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without a counterpart. The fact is curious and worth fre* lating in this place.
About the year 1656, the Asiatick Jews sent hither the noted Rabbi Jacob Ben Azahel, with several others of has nation, to make private enquiry whether Cromwell was not that Mejjiah whom they had so long expected; and these deputies upon their arrival, pretending other business, were several times indulged with the favour of a private audience with the usurper. One of them proposed purchasing the Hebrew books and manuscripts belonging to the university of Cambridge, but this was only a pretence, that in going thither they might have an opportunity of visiting Huntings don where he was born, and making enquiries there whether any of his ancestors could be proved of Jewish origin.
This project was very readily agreed to (she university being at that time under a cloud on account of its loyalty to. the king) and accordingly the embassadors set out upon their journey. But discovering by their much longer continuance et Huntingdon, than at Cambridge, that their business at'the last place was not such as was pretended, and by not making their enquiries into Oliver's pedigree with that caution and secrecy, which was necessary in such an affair, the true purpose of their errand into England became quickly known at London, and was very much talked off: which causing great scandal amongst the Saints, he was forced suddenly to packthem out of the kingdom, without granting any of their re. quests.*
"With this anecdote we Aral I dismiss the " Transactions of the Parisian Sanhedrim," observing only, that Mr. Kirwan has discharged ihe office of a translator well; and that the preface docs honour to his talents and to his principles.
• Tovey's Angua Judaica, p. 275.
Remarks on the Alliance between Church and State; and on the Tejl Laws. By the Rev. Richard King, M. A. formerly Fellow of New College, Oxford. 8vo. pp. 60. Booth.
'• r| 'HE object of this publication is to explain the nature of A the alliance between Church and State, and the necessity os Tell-Laws: it comprehends the substance of the leading
arguments in Dr. Warburton's celebrated treatise on tbat subject, intermixed with occasional observations applicable to the present times."
Such is the author's account of his performance, and in our opinion he has executed the design which he undertook, with considerable ability. He has extracted the essence of the celebrated treatise of the learned prelate with judgment, and: given his arguments in a small compass without weakening their force.
Ciffuseness was the characteristic of Warburton, and aplain subject in his management, became expanded to the utmost stretch of ingenuity. In the tract before us, the doctrine of the alliance between Church and State is. clearly laid down, accurately defined, and ably supported. To th,e original arguments of Warburton, some additions are made which that acute writer would not have treated with disrespect: and there are several observations applicable to existing circumstances which deserve serious attention.
To some of his positions, indeed, many members of the Church of England will not accede. He laments, and we lament with him, that the unfounded jealousy of the legislature, has deprived the clergy ot their right to assemble in convocation; but we are not quite satisfied that the remedy proposed of admitting them into the house of commons would be either good, for the order itself, or for the public at large. It is but Fair, however, to let Mr* King state his own reasons.
'* Itis much to be lamented" he says, "that in England clergymen are excluded from a seat in the House of Commons; particularly a* the houses of Convocation, unfortunately for them and the nation, are now discontinued; for from their learning, moral habits, and education, they would be well qualified to act as legislators. Men of all other professions are eligible to Parliament; and though it may be objected, that they would be liable to be tempted by prospects of preferment, which objection is equally applicable to all other professions, yet this difficulty, might easily be removed by a law, to render them incapable of any other preferment than what they then possessed, after they have once been admitted into Parliament.
"If they were admitted to this share in the legislature, the State would receive the benefit of the abilities of twenty-six new members, supposing one to be returned for each diocese, distinguished tor their learning and moral character; and what would be of infinite importance, perfectly independent: they would then be able to act as the guardians of the morals and religion of the country; and their presence in the legislature, in the eyes of the
F r 2 people
people, who are naturally influenced by those who teach them their great duties to God and man, would give a strong additional sanction to the laws, and ensure to them a willing obedience.
«' The Bishops are not the representatives of the clergy, though, in the share they take in the legislature, they give a sanction to the laws, from their learning, their age and experience, and their venerable and apostolic character; but they do not often interfere in the public business."
The subject of the Test-laws is well discussed, and the following illustration from the institutions of the celebrated founder and legiflator of the state of Pensylvania, is aptly introduced.
"In later times, we see the conduct of the celebrated William Penn; though in his principles he was averse to an established religion, and Test-laws, yet was forced to have recourse to them. As the head of his sect,he first introduced society into religion, as the necessary means to preserve it: when he became the law- giver, he found it equally necessary to have that society established, and also to secure it by a Test-law. In the original constitutions of his government, in Pensylvania, we read, "That all persons living in this province, who acknowledge one God, the Creator, Upholder and Ruler of the world, shall in no wise be molested for their religious persuasion; " and ** that all treasurers, judges, and all other officers in the service of government; and all members of council, and general assembly, and all who have a right to elect such members, shall be such as profess faith in Jesus Christ." Thus we see an established religion formed, and next a Test-law made, which excludes all, who will not subscribe that Test, from any the remotest share in the administration. Thus all Atheists, Deists, Jews, Turks, and Infidels of every kind, were excluded from all the honours and advantages of the State. Did these men complain, that William Penn was intolerant, and a persecutor?"
On the whole, the perusal of this pamphlet has afforded ut great pleasure; and we can even venture to recommend it to the attention of those who are already familiarly acquainted with the able treatise of Warburton.
Remarks cm tie Dangers vciick tkreotea tie 1,1^':^ Re*>
ligion, amd »n ike mejms of averting them - f« m Let'er f tke Right H*t. Spencer Perceval, Al. P. Ck*nee^«r e' kit Majesty's Exckejufr. By Edwaxd Pearson. B. D. Rector of Rcmpjttte, Seitingkjmjkire. 8vo. pp. 98. 3$. Hatchard.
IN this letter several important points are submitted to the consideration of Mr. Perceval, who is " conceived to take a greater interest in the preservation of our religious establishment, and to be a better judge ot what is necessary for the preservation of it, than moil laymen of the present day.
After stating the duty of the civil magistrate with respect to religion, which b "to establish one form,and to tolerate all others that are not incompatible with the safety of the state," this ingenious writer observes, that
"It is entirely consistent with this duty, and indeed a part of it, not only to afford all necessary protection to the existing establishment, but to give it all possible advantages, and to bring it to all possible perfection. For, since the benefit of a religious establishment to the state, as also its own security, will be in proportion, or nearly so, to the number of those, who conform to it, every reasonable inducement to conformity, especially that arising from a persuasion of its excellence, ought to be carefully provided; and, though toleration should be allowed, dissent should be discouraged. In many cases, it may be difficult to discourage dissent, without infringing the rights of toleration; but, so far as the thing is possible, an endeavour to accomplish it is essential to the idea of good government. It is, therefore, the duty of civil magistrates, whether legislators or ministers, as such, by the maintenance of the established religion in its purity, if they think it as near to the truth of things as possible, or by the improvement of it, if they think it not so, to make the prevalence of true religion one of the principal objects of their attention."
As one object of this address is to recommend some alterations in the administration of the church service, and in the service itself, which some persons may be inclined Lo consider as inconsistent with the idea of an establishment, Mr. Pearson thus removes that objection.
"The inconsistency is more in the name than the nature of the" thing, and is indeed no more than a fallacy. An establishment does not lightly admit of alterations, and this is one of its advantages; but there is nothing in its nature, which necessarily precludes them. A religious establishment no more precludes alterations in the ecclesiastical code of laws, than a civil establishment precludes alterations in the civil code. Accordingly, the Church of England, in the preface to her liturgy, asserts the right of making alterations, by observing, that "the particular forms of divine worship, and the rites and ceremonies appointed to be used therein, being things in their own nature indifferent and alterable, and so acknowledged, it is but reasonable, that, upon weighty and important considerations, according to the various exigency of times and occasions, such changes and alterations should be made therein, as to those, that are in places of authority, should, from time to time, seem either necessary or expedient." This right she has also repeatedly exercised; for, since the time of her first establishment, she has undergone various alterations, and received considerable improvements. Whether, in order to promote the cause of religious truth, any alterations in the doctrines held by the Church of England, or in the forms of divine worship prescribed by her, be necessary, I do not here inquire. I only mean to observe generally, that the civil magistrate (under which t«rm, as I have said, I comprehend the legislative part of government, as the source of authority, and the executive part, as its running stream) is always at liberty to consider, whether any alterations in the religious establishment of a country be necessary for this purpose, and that, under the limitations already referred to, he is not only justified in making them, or in promoting the making of them, if he thinks them to be so, but obliged in duty to make - or promote them. "An establishment," to use the words of an acute writer*, "is intended to prevent all other methods of propagating what each partjr esteems the truth, except the just and proper one of reason and argument." But, as it is not the intention of an establishment to hinder any sect from endeavouring to propagate the truth, or what is believed' to be the truth, by this method; so neither can it be imagined, that any member of the establishment is intended to be precluded from the use of this method in propagating what he believes to be the truth, even though it should not make a part of the establishment."
With regard to the dangers to which the Church of Engr laud is at present exposed, Mr. Pearson is of opinion that they arise,
* The Rev. Thomas Ludlam^ in his Essay on Social Unionand Appendix.