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Támel, Tamulian or Malabar language is spoken. A great number of Sanscrit words exist in this idiom, but Mr. Marsden considers the basis of it as a distinct language.
7. Maharashtra or Mahratta, spoken by the people of that name. This idiom also contains many words derived from an unknown source.
8. Kárnáta or the language of the Karnataca. This is commonly called the Canarese. It bears the same affinity to the Sanscrit as the other dialects of the Dekhin.
9. Tailanga, or Telinga, the language spoken in Telingana, an ancient kingdom on the eastern coast of the peninsula. It is said to have borrowed more largely from the Sanscrit than the other dialects of the Dekhin.
10. Gúrjara, the dialect of Guzerat.
All these dialects, like other modern idioms, are much less abundant in inflections than the parent Sanscrit. Auxiliary verts and particles supply the place of variations in the radical words.
The Magad'hi, or third class of languages, includes the bhashai, or vulgar dialects of India. Among them is the idiom prevalent in Multan, concerning which Adelung has announced a very curious fact. The wandering people who are dispersed over a great part of Europe, and are known by the names of Gipseys Bohemians, and Zigeuners, were perceived by Grellmann to be of Hindu descent; but that author erred in confounding the Sudras, a class of respectable character, with the outcast Pariars: and he was mistaken in deriving the Gipseys from the former.
These vagrants call themselves * Roma;" hence Whiter the author of the Etymologicum Magnum “ imputes to them the building of Rome !" Pallas first perceived that the dialect of Miu tan bears a strong analogy with the Gipsey language; and Adelung has proved by an extensive comparison of their idioms, that this people certainly originated from some low cast in that part of India.
We must now add a few observations in proof of the affinity between the Sanscrit and the languages of the West, to which wë have said that it is related. If this affinity were confined to a resemblance in any given number of roots, it might be attributed to the effects of accidental intercourse. It is only an essential affnity in the structure and genius of languages that demonstrates å common origin. This sort of relationship exists in the Sanscrit, the ancient Zend as well as the modern Persic, the Greek, the Latin, the German dialects; and is found, though not to the same extent, in the Celtic and Slavonic. In the Hebrew and its cognate idioms, as well as in the Coptic there are many Sanscrit rouby bearing little or no resemblance to the structure of that language A striking example of affinity between these dialects occurs." the numerals, which we subjoin:
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article Greek nouns the bere are markerek, and well as the
Mrityu, S.; mors, L.; mrété, Zend; mertovii, Russ.; mord, morsch, Germ. ; marw, W.
Yuvan, S., v
Ieuangc, W.; and yeong, Anglo-Saxon; jovank, Armoric. Yaurana, S. youth; iau, W.
Jugend, Germ.; juventus, L. Stha, S., (stand); } Istadan, P. (to stand). Sthan, (station); S
Estam, P.; sto, L.; 2 bothus, Gr.; 2 I stand.
Estad, P.; S stat. L.; SLOTNO, Gr.; She stands. Stehen, stand, Germ.; sthira, S. )
OTEPEos, Gr. Sfirm.
stier, Germ. ) From each of the above roots is derived a large catalogue of words in all the languages mentioned.
In grammatical structure the Sanscrit scarcely differs more from the Greek and Latin than they differ from each other.
The particles, a privative, poti, pro, con, dur, anu, are used in Sanscrit for the Greek , TOTI (for mpos), apo, ouv, dus, ava.
In the declension of nouns the same principle prevails through all these languages. The numbers are marked chiefly by varieties in the terminations. The Sanscrit, Greek, and the Slavonian dialects have a dual number. The cases, as well as all other inflections, are more numerous in the older than in the newer languages. The Greek and Latin can hardly be said to have more than four cases, for the ablative coincides with the genitive in the one, and generally with the dative in the other, and the vocative with the nominative. But the Sanscrit expresses by the termination a greater number of relations. The noun has seven cases, viz. the nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, possessive, and locative; the five last answering to the signs by, to, from, of, in. The Slavonian dialects have also seven cases, adding the instrumental to the usual number. The Sanscrit locative terminates in the plural in eshu and ishu, answering to the Greek oor and out. The Sanscrit ablative in at corresponds with the Latin ablative in ate, the dative and ablative plural in Whyoh, or bhyos with the Latin cases in bus. In Sanscrit n marks the accusative, and s the genitive, as in German.
Adjectives are declined like nouns in Sanscrit, Greek, and Latin. In the comparison of adjectives the Sanscrit resembles the Greek in the termination of the comparative degree, and in Latin in the superlative, as
Yuvan (young), yuvattara, yuvattama,
agreeing with the Greek Tepe and the Latin tima. In this inflection the Celtic is richer than any other language. The Welsh has a fourth degree terminating in ed, and denoting equality.
But the conjugations of the verbs afford the strongest example of coincidence. The following is the present tense of the verb substantive:
Sanscrit . Asmi , asi . asti – smah . stha , santi. Greek Out . 8001 . EOTI - Eusy . ETTE EIGI or sth Russian . esm e si , est esmui . esti sut. Latin . sum .es .est sumus . estis . sunt. Persian .am .ai .ast - aïm . aïd and. Welsh . wyv . wyt. oes - ym . ych , . ynt. English .am . art . is – are . are.. are.
This verb is defective in many languages. In Latin and in Welsh several tenses are formed from an old verb which only survives in the Sanscrit in a tolerably perfect form. This is Bhavami, bhavasi, bhavati, &c. answering to the German ich bin, du bist, &c. The preter tense of this verb in Latin, Fui, fuisti, fuit, coincides with the Welsh Bûm, buost, bû; and the Latin fuissem, fuisses, fuisset, &c, with the Welsh Buaswn, buasit, buasai, buasem, buasech, buasent. The future in the Russian agrees with the Welsh, as Budu, budesh, budet—budem, &c. which, in Welsh, is Byddav (pronounced budhav), byddi, bydd
byddwm, byddwch, byddant. The verb to eat coincides almost as closely : Sanscrit. Admi atsi . atti – admas , att'ha adanti. Latin. Edo, edis, , edit, - edimus editis 'edunt. es' i. est
estis',' Greek. da . deus . del - douer DETE . dovti (zbol. Russian. iem iesh , iest — iedim . iedite iedyat. German. esse . issest . isst — essen • esset essen.
Some Sanscrit verbs coincide most with the Greek, others the Latin, as Jivāmi jivāsi jivāti — jivamāh jivāthah jivanti,
with Vivo vivis vivit — vivimus vivitis vivunt. Dadāmi, dadāsi, dadāte, with didades, didās, didwon, &c.
The following are some miscellaneous examples: 1. Russian. Verchu vertish vertit - vertim vertite vertyat.
Latin. Verto vertis vertit - vertimus vertitis vertunt. Again,' . Welsh. Elwn elit, elai - elym . elych . elynt. Greek. έλθοιμι έλθοις έλθοι – έλθουμεν έλθοιτε έλθοιεν.
In all the above instances the German is more remote from the Sanscrit than the other languages; in the following it com