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Doctrinal of one Alexander Gallus, which he printed in the year 1440.

This is further confirmed by Hegenitz, who saith, that house the of Laurence John is yet standing in ihe market-place of Haerlein, with this inscription in golden letters over the door :

Memorie Sacrum. Typographic Ars, Artium Consertatrix, hic primum Inventa, circa

Annum MCCCCXL.

That is,

Sacred to Memory. The Art of Printing, the Preserver of Arts, was first invented here,

about the ytar MCCCCXL.

And underneath, these verses:
Vana quid archetypos & præla Moguntia jactas ?
Haerlemi archetypos prælaque nota scias.
Extulit hic, monstrante Deo, Laurentius artem ;
Dissimulare virum hunc, dissimulare Deum est.

Which I have thus paraphrased,
Moguntia, why do you thus vainly boast
Of archetypes and presses, at your cost,

There to Laurentius first, inspir'd by heav'n,
The knowledge of this noble art was giv’n.
To rob the man, who did this art reveal,
Is a like crime as 'tis from heav'n to steal.

Thus I have given the different pleas of both parties; yet will not pretend to determine which is in the right, but leave the deci. sion to the reader's judgment.

But this is certain, that, though, the chief honour is due to the inventer, yet that perfection and beauty, that printing is now arrived to, is very much owing to them that came after, many in the present age having not a little contributed thereto, here in England, where it is at as great perfection as in any part of the world. And it is as true as strange that, where printing was invented, the art is almost lost, and did never there arrive to any great per. fection,

Printing has been in China, above two-thousand years; but their way is so vastly different from the method we use in Europe, that no comparison can be made between them, the former having so many boards, as they have pages in their book, on which their characters are carved, one representing (or standing for) a man, another an house, &c. as they have occasion to place them; and of

these characters they have such great numbers, that few of them know the one half; they not making use of four and twenty letters to make words, as is used here. This way of the Chinese was not heard of, till within these very

few

years. It is well known of the Turks, that they have not the learning, the art in trades, or war, as their neighbours the Germans; and the chief reason is, they have not printing among them, which they will not suffer; for fear, as is thought, it should undermine their false religion, and plant Christianity in its stead.

SCOTLAND CHARACTERISED:

IN A

LETTER WRITTEN TO A YOUNG GENTLEMAN,

TO DISSUADE HIM FROM AN INTENDED JOURNEY THITHER,

Scotica si diris devotum, terra tulisset
Cainum; non alias exul peragraverat oras.
Ipsa suis contenta malis: Non indiga pestis
Externe: Infensi satiasse numinis iras.

Cleaveland translated.

By the Author of "The Trip to North Wales.' 1701. Folio. Containing

four Pages.

, ez

T was not without the greatest surprise in the world, that I our neighbouring kingdom of Scotland, to perfect and give the grace-stroke to that very liberal education, you have so signally improved in England. I confess, it is very irksome, to some spirits, to be contradicted and thwarted in either their expressions, or designs: and they do, with such an unpersuadable obstinacy, cherish their own ideas, that you might as well expect grapes from a thistle, as to make them change their party, though upon the most demonstrative arguments, that can be produced. But I hope better things of

you; and do not in the least doubt, but you are so much reason's humble servant, that, if I convince you this ramble of yours will neither be for your credit, pleasure, nor advantage (whichi I shall make the topicks of my discourse) you will even stay where you are, and not hazard three things so very precious to all rational creatures; and, if you meet with any harsh, rugged expressions in this epistle, I hope you will do me the justice to believe, that it was nothing, but a grateful sense of my own obligations, and a

van.

hearty desire of your welfare, that extorted them from me. And let so much suffice, by way of preface.

You are now advanced to those years, in which, if ever, men begin to consider and propose some end to themselves in what they do. But, under favour, if, by going into Scotland, you imagine to improve your intellect, you are as wide of your purpose, as if you should take West-Chester in your way from London to Dover; and, before I will believe, that ever any man, that has lived a gentleman, or fellowcommoner, in either of our two Universities, and a little tasted of the education of an inn of court (as you have done) can ampliate his understanding by grazing in the Caledonian forest, I will subscribe to the calling in of the Jews, and the Pope's being turned protestant.

I will not deny, but Scotland has formerly given very eminent scholars to the world; nay, I will go further, there are no finer gentlemen in the world, than that natiou can justly boast of; but then they are such as have travelled, and are indebted to other countries for those accomplishments that render them so esteemed, their own affording only pedantry, poverty, brutality, and hypocrisy.

To make this evident, give me leave a little to pursue my proposed method: And here pleasure (which influences most people, young especially, that care not much to look forwards) leads the

Now, Sir, you would take him for a very unaccountable man, that should pretend to regale bis nose with asa fætida, or, in the heat of summer, take sanctuary in a bagnio, for coldness; and yet you do the same thing in effect, when you make the tour of Scotland for diversion.

For the charms of conversation (which, considering man as a sociable creature, are most universally desired) it may be presumed, Nebuchadnezzar, when turned out a grasing, had full as eligible companions, as you are like to meet with ; and you might, with as much safety, enter into a league of friendship with a cannibal, who would

upon the first opportunity eat you up, as with a Scotchman; for what Sir John Chardin says of the Mingrelians, may be truly applied to them, “That they are perfidy itself. 'The most sacred ties, as oaths and the like, are snapped asunder by them with as much ease, as the new cords were by Sampson. And there is nothing amongst them, to their very kings (of which the last age afforded us a very memorable example) that is not vendible. Civility is not so much as known in the idea amongst that proverbially clownish people. The conscience of a custom-house officer, the integrity of a knight of the post, the modesty of a common prostitute, and the courage of a town-bully amount to full as much.

Their women are, if possible, yet worse than the men, and carry no temptations, but what have at hand suitable antidotes; and you must be qualified for the embraces of a Succubus, before you can break the seventh, or one article of the tenth commandment here. The skin of their faces looks like vellum; and a good Orientalist might easily spy out the Arabick alphabet between their Eye-brows.

Their legs resemble mill-posts, both for shape, bigness, and strength; their hair is like that of an overgrown hostess; their gait like a Muscovian duck's; and their fingers strut out with the itch, like so many country justices going to keep a petty sessions. Their voice is like thunder, and will as effectually sowre all the milk in a dairy, or beer in a cellar, aş forty drums beating a preparative. It is a very common thing for a woman of quality to say to her footman, • Andrew, take a fast gripe of my aand help me over the stile.'

They pretend to be descended from one Madam Scota, daughter to King Pharaoh; but the best proof, they give of it, is their bringing two of the plagues of Egypt along with them, viz. lice and the itch; which they have intailed upon their posterity ever since.

Sonie are of opinion, that, when the Devil shewed our Saviour the kingdoms of the earth, he laid his thumb upon Scotland, and that for a twofold reason: First, because it was not like to be any temptation. Next, being part of his mother's jointure, he could not dispose of it during her life.

For their cookery and bedding, they are the antipodes of all cleanly folks. Can you like to breakfasť upon steen bannock? (An oaten cake, often baked upon my hostess's warm wemb.) Or drink ropy ale, that is full as palpable, as ever the Egyptian darkness was? Would it please you to see a joint of meat ready to run away from you? And yet such 'must be your entertainment there.

In Edinburgh, the capital city, whither you are going, they have not a private forica; but, as their houses, which are incredibly high, consist of eight or ten distinct families, each of which possesses an intire floor, so, at every stair’s-head, you may see a great tub, called a cogue, that is the receptacle-general of the nastiness of a whole family; for all disembogue here promiscuously, both males and females, masters and mistresses, with their servants, without the least restraint of modesty or shame. When this is competently full, two Justy fellows, by the help of a cowl-staff, carry it by night to a window, and, after crying, Geud peeple, leuk to yar selles there,' out they throw it; he, that comes by, has great cause to bless his stars, if he comes off with piss. It may be, at high noon, and in the principal street, you shall meet a tattered wretch, with a monstrous cloke, and a close-stool under it, bawling out, “Wha wants me ? For a half-penny you may be accommodated, and covered, whilst you are so.

Trees are great rarities: This made Sir Anthony Weldon, who knew the country very well,

say, That, had Christ lived there, and been betrayed, as most certainly he would have been, if he had lived there, Judas might sooner have found the grace of repentance, than a tree' to hang himself on.' The high-street in Edinburgh, about three quarters of a mile long, is very fit, by reason of its breadth, for a triumph, from the Castle to Holy-roodhouse; but the rest of the lanes, as they call them, are absolutely common-sewers, which make the city look like a comb.

No wonder, then, if the Scots, who are not unfily resembled to a crepitus ventris, once Anglified, care not for returning to their native country; and yet, as the French refugees take all occasions to extel their monarch, his armies, palaces, &c. so these gentlemen, though in England, cannot forbear to magnify their own gude land.' He is happy, that believes their report, without going thither to refute it.

If you call to have your sheets aired, forty to one, but the wench, in great civility, proffers to uncase, and come into bed to you. I was much surprised at my landlady's asking me one night, If my cods lay right?' But I quickly. cleared her from any ill meaning, when I understood, it is their name for the pillows.

You shall commonly hear a beggarly Scot, whose every meal is a stratagem, here in England, tell you of his felicities there, and how he used to walk about his father's perk, with a lacquey at his heels ; but you must not immediately conceive too extraordinary an opinion of his grandeur; for, upon inquiry how many deer his father had in his perk, the truth will out, though to shame both Scot and Devil, . That his father kept no deer in his perk, and that they call an inclosure a perk, in his country.' A Scotch laird, having got boosy, and mounted upon a mole-hill to survey his large demeans, asked his man, 'If he knew a greater lord than himself?" He was told, “Yes, viz. the Lord Jehovah. Says he, Ise neer heard of that Lord, but get ye to him, and will bim immediately to surrender all to me, or Ise pull him out by the lugs. The servant, to honour his master's pride, seems to do so, and, upon his return, tells him he need not use such violent methods, it was but ask, and he might have his kingdom. Well, replies my gentleman, since he be so civil, deel take me, if ever I, or any of mine, set our foot where he's got to do.'

But, Sir, if you have the least regard to your own, or your country's reputation, you will never go thither to feed upon husks with swine, especially since you may have bread enough, and that of the finest sort, in our own universities. In a word, a Padua physician, a. Salamanca doctor of divinity, and a Scotch master of arts, are three animals sunk below contempt, and not to be paralleled in the universe.

In the last place, for any advantage you are like to get, I dare be bold to say, you might hope for as much in one of those Lithuanian academies Dr. Crull speaks of, that are erected for the education of bears and other wild beasts.

'Their colleges are neither, for learning, libraries, learned men, revenues, or structure, any more to be compared to ours, than a dancing-master's kit to a bass-viol, or a Welch vicarage to St. Paul's cathedral.

None but the principal and professors lodge within the walls at Edinburgh, to which you are going (I aneddle not with St. Andrew's, Glascow, or Aberdeen, because I never saw them, and

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