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regardless of the future welfare of their unfortunate progeny, who were left to the benevolence and the charity of the friends and associates of their fathers. Many were entirely lost, being imperceptibly blended with the Muhammadans. The Orphan Society has rescued these poor children from distress, and afforded them an asylum, where they have received an education, which has enabled them to obtain their livelihood, and become respectable and reputable members of society.
With the Orphan Society, the name of the Rev. Mr. Hovenden is most intimately associated. Many, who were in the school under his regimè, make mention of him in very affectionate terms. His deeds of benevolence have been also treasured by many others: and we have often given pain, when we have honestly declared our unfavourable opinion with regard to his management of the schools. With the man, however, we have nothing to do. His public acts are our concern; and by these do we judge of him. It seems that he devoted all his attention to the girls of the Upper School. The boys did not share so much of his regard: nor did the Lower School experience a proportionate share of kindness. His affection for the ladies of the Upper School blinded him to their best interests. The state of education was decidedly inferior; while there was a wasteful expenditure in the victualling department. He was in short an excellent, pious, and most amiable man; but an indifferent superintendent, and a very poor economist.
It will not be considered out of place here to advert to the European Female Orphan Asylum-an institution, which reflects the highest honour on the community, by whom it was established, and on whose support it still depends. The destitute condition of the offspring of European soldiers, who, if they fortunately escaped the dangers of infancy, were notwithstanding exposed to the corrupting influence of scenes of profligacy, attracted the kind and sympathizing notice of the Rev. Mr. Thomason, who appealed to the public, and succeeded in establishing the European Female Orphan Society. Contributions flowed in from every quarter--the officers and soldiers gave liberally towards so desirable an object, and the Government bestowed a donation of 200 rupees per mensem.* A house
*We think that it will perhaps be interesting to give a list of donations, from the officers and soldiers of the European regiments stationed in India, towards the Asylum.
Officers of H. M. 14th Regiment..
Ditto of ditto 67th
......Rs. 742 0 0
785 0 0 718 O 0 413 2 0 657 0 0
and grounds in Circular Road were purchased for 37,000 rupees: and this Asylum has proved a blessing to the offspring of the European soldiery.
The year 1821 was also remarkable for the exertions of the Ladies' Society for Native Female Education in Calcutta and its vicinity. Miss Cooke, better known as Mrs. Wilson, arrived in 1821, and commenced her devoted labours. As we propose to devote a separate article to native female education, we content ourselves at this time with the simple mention of the name of one, who deserves to be honourably enrolled with the Frys, and Mores, and other female benefactors of the world.
We have now arrived at that stage of our subject, which requires us to record the exertions of classes of men, not only for their own benefit, but also for the advantage of others. The most excellent private seminaries labour under the evil of transitoriness. This evil began to be painfully felt about the year 1820. People were then convinced that private schools could not answer the great purposes of national education. It may be, that the conductor of a private school might be afflicted with protracted indisposition, and his school would fail-or that, growing old and feeble, he could not put forth those energies, which he did in his adolescence.
About the year 1820, "a spirit was abroad."
did the acute indisposition of Mr. Drummond blight his prospects, and hasten the decline and fall' of his academy; but a change had at this time taken place in society. New · views were entertained by individuals, and a new system
was required. Men perceived the necessity of attending to the moral and religious education of children.-The East 'Indians at that time exerted themselves in a way, which
they have never done since. They not only sought for a redress of the grievances, under which they laboured-they not only determined to carry their complaints to the very fountain of British influence and power-but they united toge
'ther to establish a school for the benefit of their own children."*
The PARENTAL ACADEMY, through the influence and exertions of the late John Miller Ricketts, was established on the 1st March, 1823. The Calcutta Grammar School was established in June of the same year, owing to a dispute among the original members of the Parental Academy, which led to a separation of efforts. On the establishment of these schools, Mr. Drummond's Academy very sensibly declined; until it was merged in the Verulam Academy, conducted by Mr. Masters, which was in its turn given up, when Mr. Masters was appointed to fill the office of the Head Master of La Martiniére.
The Parental Academy was cradled in discord. The storm of passions swept over it, and the waves of prejudice buffetted it. A bad feeling crept in among those who were united in establishing this school; and no sooner was the Parental ushered into existence, than it experienced a sad reverse. Many friends were converted into bitter enemies and an opposition school, the Calcutta Grammar School, was immediately established. Mr. Ricketts, with his small, faithful, and resolute band, however, remained steadfast in their good work; and though the beginning was feeble-only sixteen scholars having applied for admission -it soon prospered very greatly.
To this Institution must be cheerfully and unreservedly given the tribute of having raised the tone of Christian Education in this city, and directed attention to the importance of the study of the History of India, and of the Vernaculars. The Roman and Grecian classics, the importance of which we do not mean to underrate, were very properly for the youth of this country, and the employments which they are likely to fill-reckoned of only secondary consideration, and held subordinate to the study of English Literature in all its branches, and the practical Sciences. Hence the success of the Institution. Many of its alumni fill lucrative and respectable employments, and have distinguished themselves in after-life. By adhering to these principles, it will continue to prove a blessing to the East Indian body. We know that it is now under excellent management; and we wish the Institution every success.
There is a fact connected with the Institution, which is alike. honourable to the teaching, the pupils, and the East Indian body. It has enjoyed great popularity and success under two individuals, Mr. Lorimer and Mr. Montague, who have been. wholly brought up within its walls, and who have, like the
* Oriental Magazine.
Roman child of historic recollection, returned to the parent-their alma mater-the nourishment, which they had received from her.
These two gentlemen maintained the institution amidst the hottest competition, that was known to exist in this country. La Martinière was in full operation, with its splendid funds and illustrious governors. Saint Xavier's College was carrying every thing before it; and the Calcutta High School was in an efficient state, the Rev. Mr. McQueen having just left. Still the Parental bore up against the current most successfully.
We have already adverted to the CALCUTTA GRAMMAR SCHOOL, which owed its origin to the division among the original members of the Parental Academy. It was established in 1823, and continued until the year 1830; when it was so dilapidated in condition, that it was found necessary to break it up, and erect another school on its ruins. THE CALCUTTA HIGH SCHOOL was next founded, on the 4th June, 1830; and, under its first rector, the Rev. Mr. McQueen, it flourished exceedingly. However it was also laid in the grave: and, on its ruins SAINT PAUL'S SCHOOL was established, in the year 1847.
On the 2nd April 1821, the Armenian community established THE ARMENIAN PHILANTHROPHIC INSTITUTION for the benefit of their youth. This school has dragged on a not very lively existence until last year; when it was shaken from its lethargy by the establishment of a rival school, designated ST. SANDUCT'S SEMINARY.
It will not be beyond our scope to mention the foundation of of LA MARTINIERE, on the first March 1836, from the funds left by Major General Claude Martin. It is a richly endowed institution-the most wealthy in Calcutta. There is an anomaly in its constitution, however, which cannot fail to strike the most superficial observer. It has effected a compromise between Popery, the Church of England, and Presbyterianism-a compromise, which we confess we are unable to appreciate, and which we can never conscientiously approve. It is a charitable institution; but the charity is extended not so much to the low and ragged poor, as to the rich and respectable poor, of whom there are hundreds in Calcutta. It is also a public boarding school. The teachers are very highly paid; and the establishment is very large and expensive. If the greatest amount of charity were really and truly sought, the funds, now employed so largely and so liberally, could be made to relieve hundreds of indigent children, and to prove a real and enduring blessing to the poor.
The Roman Catholic community, about the year 1833 and
1834, were induced to make great exertions for the purpose of establishing a school for the benefit of their community. The fathers of the Society of Jesus, in the year 1834, established ST. XAVIER'S COLLEGE. The original school was in Doomtollah. It was mainly assisted by two members of the Catholic community, who were remarkable for their liberality. One of them gave the building; and the other furnished the College throughout, and supported it largely during the first months of its existence. This College flourished exceedingly, until it was ruined by the departure of the Jesuits in 1847. Saint John's College has been founded in its stead. Great praise is most undoubtedly due to the present Archbishop, through whose energy and perseverance several schools, asylums, and orphanages have been established. It is truly astonishing to find by what slender means so much has been done. His own self-denial is however the principal cause- -the corner-stoneof his great and unprecedented success. Wherever indigent Catholics are to be found, there have a chapel and a school house reared their heads, and ministers have been sent to labour among them.*
We regret that it is not in our power to record any corresponding exertions put forth to establish schools for young ladies. Some attempts were made; but they all signally failed. The committee of the Parental Academy established a female branch in the school under their superintendence in the month of August 1831: but, for want of due support, they were obliged to abandon it in the month of December following. Private seminaries are to be found: Miss Thornton's for instance succeeded Mrs. Durrell's; and the names of the excellent Reichardts are still fresh in the recollection of many of our readers. But Calcutta at present is deplorably in want of a first-rate female school: it has literally nothing that can compete with Loretto House of the Roman Catholic community.
III. We have now arrived at the third division of our subject, and not the least important. It is at all times a glori
We subjoin a list of the various schools, &c., established under the auspices of Archbishop Carew. The list is interesting, and should influence others, as an example of what self-denial and perseverance can accomplish.
St. John's College.
An Orphanage and Free school in the Catholic Cathedral.
A Free school at Bow-Bazar.
A Widow's Asylum at Entally.
A school at Darjeeling for the youth of both sexes.