Closing the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom
DIANE Publishing, 1995 - Всего страниц: 106
Describes environmental, safety, and health problems throughout the nuclear weapons complex and what the U.S. Dept. of Energy is doing to address them. Covers: building nuclear warheads: the process; wastes and other byproducts of the cold war (spent nuclear fuel, plutonium residues, radioactive waste, transuranic waste, hazardous waste, etc.); contamination and cleanup; an international perspective; transition to new missions; and looking to the future. Over 100 b/w photos. Extensive glossary and bibliography.
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buildings built byproducts challenges clean cleanup Cold Cold War Colorado contaminated soil decay decontamination Department of Energy Department's depleted uranium developed disposal dose drums elements environment Environmental Management environmental restoration facilities Fernald ﬁrst geologic repository Hanford Hanford Site hazardous waste high-level waste highly enriched uranium Idaho National Engineering irradiated isotopes lithium low-level waste Manhattan Project ment metal million mixed waste National Engineering Laboratory National Laboratory neutrons nium nuclear explosion nuclear materials nuclear reactors nuclear warheads nuclear weapons nuclear weapons complex nuclear weapons production Oak Ridge Ofﬁce operations Pantex particles plutonium plutonium-production problems production reactors radioactive materials radioactive waste reprocessing require risks Rocky Flats Plant safety Savannah River Savannah River Site scientists South Carolina spent fuel spent nuclear fuel stabilizing storage stored tanks targets technologies Tennessee tion tons toxic transuranic waste tritium U.S. Department underground United uranium 235 Washington waste management WIPP workers
Стр. 95 - Fusion; The process whereby the nuclei of light elements, especially those of the isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium), combine to form the nucleus of a heavier element , with the release of substantial amounts of energy.
Стр. 96 - Isotopes. Different forms of the same chemical element that differ only by the number of neutrons in their nucleus. Most elements have more than one naturally occurring isotope. Many more isotopes have been produced in reactors and scientific laboratories. K Reactor. A plutonium and tritium production reactor at the Savannah River Site, started in 1954 and shut down in 1988. The code name "K
Стр. 90 - the problem in defense is how far you can go without destroying from within what you are trying to defend from without.
Стр. 102 - Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Final Environmental Impact Statement, April 1995.
Стр. 94 - Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Endangered Species Act.
Стр. 2 - In 1939, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Niels Bohr had argued that building an atomic bomb "can never be done unless you turn the United States into one huge factory." Years later, he told his colleague Edward Teller, "I told you it couldn't be done without turning the whole country into a factory. You have done just that.
Стр. 13 - II, uranium mining expanded dramatically, from 38,000 tons of ore in 1948 to 5.2 million tons in 1958, nearly all of it for nuclear weapons production. The United States mined about 60 million tons of ore to produce this uranium. Many tons of natural uranium were needed to produce the several kilograms of enriched uranium used in the Hiroshima bomb. For each kilogram of plutonium made for the US arsenal, miners took roughly 1 ,000 tons of uranium ore from the ground.
Стр. 97 - Plutonium - A manmade fissile element. Pure plutonium is a silvery metal that is heavier than lead. Material rich in the Plutonium 239 isotope is preferred for manufacturing nuclear weapons, although any plutonium can be used. Plutonium 239 has a half-life of 24,000 years.
Стр. 81 - I went out. not knowing how valid their concerns were. and found that they were very valid. We did General Accounting Office (GAO) studies then of the other spots in the nuclear weapons complex all over the country. some 1 1 States and 17 different major sites. Cleanup had been put away at that time. The Russians are coming: we have got to produce.' •What are you going to do with the waste?
Стр. 82 - ... most financial risks by the terms of the contract. While appropriate for Cold War production, these types of contracts are not the best way to reach the environmental quality objectives of the Department. Contractors Involved In environmental management activities will be required to demonstrate sound business practices and assume greater financial responsibility for activities within their control. Contract reform Initiatives emphasize competition and the development of clear, objective performance...