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law written upon tables of stone, but it was written upon his mind, the knowladge thereof being concreated with him. God impressed it upon his soul, and made him a law to himself, as the remains of it among the heathens do testify, Rom. ii. 14, 15. And seeing man was made to be the mouth of the creation, to glorify God in his works; we have ground to believe he had naturally an exquisite knowledge of the works of God. We have a proof of this, in his giving names to the beasts of the field, and the fowls of the air, and these such as express their nature: Whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the nume thereof, Gen ii. 19. And the dominion which God gave him over the creatures, soberly to use and dispose of them according to his will still in subordination to the will of God.) seeins to require no less than a knowledge of their natures. And belides all this, his perfect knowledge of the law,proves his knowledge in, the management of civil affairs, which, in respect of the law of God, a good man will guide with discretion, Pfal. cxii. 5. · SECONDLY, His will lay straight with the will of God, Eph. iv. 24. - There was no corruption in his will, no bent nor inclination to evil; ..
før that is sin properly and truly fo called : hence the apostle says, Rom. vii. 7. I had not known sin, but by the law ; for I had not known a luft, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet. An inclination to
evil, is really a fountain of sin, and therefore inconsistent with that rectitude and uprightness which the text exprefly says he was endued with at his creation. The will of inan then was directed, and naturally inclined to God and goodness, tho' mutably. It will disposed, by its original make, to follow the Creator's will, as the Mhadow does the body; and was not left in an equal ballance' to good and evil : for at that rate he had not been upright, nor habitually conform to the law, which in no moment can allow the creature not to be inclined towards God as his chief end, more than it can allow man to be a god to himself. The law was impressed upon Adam's foul : now this according to the new covenant, by which the image of God is repaired, consists in two things : 1. Putting the law into the mind, denoting the knowledge of it: 2. Writing it in the heart, denoting inclinations in the will, answerable to the commands of the law, Heb. viii. 10. So that, as the will, when we conlider it as renewed by grace, is by that grace natively inclined to the same holi. ness in all it's parts which the law requires ; so was the will of man (when we consider him as God made him at first) endued with natural inclinations to every thing commanded by the law. For if the regenerate are partakers of the divine nature, as undoubtedly they are, for so says the Scripture, 2 Pet. i. 4. And if this divine nature can import no less than inclinations of the heart to holiness; then, surely Adam's will could not want this inclination ; for in him the image of God was perfect. It is true, 'tis said, Rom. ii. 14, 15. That the Gentiles (hew the work of the law written in their hearts: but this denotes only their knowledge of that law, such as it is; but the
God is enoting thes in the will as the
Apostle to the Hebrews, in the text cited, takes the word heart, in another sense, distinguishing it plainly from the mind. And it must be granted, that, when God promiseth in the new covenant, to write his law in the hearts of his people, it imports quire another thing than what Heathens have ; for tho' they have notions of it in their minds, yet their hearts go another way; their will has got a set and a biass quite contrary to that law; and therefore, the expression suitable to the present purpose, must needs import, besides these notions of the mind, inclinations of the will going along therewith ; which inclinations, tho'mixed with corruption in the regenerate, were pure and unmixed in upright Adam. In a word, as Adam knew his Master's pleasure in the matter of duty, fo his will stood inclined to what he knew.
THIRDLY, His aifestions were orderly, pure and holy; which is a necessary part of that uprightness wherein man was created. The Apostle has a petition, a Thell ji. 5. The Lord direEt your hearts into the love of Cod: that is, The Lord firaighter your hearts, or make them ly straight to the love of God;: and our text tells us, man was thus made straight. The new man is created in righteoulness and true holiness, Eph. iv. 24. Now this holiness as it is distinguished from rightecusness, may import the purity and orderliness of the affections. And thus the Apostle, 1 Tim. ii. 8. will have men to pray, Lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting : because, as troubled water is unfit to receive the image of the fun; so the heart, filled with impure and disorderly affections, is not fit for divine communications, Map's sensitive appetite was indeed naturally carried out towards objects grateful to the senses. For seeing inan was made up of body and soul, and God made this man to glorify and enjoy him; and for this end to use his good creatures in fubordination to himself: it is plain that man was naturally inclined both to spiritual and sensible good; yet to fpiritual good, the chief good as his ultimate end. And there. fore his sensitive motions and inclinations, were subordinate to his reason and will, which lay ftraight with the will of God, and were not, in the least, contrary to the same. Otherwise he thould have been made up of contradictions; his soul being natuully inclined to God as tle chief end, in the superior part thereof, and the same soul inclined to the creature as the chief end in the inferior part thereof, as they call it: which is impossible ; for man, at the same instant, cannot have two chief ends. Man's affections then, in his primitive state, were pure from all defilement, free from all disorder and difteniper, because in all their motions they were duly subjected to his clear reason, and his holy will. He had also an executive power answerable to his will; a power to do the good which he knew thould be done, and which he inclined to do, even to fulfil the whole law of God. If it had not been so, God would not have required of him perfect obedience ; for to say that the Lord gathereth where he hath not strawed, is but the blafpheiny of a wicked heart, against a good and bountiful God, Mat, xxv. 24,
From what has been said, it may be gathered, that the original righteousness explained was universal and natural; yet mutable.
First, It was universal; both with respect to the subject of it, the whole man; and the object of it, the whole law. Universal I say, with respect to the subject of it ; for this righteousness was diffused through the whole man; it was a blessed leaven that leavened the whole lump. There was not one wrong pin in the tabernacle of human nature, when God set it up, however shattered it is now. Man was then holy in soul, body, and spirit: while the soul remained untainted, it's lodging was kept pure and undefiled : the members of the body were consecrated vessels, and instruments of righteousness, A combat betwixt flesh and spirit, reason and appetite ; nay the leait inclination to sin, luft of the flesh in the inferior part of the soul, was utterly inconsistent with this uprightness, in which man was created : and has been invented to vail the corruption of man's nature, and to obscure the grace of God in Jesus Christ : 'it looks very like the language of fallen Adam, laying his own fin at his Maker's door, Gen. iii. 12. The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat: But as this righteousness was universal in respect of the subject, because it spread through the whole man, fo also it was universal, in respect of the object, the holy law :. There was nothing in the law, but what was agreeable to his reason and will, as God made him : tho' sin hath now set him at odds with it : his foul was shapen out, in length and breadth to the commandment, tho’ exceeding broad : so that this original righteousness was not only perfect in parts, but in degrees.
SECONDLY, As it was universal, so it was natural to him, and not fupernatural in that state. Not that it was essential to man, as man; for then he could not have lost it, without the loss of his very being; but it was con-natural to himn : He was created with it, and it was necessary to the perfection of man, as he came out of the hand of God: necessary to constitute him in a state of integrity. Yet,
THIRDLY, It was mutable ; it was a righteousness that might be lost, as is manifested by the doleful event : His will was not abso. lutely indifferent to good or evil : God set it towards good only ; yet he did not so fix and confirm it's inclinations, that it could not alter. No, it was moveable to evil : and that only by man himself, God having given him a sufficient power to stand in this integrity, if he had pleased : Let no man quarrel God's works in this ; for if Adam had been unchangeably righteons, he behoved to have been so either by nature, or by free gift: by nature he could not be so, for that is proper to God, and incommunicable to any creature : if by free gift, ihen no wrong was done him, in with-holding of what he could not crave. Confirmation in a righteous state, is a reward of grace, given upon continuing righteous, thro’ the state of trial ; and would have been given to Adam, if he had stood out the time appointed for probation by the Creator ;' and accordingly is given to the faints,
upon the account of the merits of Christ, who was obedient even to the death. And herein believers have the advantage of Adam, that they can never totally nor finally fall away from grace.
Thus was man made originally righteous, being created in God's own iinage, Gen. i. 27. which conlists in the politive qualities of knowledge, righteousness and holiness, Col. iii. 10. Eph. iv. 24. All that God made was very good, according to their several natures, Gen. i. 31. And so was man morally good, being made after the image of Hiin, who is good and upright, Pfal. xxv. 8. Without this, she could not have answered the great end of his creation, which was to know, love, and serve his God, according to his will. Nay, he could not be created otherwise : for he behoved either to be conform to che law, in his powers, principles, and inclinations, or not : if he was, then he was righteous; and if not, he was a finner, which is absurd and horrible to imagine.
Of Man's Original Happiness. SECONDLY, I fhall lay before you some of those things which did accompany or flow from the righteouiness of man's primitive state : Happiness is the result of holiness; and as it was an holy, so it was an happy state.'
First, Man was then a very glorious creature. We have reason to suppose, that as Mofes face thone when he came down from the mount, so man had a very lightsome and pleasant countenance, and beautiful body, while as yet there was 'no darkness of sin in him at all. But seeing God himself is glorious in holiness, (Exod. xv. 11.) surely that spiritual comeliness the Lord put upon man at his creation, made him a very glorious creature. O! how did light Ihine in his holy conversation, to the glory of the Creator! while every action was but the darting forth of a ray and beain of that glorious, unmixed light, which God had set up in his foul ; while that -lamp of love, lighted from Heaven, continued burning in his heart, as in the holy place; and the law of the Lord, put in his inward parts by the finger of God, was kept by him there, as in the most holy : There was no impurity to be seen without; no [quint look in the eyes, after any unclean thing; the tongue Ipoke nothing but the language of Heaven : And, in a word, The King's fon was all glorious within, and his clothing of wrought gold.
Secondly, He was the favourite of Heaven: He shone brightly in the image of God, who cannot but love his own image, where-ever it appears. While he was alone in the world, he was not alone, for God was with him : His communion and fellowship was with his Creator, and that immediately ; for as yet there was nothing to turn away the face of God from the work of his own hands; seeing sin had not as yet entered, which alone could make the breach.
By the favour of God, he was advanced to be confederate with 1 Heaven, in the first Covenant, called, The Covenant of Works.
God reduced the Law, which he gave in his creation, into the form
for God was while he was aloner love his own iniha
God makineveal, and Moral Law wypenalty. hus eating of the this Covenaniat foevering that many the ly vertended me of knowine will she mall combe
of a Covenant, whereof perfect obedience was the condition : life was the thing promised, and death the penalty. As for the condition, one great branch of the natural Law was, that man believe whatfoever God Mall reveal, and do wiiatsoever he shall command: Accord. ingly God making this Covenant with man, extended his duty to the not eating of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; and the law thus extended, was the rule of man's covenant-obedience. How easy were these terins to him, whe had the natural law written on his heart; and that inclining him to obey this positive Law, revealed to him, ii seeins, by an audible voice, (Gen. ii. 16.) the matter whereof was so very easy? And indeed it was highly reasonable that the rule and matter of his covenant-obedience Thould be thus extended : that which was added, being a thing in itself indifferent, where his obedience was to turn upon the precise point of the will of God, the plainest evidence of true obedience, and it being in an external thing, wherein his obedience or disobedience would be most clear and conspicuous.
Now, upon this condition, Goů promised him life, the continuance of natural life in the union of soul and body; and of fpiritual life in the favour of his Creator : he promised him also eternal life in heaven, to have been entered into, when he should have palled the time of his trial unon earth, and the Lord Mould see rieet to transport him into the upper Paradise. This promise of life was included in the threatning of death mentioned, Gen. ii. 17. For while God says, In the day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die ; it is in effect, if thou do not eat of it, thou Malt surely live: And this was facramentally confirmed by another tree in the garden, called therefore, the Tree of Life, which he was debarred from, when he had finned, Gen. iii. 22, 23. -Left he put forth his hand, and take also of the Tree of Life, and eat, and live for ever. Therefore the Lord God fint him forth from the garden of Eden. Yet it is not to be thought, that man's life and death did hang only on this matter of the forbidden fruit, but on the whole Law; for so says the Apostle, Gal ji. 10 It is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things, which are wrilten in the Book of the Law, to do them. That of the forbidden fruit, was a revealed part of Adam's religion; and so behoved exprelly to be laid before him: but as to the natural Law, he naturally knew death to be the reward of disobedience ; for the very Heathens were not ignorant of this : Knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, Rom. i. 32. And moreover, the promise included in the threatning, secured Adam's life according to the Covenant, as long as he obeyed the natural Law with the addition of that positive command ; so that he needed nothing to be expressed to him in the Covenant, but what concerned the eating of the forbidden fruit : That eternal life in heaven was promised in this Covenant, is plain from this, that the threatning was of eternal death in hell; to which when man had made himself liable, Christ was promised, by his death to purchase
ved exprelly to wasza revealed parte da mi to do them."
knew death to be ore him: but as tos religion; and it