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other northern languages. The Italian then may be compared to a new wall built

of old Roman bricks. But in the Greek the edifice remains the same; the stones are not only antique, but the mortar and style of masonry is the same; only the building is in ruins. It would be impossible for a nation remaining so unmixed as the Greeks to deviate into a new syntax, and a totally foreign idiom, as the Italians have done.

Dr. Holland, in a note, p. 172, says, “ The interesting topic of the progressive substitution of accent for quantity,” &c. showing that he has adopted the vulgar opinion that the old Greeks pronounced, as they say, according to quantity, not according to accent. The topic would indeed be interesting if such a miracle had ever been performed. The Greeks in Cicero's time used the accents very much, as they do now in Greece. For what purpose, if not for that of pronunciation ? It is clear that they always laid the stress on the accented syllable whether long or short, and that we now pronounce Greek by rules very foreign to the genius of the language. Mitford, in his excellent work on the harmony of language, has shown that our pronunciation of Greek is neither according to accent nor quantity; that our pronunciation of Latin is correct according to the true Roman accent, not to quantity (this last we neglect, and it is for false accent, not for false quantity, that so many boys are flogged at our public schools:) and that we are much more incorrect with respect to Greek than to Latin; for though it is well known that the Greek accent differed widely from the Roman, yet we obstinately pronounce Greek according

to the Latin accent, and that method we absurdly call pronouncing it according to Greek quantity, From Ioannina the author

made an excursion into Thessaly over Pindus, the upper ridges of which are composed of a beautiful serpentine, which he supposes rests in unconformable masses on primitive slate. In this journey he visited the remarkable monasteries of Meteora, placed on the summits of perpendicular rocks, which can only be attained by means of a basket drawn up by a windlass and rope. Formerly there were

twenty of these remarkable buildings; at present they are reduced to ten. They exhibit the worst specimen of monastic seclusion. The rocks of Meteora are composed of a beautiful conglomerate. From Meteora to Larissa nothing remarkable is described: at the latter place Dr. Holland had an interview with Veli Pasha, one of Ali's sons, who, like his father, sought and obtained the Doctor's medical advice. This man, unlike the Turks in general, is said to value antiquarian researches.

2.50 The two most remarkable personages at Larissa were the Archbishop Polycarp and the physician Joannes Velara—the latter is described as a man of superior attainment and talent.

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enna was cent. per cent., which was fully paid by the enormous prices of these articles in Germany. Coffee was sold at Vienna in the autumn of 1812 at 15l. per cwt.

The return cargoes from Salonica were chiefly grain and timber. The destruction of the continental system has superseded the necessity of this very circuitous route. Tobacco, cotton-wool, and wool, are the principal objects of trade.ee

After a perilous voyage from Salonica to Zeitun in a Greek polacca, our traveller returned to Larissa through the pass of Thomoka and the plain of Pharsalia. At Larissa he again met Veli Pasha and the archbishop. During his stay, a clerical patient afflicted with sore throat was brought to him for advice. On attempting to administer an emetic to him, he was told by the bishop, “ that the remedy could not now be employed; that he (the priest) had officiated at mass in the morning, and that the rites of the church rigidly proscribed the act of vomiting so soon after this ceremony.”

10 oogap From Larissa our traveller passed to Salona, which contains about 800 houses, and is a place of small trade; thence he proceeded through ancient Phocis, Bæotia, and Attica, to Athens. We pass over these details rapidly, as they present nothing remarkable, in order that we may dwell on some of those happy descriptions in which Dr. Holland so peculiarly excels.

168 “ Those who expect to see at Athens only the more splendid and obvious testimonies of its former state, will find themselves agreeably mistaken in the reality of the scene. It may be acknowledged that the Parthenori, the Theseum, the Propyleea, the temple of Minerva Polias, &c., are individually the most striking of the objects occurring Here; yet it may perhaps be added that they have been less interesting singly, than in their combined relation to tliat'wonderful grouping to gether of nature and art, which gives its peculiarity to Athens, and renders the scenery of this spot something which is ever unique to the eye and recollection. Here, if any where, there is a certain genius of the place which unites and gives a character and colouring to the whole; and it is further worthy of remark, that this genius loci is one which mošt strikingly connects the modern Athens with the city of former days. Every part of the surrounding landscape may, be recog. nized as harmonious and beautiful in itself; and at the same time as furnishing those features which are consecrated by ancient descripkion, by the history of bervic 'actions; and still more 'as the scene of those celebrated schools of philosophy, which have transmitted their influence to every succeeding age. The stranger, who may be una able to appreciate all the architectural beauties of the temples of Atheps, yet can admire the splendid assemblage they form in their position, outline, and colouring can trace out the pictures of the poets in the vale of Cephissus, the hill of Colonos, and the ridge of Hymettus ;. can look on one side upon the sea of Salamis, on the other


upon the heights of Phyle; and can tread upon the spots which have acquired sanctity from the genius and philosophy of which they were once the seats. The hill of the Areopagus, the Academy, the Lycæum, the Portico, the Pnyx, if not all equally distinct in their situation, yet can admit of little error in this respect; and the traveller may safely venture to assert to himself, that he is standing where Demosthenes spoke to the Athenians, and where Plato and Aristotle addressed themselves to their scholars. Nowhere is antiquity so well substantiated as at Athens, or its outline more completely filled up both to the eye and imagination.obotools 3. 4. The impressions of this nature, which the traveller obtains, derive much vividness from the number of minute vestiges surrounding him; and these are often even more striking to the fancy than the greater memorials of ancient art. Every point in and around Athens abounds with such vestiges ;--the fragments of columns, sculptured marbles, and Greek inscriptions. Scarcely a single house but affords some of these remains, more or less mutilated; yet all with some interest annexed to them, as the representatives of a past age. This familiarity and frequency with which classic names and images are brought before the eye cannot fail of interesting the attention; and it forms one of the most striking circumstances to the stranger in Athens. Stoga

" The character of the landscape around the city is very peculiar, even without reference to any of the features that have been described. There is a certain simplicity of outline and colouring, combined with the magnificence of form and extent, which contributes much to this particular effect. It cannot be called a rich scenery, for the dry soil of Attica refuses any luxuriance of vegetation; and, excepting the great olive-grove of the plain, little wood enters into the landscape. Yet one of its most striking features is a sort of repose, which may be derived from the form of the hills, from their slopes into the plain, and from the termination of this plain in the placid surface of the gulph of Salamis ; above all, perhaps, from the resting point which the eye finds in the height of the Acropolis, and in the splendid groupe of ruins covering its summit. In this latter object there is a majestic tranquillity, the effect of time and of its present state, which may not easily be described, so as to convey an idea of the reality of the spot. The stranger will find himself perplexed in fixing on the point of view whence the aspect of these ruins is most imposing, or their combination most perfect with the other groupes which surround them.” (P. 408-410.)

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du In a note we are informed that all the ranges of hills which traverse Attica, are composed of primitive lime-stone, reposing on mica slate. The inclination of the mica slate is from 50°. 10 60%. Some serpentine also occurs.

2931 From Athens to Eleusis, Megara; Corinth, Mycenæ, Argos, Tripolitza, little more is recorded than the itinerary. From Tripolitza, our' traveller passed the site of Mantinea to Patrass, whence he proceeded to Zante.

According to a promise made to Ali Pasha, Dr. 'Holland

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returned to Prevesa, whence he made a rapid excursion up the Gulph of Arta, visited the ruins of Nicopolis, and proceeded to the mountains of Suli, inhabited by a race of hardy warriors, who during seventeen years resisted the constant attacks of Ali. At length they were overcome by the treachery of some of their chiefs. Resolved, however, to perish with their independence, they continued the combat to the last. A female, named Cheitho, distinguished herself greatly in this extremity, and Samuel, one of the Suliote priests, and leaders, is said to have blown up the building he had been defending, when it could no longer be saved from the enemy. Finding themselves surrounded, and losing at length every hope, they became desperate; a considerable number cut their way through Ali's troops and fled; some slew themselves, a greater number were slain. It is related as an authentic story, that a group of Suliote women assembled on one of the precipices adjoining the modern seraglio, and threw their infants into the chasm below, that they might not become the slaves of the enemy." 19 do it you

After his second return to Ioannina, Dr. Holland visited the North of Albania, and other remarkable spots, Tepeleni, Ali's birth-place, and Gardiki, the scene of his sanguinary vengeance for an insult of forty years standing.finálgun amor

The narrative concludes with the Author's return to Ioannina and Zante, with an appendix detailing, from a Roman news paper, an account of Major De Bosset's discoveries; an account of Mr. Sadler's ascent in a balloon, and catalogues of officinal plants growing in Cephalonia and in the environs of loannina. .

The work of which we have just given some account, is written in an easy perspicuous style, and is particularly happy in some sketches, both of scenery and of character. It is, however, occasionally slovenly, and the frequent use of the expression of " for various reasons not necessary to be here given,” gives the appearance of affected mystery, very ana logous to that of a cunning shake of the head. The information which it contains is various, but imperfect; so that although we have a little of every thing, we have nothing thoroughly examined. The general statistics, the mineralogy, and the geographical sketches are particularly lame zo we have indeed nothing valuable in any one of these branches. We think too, that the Doctor has, in his natural and laudable zeal to associate the splendid deeds of the older time with the scenes over which he travelled, entered too much into details with which almost every school-boy is familiar. An allusion to a classical mind is abundantly sufficient, and the details can ge nerally be commanded in the originals. On some controverted topics we have pointed out a few of the most important errors, which may easily be corrected hereafter. Upon the whole we

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