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́among the said counties as nearly as may be according to the number of their inhabitants. The present apportionment shall continue until the next census of the United States shall have been taken, and an apportionment of members of the general assembly shall be made by the legislature at its first session after the next and every subsequent enumeration or census, and when made shall remain unaltered until another enumeration shall have been taken; provided, that each county shall at all times be entitled to one member; and the whole number of members shall never exceed sixty.

Section IV.

1. Each house shall direct writs of election for supplying vacancies, occasioned by death, resignation, or otherwise; but if vacancies occur during the recess of the legislature, the writs may be issued by the Governor, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law.

2. Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifie tions of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorun to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties, as each house may provide.

3. Each house shall choose its own officers, determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the cou currence of two-thirds, may expel a member.

4. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time time publish the same; and the yeas and nays of the members of either hou on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entere on the journal.

5. Neither house, during the session of the legislature, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.

6. All bills and joint resolutions shall be read three times in each house, before the final passage thereof; and no bill or joint resolution shall pass unless there be a majority of all the members of each body personally preser and agreeing thereto; and the yeas and nays of the members voting on sue', final passage shall be entered on the journal.

7. Members of the senate and general assembly shall receive annually the sum of five hundred dollars during the time for which they shall have beer elected and while they shall hold their office, and no other allowance or emol the senate and the speaker of the house of assembly shall, in virtue of their offices, receive an additional compensation, equal to one-third of their allow ance as members.

8. Members of the senate and general assembly shall, in all cases excer treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the sitting of their respective houses, and in going to and return ing from the same; and for any speech or debate, in either house, they sha not be questioned in any other place.

Section V.

1. No member of the senate or general assembly shall, during the time for which he was elected, be nominated or appointed by the governor, or à ument, directly or indirectly, for any purpose whatever.6 The president."

In 1875, the words "a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law and paid out of the treasury of the state; which compensation shall not exceed the su of three dollars per day for the period of forty days from the commencement of the session, and shall not exceed the sum of one dollar and fifty cents per day for th remainder of the session. When convened in extra session by the governor they sha receive such sum as shall be fixed for the first forty days of the ordinary session. Ther shall also receive the sum of one dollar for every ten miles they shall travel in goir to and returning from their place of meeting on the most usual route," were strick out and the words from "annually" to "whatever", inclusive, were inserted. The wors "per diem" where they occurred after the word "their" and before the word "allow ance" in the last line were stricken out.

ture in joint meeting, to any civil office under the authority of this h shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall have ased, during such time.

any member of the senate or general assembly shall be elected to this State in the senate or house of representatives of the United 1 shall accept thereof, or shall accept of any office or appointment government of the United States, his seat in the legislature of this thereby be vacated.

justice of the supreme court, nor judge of any other court, sheriff, the peace nor any person or persons possessed of any office of profit government of this State, shall be entitled to a seat either in the in the general assembly; but, on being elected and taking his seat. hall be considered vacant; and no person holding any office of profit government of the United States shall be entitled to a seat in either

Section VI.

bills for raising revenue shall originate in the house of assembly; ate may propose or concur with amendments, as on other bills. money shall be drawn from the treasury but for appropriations


credit of the State shall not be directly or indirectly loaned in

legislature shall not, in any manner, create any debt or debts, liabilities, of the State which shall, singly or in the aggregate with us debts or liabilities, at any time exceed one hundred thousand ept for purposes of war, or to repel invasion, or to suppress insurless the same shall be authorized by a law for some single object

be distinctly specified therein; which law shall provide the ways exclusive of loans, to pay the interest of such debt or liability as and also to pay and discharge the principal of such debt or liability ty-five years from the time of the contracting thereof, and shall be

until such debt or liability, and the interest thereon, are fully ischarged, and no such law shall take effect until it shall, at a ction, have been submitted to the people, and have received the a majority of all the votes cast for and against it at such election; ney to be raised by the authority of such law shall be applied only ific object stated therein, and to the payment of the debt thereby his section shall not be construed to efer to any money that has y be, deposited with this State by the government of the United

Section VII.

divorce shall be granted by the legislature.

lottery shall be authorized by the legislature or otherwise in this no ticket in any lottery shall be bought or sold within this State. ool-selling, book-making or gambling of any kind be authorized or hin this State, nor shall any gambling device, practice or game ow prohibited by law be legalized, or the remedy, penalty or punishrovided therefor be in any way diminished.7


legislature shall not pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law. iring the obligation of contracts, or depriving a party of any rembreing a contract which existed when the contract was made. avoid improper influences which may result from intermixing in

same act such things as have no proper relation to each other. shall embrace but one object, and that shall be expressed in the w shall be revived or amended by reference to its title only; but ved, or the section or sections amended, shall be inserted at length. law shall embrace any provision of a private, special or local ment adopted in 1897.

character. No act shall be passed which shall provide that any existing law, or any part thereof, shall be made or deemed a part of the act, or which shall enact that any existing law, or any part thereof, shall be applicable, except by inserting it in such act.8

5. The laws of this State shall begin in the following style: "Be it enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the State of New Jersey."

6. The fund for the support of free schools, and all money, stock and other property which may hereafter be appropriated for that purpose, or received into the treasury under the provision of any law heretofore passed to augment the said fund, shall be securely invested and remain a perpetual fund; and the income thereof, except so much as it may be judged expedient to apply to an increase of the capital, shall be annually appropriated to the support of public free schools, for the equal benefit of all the people of the State; and it shall not be competent for the legislature to borrow, appropriate or use the said fund, or any part thereof, for any other purpose, under any pre tense whatever. The legislature shall provide for the maintenance and support of a thorough and efficient system of free public schools for the instruction of all the children in this State between the ages of five and eighteen years.9

7. No private or special law shall be passed authorizing the sale of any lands belonging in whole or in part to a minor or minors, or other persons who may at the time be under any legal disability to act for themselves.

S. Individuals or private corporations shall not be authorized to take private property for public use, without just compensation first made to the owners, 10

9. No private, special or local bill shall be passed unless public notice of the intention to apply therefor, and of the general object thereof, shall have been previously given. The legislature, at the next session after the adoption hereof, and from time to time thereafter, shall prescribe the time and mode of giving such notice, the evidence thereof, and how such evidence shall be preserved.11

10. The legislature may vest in the circuit courts, or court of commou pleas within the several counties of this State, chancery powers, so far as relates to the foreclosure of mortgages and sale of mortgaged premises.

11. The legislature shall not pass private, local or special laws in any of the following enumerated cases; that is to say:

Laying out, opening, altering and working roads or highways.
Vacating any road, town plot, street, alley or public grounds.

Regulating the internal affairs of towns and counties; appointing local offices or commissions to regulate municipal affairs.

Selecting, drawing, summoning or empaneling grand or petit jurors.

Creating, increasing or decreasing the percentage or allowance of publje officers during the term for which said officers were elected or appointed.

Changing the law of descent.

Granting to any corporation, association or individual any exclusive priv-1 ilege, immunity or franchise whatever.


Granting to any corporation, association or individual the right to kay down railroad tracks.

Providing for changes of venue in civil or criminal cases.

Providing for the management and support of free public schools.

The legislature shall pass general laws providing for the cases enumer ated in this paragraph, and for all other cases which, in its judgment, may b provided for by general laws. The legislature shall pass no special act conferring corporate powers, but they shall pass general laws under which corp

s All of this paragraph except the first sentence was added in 1875.

The word "free" where it occurs between the word "public" and the word "schools" was inserted, and the last sentence was added in 1875.

10 The whole of the original paragraph 8 was stricken out in 1875 and the original paragraph 9 renumbered paragraph 8.

11 Paragraph 9 is a new paragraph and was adopted in 1875.


be organized and corporate powers of every nature obtained, subheless, to repeal or alteration at the will of the legislature. 12 operty shall be assessed for taxes under general laws, and by uniaccording to its true value.12

Section VIII.

bers of the legislature shall, before they enter on the duties, of ive offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: lemnly swear lor affirm, as the case may be], that I will support tion of the United States and the constitution of the State of New that I will faithfully discharge the duties of senator [or member ral assembly, as the case may be], according to the best of my

mbers-elect of the senate or general assembly are hereby emadministered to each other the said oath or affirmation.

y officer of the legislature shall, before he enters upon his duties, scribe the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly promise [or affirm] that I will faithfully, impartially and justly perform es of the office of -, to the best of my ability and underat I will carefully preserve all records, papers, writings or propd to me for safe-keeping by virtue of my office, and make such f the same as may be required by law."13



executive power shall be vested in a governor.

governor shall be elected by the legal voters of this State. The g the highest number of votes shall be the governor; but if two i be equal and highest in votes, one of them shall be chosen govvote of a majority of the members of both houses in joint meeted elections for the office of governor shall be determined in such he legislature shall direct by law. When a governor is to be e people, such election shall be held at the time when and at the the people shall respectively vote for members of the legislature. governor shall hold his office for three years, to commence on the y of January next ensuing the election for governor by the peoad on the Monday preceding the third Tuesday of January, three ter; and he shall be incapable of holding that office for three fter his term of service shall have expired; and no appointment a to office shall be made by the governor during the last week


governor shall be not less than thirty years of age, and shall r twenty years, at least, a citizen of the United States, and a is State seven years next before his election, unless he shall have luring that time on the public business of the United States or

governor shall, at stated times, receive for his services a comich shall be neither increased nor diminished during the period shall have been elected.

all be the commander-in-chief of all the military and naval forces he shall have power to convene the legislature, or the senate er in his opinion public necessity requires it; he shall commussage to the legislature at the opening of each session, and at mes as he may deem necessary, the condition of the State, and ich measures as he may deem expedient; he shall take care that faithfully executed, and grant, under the great seal of the State, o all such officers as shall be required to be commissioned.14

phs 11 and 12 are new paragraphs and were adopted in 1875. oh 2 is a new paragraph and was adopted in 1875.

ph 6 was amended in 1875 by adding the words "or the senate alone."

7. Every bill which shall have passed both houses shall be presented to the governor; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it. with his objections, to the house in which it shall have originated, who shal enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it: if, after such reconsideration, a majority of the whole number of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved of by a majority of the whole number of that house, it shall become a law. but in neither house shall the vote be taken on the same day on which the bill shall be returned to it; and in all such cases, the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the governor, within five days (Sunday excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shal be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the legislature by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law. If any bill presented to the governor contain several items of appropriations of money, he may object to one or more of such items while approving of the other portions of the bill. In such case he shall append to the bill, at the time of signing it, a statement of the items to which he objects, and the appro priation so objected to shall not take effect. If the legislature be in session he shall transmit to the house in which the bill originated, a copy of suc statement, and the items objected to shall be saparately reconsidered. If. a reconsideration, one or more of such items be approved by a majority of t members elected to each house, the same shall be a part of the law, notwith) standing the objections of the governor. All the provisions of this section relation to bills not approved by the governor shall apply to cases in which he shall withhold his approval from any item or items contained in a bl appropriating money.15

S. No member of congress, or person holding an office under the United States, or this State, shall exercise the office of governor; and in case the governor, or person administering the government, shall accept any office under the United States or this State; his office of governor shall thereupon b vacant. Nor shall be be elected by the legislature to any office under the go. ernment of this State or of the United States, during the term for which he shall have been elected governor.16

9. The governor, or person administering the government, shall have powe to suspend the collection of fines and forfeitures, and to grant reprieves, 'extend until the expiration of a time not exceeding ninety days after convie tion; but this power shall not extend to cases of impeachment.

10. The governor, or person administering the government, the chan cellor, and the six judges of the court of errors and appeals, or a major per of them, of whom the governor, or person administering the government, shall be one, may remit fines and forfeitures, and grant pardons, after conviction in all cases except impeachment.

11. The governor and all other civil officers under this State shall liable to impeachment for misdemeanor in office during their continuance office, and for two years thereafter.



12. In case of the death, resignation or removal front office of the god the powers, duties and emoluments of the office shall devolve upon thị president of the senate, and in case of his death, resignation or removal, the upon the speaker of the house of assembly, for the time being, until anothe governor shall be elected and qualified; but in such case another governe shall be chosen at the next election for members of the legislature, unless sui death, resignation or removal shall occur within thirty days immediately pre ceding such next election, in which case a governor shall be chosen at the second succeeding election for members of the legislature. When a Tacab happens, during the recess of the legislature, in any office which is to

15 Amended in 1875 by adding the provision beginning "If any bill" in line 14 16 Amended in 1875 by adding the last sentence,

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