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most important office, though his expression would appear more respectful at the time than it does now, in a translation: "Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come." (John ii. 4.J—This is not the proper occasion for an interchange of affectionate regards between mother and son.—How odious and despicable after this, if not still worse, would appear an instance drawn from history, of thousands of lives bang committed to the care of 1 worthless general, or admiral, merely because he happened to be. the illegitimate offspring ot some favourite concubine!—Not that I am a woman-hater, or that I have a mean idea of the peculiar excellencies of the genuine female character: few have been more constant than myself in treating females, whilst they endeavoured to excel as females, with respect and attention: nay even in the case of Patronage, I think I have known instances where the acuteness of female penetration has contributed to discover good and useful qualities in a man, to which his own sex would have been insensible. It seems happily ordained by nature, that women in general should he interested in every minute characteristic of the men with whom they converse; and that men also, in the society of women, should lay aside their fejrrs of appearing unmanly, or trifling; and should open their minds, and expose what Came would deem amiable weaknesses, but what are, in reality, virtues; that thus they should bring to light a number of good qualities, which over the bottle would hide their diminished heads.—I might observe, that, in like manner, men can often see good qualities in women, which women do not perceive in each other; but that would not be to the present purpose.—It is, however, to the present purpose to mark the distinction between a temale friend opening the true character of a candidate for preferment, shewing useful ar|d amiable qualities to the Patron which had escaped his notice; and a great duchess or princess, cr an artful and interested mistfess, overawing or bewitching the Patron's judgment, and demanding preferment without any regard to character or qualifications. We are directed to give honor to woman as the weaker vessel (1 Pet. iii, 7.); but if the disdains respect upon that footing, and is determined to be the !1 ronger, she forfeits all her claim to the honor enjoined.
But to return to Patronage in the church in particular.— Some difficulty arises, and some occasion for the exercise of fairness and integrity, when, by any revolution in church or state, or by any great and acknowledged improvements, important portant changes have taken place, so that the property which has been set apart in order to establish certain offices, can no longer be applied to the precise ends for which it was originally intended. Emoluments were instituted by laws, or by bequests, for certain uses; those uses have ceased; what is to become of the emoluments? men in power will endeavour to s ize upon them, as your biographer, in his life of Whilgift, fays was the cafe with regard to the earl of Leicester. "Great numbers of religious foundations were demolished at the time of our Reformation. What was done at that lime is now so completely established, that it would be vain to doubt its propriety. Indeed it does seem possible, that superstition may have so over-run a nation, and that religious weakness may have dedicated to the church so much property, beyond what was necessary for a liberal support of every thing really useful, that when a reformation takes place, that is, when one national religion is abolished, and another substituted in its room, the supreme civil power may, not unreasonably, considering the case as extraordinary, and leaving enough for a plentiful support of all the dignities and offices of the new religion, dispose of the overplus for the public good. Yet the kind of good should seemingly approach as near as may be found practicable, to that aimed at by those, who provided the wealth now to be diverted from its primary channel. What had been provided lor the church by the public, in the way of taxes, rates, tithes, or contributions, if recovered from the church by new laws, should be returned, as nearly as possible, to the contributors, or their representatives , either immediately, or if that were found impracticable, by some works, such as they might be supposed to expend money upon, were they now alive, on account of their utility. Certainly, if any office becomes wholly useless, the pecuniary suppoit of it ihould be applied to some useful purpose or other.
If the property of the old church can be applied so as to support useful institutions in the new one, answering the original end, and differing only as to some modes, that may be considered as lightly applied; by reason not corrupted by interest. This seems to be the case with colleges and cathedrals, founded by papists, and conducted by protestants. Our colleges now aim at the fame ends which they had in view before the Reformation; and so do our cathedrals; the one laying a foundation for learning and piety; the other exercising that species of public devotion, which
has the greatest tendency to give men grand, awful, sublime views of the Deity; and to exalt, and at the fame time rectify their notions of religion, by sacred eloquence, intermixed with such strajns of holy music, as meliorate our affections and sentiments for the present, and seem more likely than any thing else, to give us a foretaste of that rapturous gratitude and admiration, which the saints may pour forth in their future, heavenly existence.
If any one found much scruple in applying the wealth of the papist to the studies and religious exercises of the protestant, perhaps he might receive some satisfaction from reflecting, that both aimed at establishing a national church in England; and that each judged of the particular means according to the most improved reason and knowledge of his own time: this being the cafe, it might not be absurd, considering the gradual and sometimes (low progress of religious truth, to conceive, that had the pious and thinking papist lived a little later, and been free from the shackles of papistical dominion, he would, in all probability, have been convinced by the reasonings of the reformers, and would have gladly consented, that his wealth should be employed as we now employ it. But this supposition can have no place unless we take for granted that colleges do really cultivate good learning and piety, according to the present establishment; and that cathedrals do honestly employ their wealth and their most strenuous endeavours in so conducting their kind of worship, that it may have all the good effects upon the hearts and minds of those who are able to join in it, which it is capable of producing: and that if may attract great numbers, not only of the more ordinary people, but of the most accomplished and improved. The bishop has naturally an opportunity of appearing at his cathedral, in all the mild dignity of Christian lowliness; yet the business of his diocese is so great, that if he governs steadily, and uses his Patronage disinterestedly, he may reasonably expect others to labour in the regulation and cultivation of the cathedral worship. But the dean and chapter I conceive to be responsible for the right use of their revenues, and for their institution being made to answer its peculiar ends. Hence it is incumbent on Patrons to select such persons as are most likely to maintain the kind of worship best adapted to the nature and character of cathedrals which has been already described. It does really seem to me, that those Patrons who appoint clergy ^for a cathedral with any other views, act a part that is not honefl;
that that they embezzle the revenues of the church, and apply them to purposes which may be fairly called selfish; that they act as unjustly, (to return to our former illustration) a* a guardian would do, who should employ his ward's funded property, standing in his name, in favour of thtfse who had supported him in some contest, or were likely to support him. I f we come to particulars, we may fay, the nature of cathedral worlhip requires, that Patrons of cathedrals should provide the best preachers, the best musical performers, and those who are qualified to execute ceremonies in the most graceful and impressive manner. The reading, so necessary in other churches, may here be included in the music; as it is often chanting, and as those who have remarkably good voices lor singing, generally read very well. And after all is rightly provided, care should be taken, by those who would avoid all abuse and perversion of the church-property, that all should be conducled with such devout attention, such order and decorum, such a sense of the awful character of the magnificent edifice, and the mode of worship suited to it, that no incident, no levity, should interrupt the devout sentiments of the worshippers: that they may freely indulge their holy love, their heart-felt penitence, their humble admiration and gratitude; and may depart edified and delighted. I should doubt whether sufficient attention be always paid to these provisions and regulations by those who confer offices to which authority in cathedrals is annexed. The deans, I think, though generally eminent in some respects, have not always been trained to music. I wish we could now see and hear the choir of Christ-Church as conducted by dean Aidrich.—Of our king Henry VIII. it is said (Anecdotes 1798, vol. 1. p. 42.) "Henry was intended for the church, while "his eldest brother, prince Arthur, lived, and was of course "brought up to music and to Latin. A Te Dcum of his com"position is still fung at Christ-Church Oxford." If this be needless now, why is cathedral service continued, and the rich endowments not turned to some purpose thought really useful ?—I was once in company with two deans, one of them still living (a very worthy, sensible, and well-informed man), and happened to say to some one near me, who was speaking of a voluntary, that the Jubjeil seemed good, but that it had not been treated so as to satisfy the expectation it had raised. The deans both laughed at me for talking of ajiibjed in music; and this was a standing joke against me for several years.
Perhaps some may fay, that the lucrative places in cathedrals are made subservient to the public good as pensions for learned and able men: but why? is not cathedral service really capable of producing the noblest and best effects on the heart of man? does it not elevate the foul, when rightly conducted, above all other kinds of worship? is there any thing peculiarly popish in acquiring the most lofty ideas and-feelings of omnipotence, omniscience, and infinite goodness, that our present imperfections will allow ?—A part of the zeal which built cathedrals, might be very rationally continued, surely, to deriving from them all possible utility. If their lucrative offices are only pensions, the continuation of cathedral service must be a vile profanation. Nor could the theory of their being pensions be allowed as any apology, if they were, on any occasion, made political pensions, and not simply encpuragements to moral, religious, and literary merit. The statutes of chapters not being made public, no remarks can be made upon them, or upon obedience to them. —If any one was to propose making offices in the artillery pensions for men who had faithfully served a minister of state, or, if you please, for men of military merit, but not engineers; what would be the answer? No; we want the pay of those offices for such as are useful in actually serving in the artillery. A very reasonable answer j make it general, and it will stand thus: no emoluments annexed to offices are to he made pensions, unless those offices are incapable of doing good according to their original institution. The application of this to cathedrals is very easy, if our idea of ca thedral worship is a just one.—Before I quit the subject of cathedrals I would offer one more remark; that the profits or stipends of different offices in them should always continue to bear the fame proportion to each other that they did originally: what does it signify whether those profits or stipends ante from lands, or from sums of money? the intention most clearly was, to furnish a certain portion of the conveniencies ot life, to each officer, in proportion to his rank. If the rents of the lands must be raised in order to procure that portion of conveniencies, there cannot be any thing plainer than that money should be so managed as to answer the same purpose. The neglect of this duty causes several places I apprehend, to be indifferently filled.
When this subject was begun, cathedrals and colleges were
mentioned together; but by dwelling on the former we
X x jjave
Vol. XIII. Churchm. Mag. for November 1807.