5. Acts 13:2-4. 1 14. Gal. 4:4. 1 Tim. 3:16. 1 Tim. 1:15,16. Heb. 7:26.

John 4:2,3. 2 John 7. 9,16. 15:16,29. 16:25. Mark * Gr. determined, 16:15, 16. Luke 2:10,11. Acts 1 3. John 2:18-21. Acts 2:24,32. 20:24. Eph. 1:13. 1 Thes, 2:2. 3:15. 4:10-12. 5:30-32, 13; 2 Thes. 2:13,14. 1 Tim. 1:11. 3335. 17:31. 2 Cor. 13:4. f See on Luke 24:26,27. Acts Eph. 1:19-23. Heb. 5:5,6. 10:43. 26:6.

m Luke

18:31-33. 24:26,27. & 3:2. Ps. 119:140. Dan, 10:21, 2 Heb. 9:14. 1 Pet. 1:11. 2 Pet. Tim. 3:15, 16. 2 Pet. 1:20,21. 1:21. Rev. 19:10.

0 12:3. 15:15,16. John 1:16. 1 1 9:25. Deut. 33:12. Ps. 60:5. Cor. 15:10. 2 Cor. 3.5,6. Gal. Cant. 5:1. Col. 3:12. 1 Tim. 6:2. 1:15,16. Eph. 3:2—9. I Tim. y 6. Col. 3:15. 1 Thes. 4:7. 1 1:11,12.

Pet. 1:15. 2 Pet. 1:3. o Acts 1:25. I Cor. 9:2. Gal. 2: z1 Cor. 1:3. 2 Cor. 1:2. Gal. 1: 8,9.

3. Eph. 1:2. Phil. 1:2. Col. 1: | Or, to the obedience of faith. 2. 1 Thes. 1:1. 2 Thes. 1:2. P 15:18,19. 16:26. Acts 6:7. 2 1 Tim. 1:2, 2 Tim. 1:2. Tit. 1: Cor. 10:4–6. Heb. 5:9.

4. Philem. 3. 1 Pet. 1:2. 2 9 3:29,30. 11:12,13. 15:9-13,16. Pet. 12. 2 John 3. Jude 2. Gen. 17:18. Ps. 22:27. 67:2. 72: Rev. 1:4,5. 17. Matt. 28:19. Mark 16:15, a 5:1. 14:17. 15:13,33. Ps. 122: 16. Luke 24:46,47. Acts 9:15. 6. Is. 55:12. 57:19,21. Zech. 6: 22:21. 26: 17,18.

13. Luke 2:14. 10:5,6. 19:38, r Mal. 1:11,14. Acts 15:14. Eph. 42. John 14:27. 16:33. Acts 10: 1:6,12. 1 Pet. 2:9,10.

36. Eph. 2:14. 1 Thes. 5:23. 2 s Eph. 1:11. Col. 1:6,21.

Thes. 3:16. Heb. 13:20. t 8:28-30, 9:24. 1 Cor. 1:9. b Matt. 6:16 6:8,9. John 20: Gal. 1:6. 1 Thes. 2:12. 2 Thes. 17. Gal. 1:4. Phil.4:20. 1 Thes. 2:14. 2 Tim. 1:9. Heb. 3.1. 1 1:3, 2 Thes. 1:1. 1 John 3:1. Pet. 2:9,21. 5:10. 2 Pet. 1:10. C Acts 7:59.60. 1 Cor. 16:23. 2 Rev. 17:14.

Cor. 12:8-10. 13:14. Gal. 6: u Acts 15:23. 1 Cor. 1:2, 2 Cor.

18. Eph. 6:23,24. Phil. 4:13, 1:1. Phil. 1:1. Col. 1:2. Jam. 23. i 'Thes. 3:11–13. 5:28. 2 1:1. 1 Pet. 1:1,2. Jude 1. Rev. Thes. 2:16,17. 3:16,18. 2 Tim. 2:1,8,12,18,29. 3:1,7,14,22. 4:22. Philem. 25. Rev. 22:21


the demonstration, that Jesus was the Son of CHAP. I. v. 1-4. According to the cus- | God, which arose from his resurrection from the tom of those times, the apostle began this epistle, | dead. Now, the pouring out of the Holy Spirit by prefixing his name and distinguishing title. I on the witnesses of his resurrection, and all the (Notes, Acts 15:22—29, v. 23. 23:25—30, v. 26.) || stupendous effects which followed, both in respect The Christians at Rome would receive this letter of them, and of those on whom they laid their from Paul, who was also called Saul, and had | hand, were a divine attestation to their testimony: been a persecutor of the church; but who now and thus Jesus, who was crucified for affirming regarded it as his honor and happiness, to be the that he was "the Son of God," was “declared, servant of Jesus Christ, and his called apostle;” or “determined to be the Son of God, with power having been "separated,” and appointed, by the by his resurrection,” according to the demonstrachoice and effectual calling of God, to preach || tion of that event, arising from the divers powers, his gospel to the world, and to spend his subse- signs, and miracles, which the Spirit of God ena quent life in promoting it. (Marg. Ref. a-e.- bled the apostles and primitive Christians to perNole, Gal. 1:15—24.) This doctrine was no new form. (Marg. Ref. l, m.-Note, Heb. 2:1-4, v. discovery or invention, but the fulfilment of the 4.). It may also be observed, that the Holy Spirit promises made in the sacred scriptures by the had foretold, by the prophets, that the Messiah prophets; and it respected the Son of God, even would be the Son of God, as well as the Son of Jesus the Savior, the promised Messiah, the David; and also that he would be put to death, Prophet, Priest, and King of the church, whom | and rise again, and enter into his glory. When, all believers acknowledged and obeyed as their therefore, the Lord Jesus, having been put to Lord. He was descended from David, according | death as a deceiver and blasphemer, arose from to the flesh, or in his human nature: but he had the dead, “ascended on high, and gave gifts to also been declared, or determined, to be the Sonmen;" especially by pouring out the Holy Spirit of God by that divine power, which raised him on his apostles and disciples, according to the from the dead. (Marg. Ref. d-k.)-The ex: | predictions of holy men from the beginning, pression, “according to the Spirit of holiness,” | « who spake as they were moved by the Holy has been generally interpreted to signify, "ac- || Ghost;" he, in both respects, was declared to cording to his divine nature;" but it is not used in || be the Son of God with power, by his resurrec. that sense in any other place, nor does it obvious- tion from the dead, according to the Spirit of ly convey that idea. Others therefore explain holiness.” (Notes, Acts 2:22—36. Eph. 4:7– it of the conception of Jesus by the Holy Spirit, || 13.) on which account he was called “the Son of Called to be an apostle. (1) Kantos anosolos. 6,7. God:" but this does nothing more than state, 8:28. See on Matt. 20:16.-Separated.) Aφωρισ what he was “according to the flesh,” or in his peros. Gal. 1:15. See on Matt. 25:32. Ex a priv. human nature; whereas the apostle clearly in- et épisw, 4.He had promised afore. (2) lipoernytended to shew his divine nature, as the “only-yedaro. Here only. Ex προ et επαγγελλομαι, probegotten Son of the Father;"' and the antithesis | mitto: quod ex ei, et ayyellonar, nuntio.- Declar. as well as the context, evidently requires this. | ed. (4) “Determined.” Mary. 'Oplosavtos. Luke Our Lord indeed wrought all his miracles by the | 22:22. See on Acts 2:23.-of holiness.] 'Ayıwouins, Spirit of God, which was “given to him without 2 Cor. 7:1. 1 Thes. 3:13. Not elsewhere N. T. measure:” but the apostle plainly speaks of “the-Ps. 97:12. 145:5. Sepl. Ab dylos, sanctus, 7. Spirit of holiness,” in immediate connexion with V. 5—7. From this glorious Savior, Paul de.


A. D. 61.

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8 First, I thank my God through || now at length I might have a prosperJesus Christ for you all, that your faith ous journey, Phy the will of God, to come is spoken of throughouts the whole unto you. world.

u For 4 I long to see you,

r that I 9 For God is my witness, ' whom may impart unto you some spiritual gift, serve * with my spirit in the gospel of ||to the end ye may be established;

ķ his Son, that without ceasing I make 12 That is, that I may be comforted mention of you always in my prayers; together + with you, by the mutual faith

10 Making request, if by any means boih of 8 6:17. I Cor. 1:4. Eph. 1:16.

13 Now I would not have you igno24. Acts 19:21. 1 Cor. 14:14:|| rant, brethren, y that oftentimes Î




you and

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28,29. 2 Tim. 1:3.
* Or, in my spirit. John 4:23,


Phil. 1:3-5. Col. 1:3,4. 1
Thes. 1:2,3. 3:9. 2 Thes. 1:3. 2
Tim. 1:3-5. Pbilem4,5. 2
John 4. 9 Joha 3,4.
e Eph. 3:21. 5:20. Phil. 1:11.

Heb. 13:15. 1 Pet. 2:3. 4:11.
(16:19. 1 Tbes. 1:8,9.
& Matt. 24:14. Luke 2:1. Acts

11:28. h 9.1. Job 16:19. 2 Cor. 1:23. 11:10.11.31. Gal. 1:20. Phil. 1: 8. 1 Thes. 2:6–10. 1 Tim. 2:7. i Acts 27-23. Phil. 2:22. Col. 1:

15. Phil. 3:3.
k Mark 1:1. Acts 3:26. 1 John

11 Sam. 12:23. Luke 18:1, Acts
12:5. Eph. 6:18. 1 Thes. 5:17.
2 Tim. 1:3.
m Eph. 1:16-19.3:14,&c. Pbil.

1:4,9-11. Col. 1:9-13. 1
Thes. 1:2. Philemon 4.
n 15:22-24,30—32. Phil. 4:6.
1 Thes. 2: 18. 3:10,11. Philem.
22. Heb. 13:19.

o Acts 19:21, 27: 28:

p Acts 18:21. 21:14. 1 Cor. 4:19. t 15:24,32. Acts 11:23. 2 Cor. 2:
Jam. 4:15.

1-3.7:4—7,13. 1 Thes. 2:17
q Gen. 31:30, 2 Sam. 13:39. 23: -20. 3:7--10. 2 Tim. 1:4. 2
15. 2 Cor. 9:14. Phil. 1:8. 2:26. John. 4. 3 Joba 3,4.

| Or, in you.
r15:29. Acts 8:15-19. 19:6. 1 u Eph. 4:5. Tit. 1:4. 2 Pet. 1:1

Cor. 12:1-11. 2 Cor. 11:4. Jude 3.
Gal. 3:2–5. Eph. 4:8-12 x 11:25. 1 Cor. 10:1. 12:1. 2 Cor.
s 16:25. 2 Chr. 20:20. Acts 16:5. 1:8. 1 Thes. 4:13.
2 Cor. 1:21. 1 Thes. 3:2,13. 2 y 15:23—28. Acts 19:21. 2 Cor.
Thes. 2:17. 3:3. Heb. 13:9. 1 1:15,16.
Pet. 3:10,12. 2 Pet. 1:12. 3:17.

clared that he had received mercy and grace, as | Kantois dylois. 1 Cor. 1:1,2. Eph. 1:1,4. See well as an appointment to the apostolical office; | on 1. that he might be employed as his minister in V. 8–12. The apostle next assured “the saints bringing sinners of all nations to "the obedience at Rome," that, though personally a stranger to of faith,” by accepting of the Redeemer's mercy, || them, he heartily “thanked his God, through Jeand becoming the willing and devoted subjects sus Christ," for the mercy, which he bad shewn of his kingdom, for the honor of his name to them all; as their faith in Christ, and its hapin their salvation, worship, and service. (Marg. || py effect upon their conduct, were spoken of in Ref. 1-r.-Notes, 12:3—5. 15.14_21. 1 Cor. every part of the world. (Marg. Ref. 1–8:15:3-11, co. 8–10. 1 Tim. 1:12–14.2 Tim. Notes, Phil. 1:3—6. 1 Thes. 1:1-8.) Wherever he 1:11,12) Among this happy and favored compa- lwent, he heard the commendation of the believay were the persons to whom he sent this epistle; || ers at Rome; and their good conduct was the more for they too had been “called” by the gospel, to noticed by reason of the renown of that city, and become disciples of Jesus, to bear his name, and the temptations with which they were surrounded. to trust and serve him. As Paul was "the apos- He could therefore confirm what he was about to 'tle of the Gentiles,' he considered himself pecu- || say, by solemnly calling to witness that God, liarly interested in their welfare, though they had whom he worshipped and served; not only with not been converted by bis ministry; he had there-constant and persevering diligence, but with infore written this epistle to them: and he addressed ward fervency, zeal, and devotion; accordiag to it, not to the citizens of Rome in general, nor to the display of his glory made in the gospel, and the church of Rome, or at Rome, but to all those, | by promoting that doctrine which respects his who had been "called to be saints,” or holy, sepa- Son, as the great Author and Subject of it. This rate, and sanctified persons, partakers of divine || glorious God was witness, that he prayed for grace, and devoted to the service of God; and them all, on every occasion, without intermission, who were thus evidenced to be beloved by him, or neglect; and he especially besought the Lord, partakers of his mercy and plenteous redemption, that he would enable him to go among them, if renewed in a measure to his holy image in which || after so long a time, and so many disappointments, he delights, and constituted heirs of his everlast-|| he might at length be favored with a prosperous ing kingdom. (Marg. Ref. s-y.) These the journey to come unto them, by the will and apapostle saluted by wishing them “grace and pointment of God. (Marg. Ref. i–m.-Notes and peace:" grace to pardon and justify them, and to | P. O. Jam. 4:13—17.)-The apostle's language is, sanctify their souls, and peace to comfort their for substance, a most solemn oath, or appeal to bearts and consciences. Of these blessings, the the heart-searching God for the truth of what he sum of all happiness, be ardently desired that said. (Marg. Ref. h.-Note, Matt. 5:33–37.) every professed Christian at Rome might partici-For he ardently desired to see and converse with pate: and that they all might continually have them, that he might impart to them some of those an accession made to that measure, which they spiritual gifts, which were generally conferred by had already obtained; as springing from the free imposition of the apostles' hands, in order to their mercy of God, the reconciled Father of all belier-establishment in the faith. (Note, Acts 8:14–17.) ers, and coming to them, through the Person, || And this he desired, in order that he might share merits, and mediation of the Lord Jesus Christ the comfort bestowed on them, and rejoice in -This is the customary apostolical salutation; || ministering to their joy; as well as in conferring and it is most undeniably a prayer, or act of wor- with them, concerning the nature, object, and ef ship, in which Christ is addressed in union with fects of that faith, which was held both by them God the Father, , (Marg. Ref. 2-c.-Notes, 14:and him. (Marg. Ref. q—u.)-St. Paul doubtless 13—18, . 17. John 14:27,28. 1 Cor. 1:3. Eph. 1: meant to remind the Romans of his apostolical 1,2. Phil. 2:5–8.)

character and authority, as sanctioning his doc Grace and apostleship. (5) Xaply kai atosodnv. trine, by which he intended to guard them es 12:3. 15:15. 1 Cor. 15:10. Gal. 1:15. Eph. 3:8. pecially against the judaizing teachers yet he aim1 Tim. 1:14. Asosean, Acts 1:25.—The obedience to ed to do this, in the most unassuming and affecthe faith.] 'Traconi sisews. 16:26. Notes, 2 Cor. 10:tionate manner possible; that he might give no 1-6, vo. 5,6. Heb. 11:8–10, 0. 8. 'Yaaron, 5:19. disgust to any person, or furnish false teachers 15.18. 16:19. 2 Cor. 7:15. 10:5,6. Philem. 21 with

any handle against him.-Some think that Heb. 5:8. 1 Pet. 1:2.-Called to be saints. (7)|| the Christians at Rome had received supernatural





ed to come unto you, (2 but was let hither- 16 For 'I am not ashamed of "the to,) a that I might have some fruit Ramong| gospel of Christ: 'for it is the power of you also, beven as among other Gentiles. God unto salvation, " to every one that

b 14 )

c debtor both to the Greeks believeth; "to the Jew first, and also to and to the Barbarians, both to the wise the Greek. and to the unwise.

17 For therein is the righteousness 15 So, s as much as in me is, h I am of God revealed P from faith to faith: as it ready to preach the gospel to you that is written, " The just shall live by faith. are at Rome also.

iPs. 40:9, 10, 11:15,16 19:46. [ n 2.9, 10, 8:29,30, 4:1-12. 9.94. (Practical Observations.)

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* Or, in you.

z 15:22. Acts 16:6, 7. 1 Thes. 2: 3:11. 18. 2 Thes. 2:7.

e 22. 11:25. 12:16. 16:19. Matt. a Is. 27:6. John 4:36. 12:24. 15: 11:25. Luke 10:21. 1 Cor. 1: 16. Col. 1:6.

19_-22. 2: 13. 3:18,19. 2 Cor.

10:12. 11:19. Eph 5:15-17. b 15:18-20. Acts 14:27. 15:12, Jam. 3:17,18. 21:19. 1 Cor.9.2. 2 Cor. 2:14. f Prov. 1:22. 8:5. Is. 35:8. 1 10:13-16. 1 Thes. 1:9,10. 2: Cor. 14:16,23,24. Tit. 3:3. 13,14, 2 Tim. 4:17.

8 12:18. 1 Kings 8:18. Mark 14: c 8:12. 13:8. Gr. Acts 9:15, 13: 8.2 Cor. 8:12. 24. 22:21. 26:17,18. 1 Cor. 9: h Is. 6:8. Matt. 9:38. John 4:34. 16--23, 2 Tim. 2:10.

Acts 21:13. 1 Cor. 9:17. 2 Cor. d Acts 28:4. 1 Cor. 14:11. Col. 10:15,16.

Mark 8:38. Luke 9:26. I Cor.
2:2. 2 Tim. 1:8,12,16. 1 Pet. 4:

k 15:19,29. Luke 2:10,11. : Cor.
9:12,18. 2 Cor. 2:12. 4:4. Gr.
9:13. Gal. 1:7. 1 Tim. 1:11.
1 10:17. Ps. 110:2. Is. 53:1. 1
Cor. 1:18-24. 2:4. 14:24.25. 2
Cor. 2:14-16. 10:4,5. Col. 1:5,
6. 1 Thes. 1:5,6. 2:13. Heb. 4:

m 3:22,26. 9:33. 10:4.11. Mark

16:16. John 3:15,16,36, 6:35,
40.47. 7:38,39. 11:25,26. Gal.
3:22. 1 Pet. 2:6. 1 John 5:10

10:12, 15:8,9. Luke 2:30-32. 24:47. Acts 11:18. 13:46,47. 18: 6.6. 20:21. 26:20. 28:17-23. Gal. 2:15,16. 3:28. Eph. 2:11 --17. Col. 3:11. 0 3:21. 10:3,4. Is. 45:24,25. 46:

13. 51:8. 54:17. 61:10. Jer. 23: 6. Dan. 9:24. 1 Cor. 1:30. 2 Cor. 5:21. Gal. 5:5. Phil. 3:8, 9. 2 Pet. 1:1. p 3:3. Ps. 84:7. John 1:16. 2 Cor. 3:18. 2 Thes. 1:3. Tit. 1.

1.2. q Hab. 2:4. Gal. 3:11. Heb. 10: 38. 11:0,7.

Ex συν, παρα,

gifts; (12:6.) Yet it does not appear that any Opellerns. 8:12. 15:27. Matt. 6:12. Luke 13:4. apostle had been there: Paul, however, expected | Gal. 5:3. Ab opew, debeo.To the barbarians.) that these gifts would be more abundantly im- | Bapbapois. See on Acts 20:2.-Unwise.] Avontois. parted, when he should go among them; and that See on Luke 24:25.-As much as in me is. (15) they would be thus fortified against such as at-To kar' fue. 12:18.-I am ready.) II pogojov. See on tempted to pervert them, as well as against the Matt. 26:41. fear of persecution.--It bas been seen how bis V. 16. However the noble, the learned, or prayers for “a prosperous journey” to Rome were the proud, might despise the doctrines of the answered by his being sent thither as a prisoner! | gospel; and especially that of salvation by faith (Notes, 15:22—33. Acts 18:18—23. 25:—28:) in the righteousness, atonement and intercession

I serve. (9) Aarpouw. Matt. 4:10. Acts 24:14. of a Jew, who had been crucified as a deceiver See on Luke 2:37.-Without ceasing.] Adalattws. | by his own countrymen; the apostle was in no 1 Thes. 1:3. 2:13. 5:17. Αδιαλειπτος, 9:2. Εx α wise “ashamed of” 'it, but was ready to glory in priv. dia, et leinw, linquo.Mention.] Mverav. Eph. his belief of it before all men: he knew indeed, 1:16. Phil. 1:3. i Thes. 1:2. 3:6. 2 Tim. 1:3. that the power of God attended, and was displayPhilem. 4.

A pvaouar, memoro.-I might have a ed by, that doctrine, for the salvation of every prosperous journey. (10) EvodwInoopar. 1 Cor. 16: believer, not only from merited condemnation, 2. 3 John 2. Ex ev bene, etódos, iter.-Gen. 24:12, but also from the power of his corrupt passions 46. Sept.--I long. (11) E FITOJw. 2 Cor. 5:2. 9:14. I and habits, from the bondage of Satan, from the Phil. 1:8. 2:26. 1 Thes, 3:6. 2 Tim. 1:4. 1 Pet. 2:2. love of the world and the fear of men, and from Επιποθητος, Phil. 4:1. Ex ere, et rosew, cupio.- | all sin and misery: so that, while Jewish rabbies, Gift.] Xapoua. 5:15,16. 6:23. 11:29. 12:6. i Cor. | and pagan philosophers, had tried in vain to re1:7. 7:7. 12:4. 2 Cor. 1:11. 1 Tim. 4:14. 2 Tim. form men's lives; the despised gospel of Christ, 1:6. 1 Pet. 4:10. A xapıs, gratia.-May be com- wherever it had been preached, had been renforted together. (12) Eup.rapardn Srivas. Here only. dered extensively successful for that purpose. et καλεω, υoco.

(Marg. Ref. i–1.) This had first been evidenced V. 13— 15. The apostle next shewed, that he among the Jews, in the conversion and holy lives had repeatedly purposed to come to Rome; but of multitudes, who had before borne very bad that he had been hindered hitherto, by his multi-characters: and afterwards it had produced simiplied engagements, and by the opposition made | lar effects among the Gentiles, vast numbers of to his ministry: because he was exceedingly de- | whom had been turned from their immoralities sirous to have some fruit among the Romans, as and idolatries, to the holy worship and service of well as among the other Gentiles: for, as he had the true God.(

(Marg. Ref. n.-Notes, John 12: been converted in a most extraordinary manner, || 27—33, v. 32. 1 Cor. 1:20–24. 2 Cor. 4:7. 10:1 and entrusted with a dispensation of the gospel; he |-6, vv. 4,5.)-"It is the power of God unto salthought himself bound to do every thing which helvation.” To whom? To all that believe. Now possibly could, to promote the salvation of men in “it is plain, that it is not merely the power of God general, especially among the Gentiles. (Marg. l'manifested in outward miracles, that is there Ref. x-b.) This was a debt, which he owed ||óspoken of; for miracles were wrought upon and both to the civilized Greeks or Romans, and to l'in the presence both of them that believed not, the rude barbarians; and indeed to the learned and them that did believe. The power of God, and unlearned of every nation, from the wise ||“there spoken of, is a power felt only by them philosopher to the untutored laborer. (Marg. | that believe: so that whatever the enemies of Ref. cf.) With this view of his obligation, he the free grace of God may .. suggest; it cannot was ready, according to his ability and opportu- ll be meant of those extraordinary manifestations nity, to preach the gospel at Rome also: though | of power in healing men's bodies, &c. but of that in that haughty and magnific capital, he inward teaching and drawing the Father, of might encounter more contempt and opposition, “which the prophets foretold, that it would be bethan in other places; and though his address "stowed in a large manner in gospel-times. Dr might be less suitable to the fastidious taste of Maclaurin. (Notes, John 6:41--46, vv. 44,45,60 its refined inhabitants. (Marg. Ref. g, h.) -65, v. 65.) I purposed. (13) Προεθεμην. 3:25. Εph. 1:9. Προ- I am not ashamed.] OUK ETIO Xuvojat.

6:21. 2 Tim. Isois, 8:28. Acts 11:23. Ex mpo, et riimpi, pono.- || 1:8,12,16. See on Mark 8:38. Was let.] Eww.viny. Matt. 19:14. Acts 11:17. 16: V. 17. In the gospel, God had revealed, not 6. 27:43. See on Acts 28:31.-A deblor. (14) I only the righteousness of his perfect character and

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