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find from a letter from Antoninus Pius, discovered by Mr. Wood in the Odeum at Ephesus, that the Ephesian people made a formal complaint to the Emperor against the Smyrnæans for having omitted to give their city its proper style and titles in a public document. There is a lurking sarcasm in the Emperor's reply: the omission, he suggests, is probably due to inadvertence, and he trusts that it will not be repeated.
Though ordinary crimes in the provinces were probably left to be dealt with in regular course by the local tribunals, the Emperors from time to time thought fit to appoint special commissioners to hold inquests. Thus Augustus writes to the Cnidians to inform them that he has at their request sent Gallus Asinius to inquire. how a certain Eubulus met with his death by violence.
The provinces were not content to submit their wants and grievances to the Emperor or Senate only through the regular official channel. In the great cities of Asia Minor were citizens of local influence who from time to time were sent to Rome on special missions from their fellow-citizens. Some of these being personally known to the Emperor, and reputed to enjoy his confidence, were honoured in their native cities with the title pλokaíσapes or Cæsar's friends. Such an agent was that Artemidoros of Cnidus, who warned Julius Cæsar of his intended assassination, or that Potamon, son of Lesbonax, to whom Tiberius gave a pass in these words, "If any one dares to injure Potamon, let him consider whether he can contend with Me," and whose marble chair, marking his seat of honour in the theatre, is to be seen to this day at Mitylene; or that Theophanes, also of Mitylene, whose friendship with Pompey gained for his native city the grant of freedom. Inscriptions record the names and services of many such "friends of Cæsar," who were sometimes eminent as sophists and rhetoricians.
The few fragments of imperial and proconsular documents. which we possess, though they may not contribute much to the general history of the Roman Empire, are valuable as illustrations of the mode of administration in the provinces, and as furnishing some new chronological data out of which more complete fasti are being constructed. But Asia Minor has contributed one lapidary text of surpassing interest to the historian of the Augustan age; that is, the summary of the deeds and events of his reign which Augustus drew up himself, and which was engraved on two bronze tablets and placed in front of his mausoleum at Rome. The bronze tablets have long since disappeared, but the text of this remarkable imperial document has been nearly recovered by the careful collation of two extant copies in marble, one discovered at Apollonia in Phrygia, the other at Ancyra in Galatia. The magnitude of the deeds recorded in this summary contrasts
timber, and various implements in wood, and includes not only the necessaries but many of the luxuries of ancient life. Silks and embroidered vestments glittering with gold and Tyrian purple occupy several columns. Among the garments we find the
dalmatica, of which the name still survives in an ecclesiastical vestment; and the caracalla, a coarse cloak with a hood, still known in European Turkey as the grego or capote, and adopted with little modification by many monastic orders in the Latin Church. The edict being bilingual, we are able to ascertain from it the meaning of some obscure Græco-barbaric words through their Latin equivalents. Among the fruits we meet with an old acquaintance, the damson, which was originally the Damascenum, or plum of Damascus. We get too the name pistachio in the disguised form psittachium. Among the game is the Attagen, an Ionian bird greatly esteemed by Roman gourmands, which has been identified by ornithologists with a kind of partridge (Pterocles alchata) still found on the coasts of the Levant.
All the wines mentioned in this edict are Italian, but the greater part of the articles of commerce, and especially the more costly ones, are from the eastern part of the empire. All the prices are calculated in the denarius of Diocletian's time; and, could we be sure what would be the equivalent of this sum in modern money, this document would form a very interesting chapter in the history of ancient political economy. But on this point Mommsen and other great authorities are not agreed. Mr. Waddington, the latest editor of the edict, has converted these into francs, and from his list the following prices may be quoted as specimens :
A labourer in the country with food, fcs. 1.55 a day.
"To an advocate for drawing up a case for the tribunal, fcs. 12:40.
It is unfortunate that the portion of the inscription which contained the price of wheat and barley is wanting.
The edict is made up of many fragments, which have been discovered in various parts of the Roman Empire. The preamble was obtained in Egypt; a great part of the tariff was found by Sherard, in 1709, on the wall of a Roman edifice at Stratonicea, in Caria; Mylasa in the same province, and Ezanis in Phrygia, contributed some small fragments; and several portions of the
place, and a sumptuous funeral and stately tomb at the public expense. These ephemeral honours have long since vanished, but as Pope has immortalized the Man of Ross, so Mr. Grote has judged the name of Protogenes of Olbia not unworthy of notice in his great history.
Another class of benefactors whom the Greek cities rewarded with public honours were physicians, respecting whom we have several honorary decrees. In the ancient Greek republics, as in many parts of the Archipelago at this day, physicians were paid an annual stipend by the community on the condition that they gave their services gratuitously to individuals. To secure the permanent services of eminent physicians, cities bid against each other, as we see by the story of Democedes in Herodotus. An inscription from the obscure city of Rhodiapolis in Lycia, has handed down the fame of one of these disciples of Asklepios, so esteemed in their day, so forgotten now.
Herakleitos the Rhodian, says this decree, was equally honoured by the Rhodians, the Alexandrians, the Athenians, the most holy court of the Areopagus, and the Epicurean philosophers; he was renowned not only as physician, but as a writer of medical treatises both in prose and poetry. He gave his medical attendance gratis, and at his own expense erected a temple and statues to Asklepios and Hygieia, in which he dedicated his own treatises and poems; these latter, no doubt, were esteemed at the time a very precious offering, for the inscription declares Herakleitos to be the very Homer of medical poetry. To our more fastidious taste, such poems would probably be as little palatable as Darwin's “Loves of the Triangles.” Poets, too, had their share of these public distinctions. In a decree of Halicarnassus, one Caius Julius Longinus is honoured with bronze statues in the Mouseion and the Gymnasium, side by side with the statue of Herodotus. His books are to be placed in the public library "in order that youth may study them as they study the ancient authors."
An honorary decree which I discovered at Iasus, in Caria, adds one more name to the list of Greek tragic poets.
This decree bestows a gold crown on one Dymas, the author of a poem on Dardanos, and whose piety to the gods and good services to the city are specially dwelt on. The gratitude of his native city has rescued this obscure Carian poet-laureate from the absolute oblivion which his verse perhaps deserved.
After Roman ascendency had been established we find, as might have been expected, all over the Hellenic world the subjectmatter and style of Greek inscriptions affected by this great political change. Though many cities were still nominally autonomous, there are fewer indications of that frank and friendly intercourse between different republics which induced them to