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secuted as provided by law. And all crimes and misdemeanors and penal tions shall be prosecuted, tried and punished as though no change had taken are, until otherwise provided by law.

SEC. 5. All officers, civil and military, now holding any office or appointent, shall continue to hold their respective offices, unless removed by comtent authority, until superseded under the laws now in force or under this astitution.

SEC. 6. All officers elected under the existing constitution and laws on the esday after the first Monday of November, nineteen hundred eight, shall take ge on and after the first day of January, nineteen hundred nine, under this stitution.

SEC. 7. Until otherwise provided, the salaries or compensation of all public eers shall continue as provided under the existing constitution and laws. SEC. 8. The attorney general of the state shall prepare and report to the islature at the commencement of the next session such changes in existing s as may be deemed necessary to adapt the same to this constitution. ¡SEC. 9. Any territory attached or that may be attached to any county for icial purposes, if not otherwise represented, shall be considered as forming a t of such county, so far as regards elections for the purpose of representa

SEC. 10. This constitution shall be submitted to the people for their adopor rejection at the general election to be held on the Tuesday after the Monday of November, nineteen hundred eight. It shall be the duty of the etary of state to forthwith give notice of such submission to the sheriffs of several counties, and it shall also be the duty of the secretary of state and other officers required to give or publish any notice in regard to said electo give notice as provided by law in case of an election for governor, that constitution will be duly submitted to the electors at said election.

SEC. 11. Every person entitled to vote for members of the legislature under existing constitution and laws may vote on said adoption or rejection, and pboard of election commissioners in each county shall cause to be printed on ballot separate from the ballot containing the names of the nominees for te the words "Adoption of the Revised Constitution [ ] Yes." "Adoption the Revised Constitution [ ] No." All votes cast at said election shall be en, counted, canvassed and returned as provided by law for the election of te officers. Should the revised constitution so submitted receive more votes its favor than shall be cast against it, it shall be the supreme law of the te on and after the first day of January, nineteen hundred nine, except as vin otherwise provided; otherwise it shall be rejected.

Adopted by the constitutional convention of nineteen hundred seven at the
tol at Lansing on the twenty-first day of February, nineteen hundred eight.



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We, the people of the State of Minnesota. grateful to God for our civil and religious liberty, and desiring to perpetuate its blessings and secure the same to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution



SECTION 1. Government is instituted for the security, benefit and pro tection of the people. in whom all political power is inherent, together with the right to alter, modify or reform such government, whenever the public good may require it.

SEC. 2. No member of this State shall be disfranchised, or deprived of any of the rights or privileges secured to any citizen thereof, unless by the law of the land, or the judgment of his peers. There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the State otherwise than in the punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.

SEC. 3. The liberty of the press shall forever remain inviolate, and a persons may freely speak, write and publish their sentiments on all sEjects, being responsible for the abuse of such right.

SEC. 4. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate, and shall ex tend to all cases at law without regard to the amount in controversy, but : jury trial may be waived by the parties in all cases in the manner prescrite! by law; [and the legislature may provide that the agreement of five-sixths of any jury in any civil action or proceeding, after not less than six (6) hours deliberation, shall be a sufficient verdict therein.]1.

SEC. 5. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor shall excessive fines le imposed; nor shall cruel or unusual punishment be inflicted.

SEC. 6. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the county or district where in the crime shall have been committed, which county or district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature a cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against hir to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to haw the assistance of counsel in his defense.

SEC. 7. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense withed due process of law, and no person for the same offense shall be put twis in jeopardy of punishment, nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to k a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property will out due process of law. All persons shall before conviction be bailable to sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses when the proof is evident or ta presumption great: and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall m be suspended unless when in case of rebellion or invasion the public safet may require.2

* The constitution of Minnesota was drafted by a convention which assembled i St. Paul on July 13, 1857. The convention was submitted to the people on Octobe 13. 1857, and was adopted by a vote of 30,055 to 571; no proposition was submitt separately. The state was admitted to the Union on May 11, 1858.

1 Amendment proposed by the legislature of 1889, ratified by the electors 4 November 4, 1890, and proclaimed adopted on December 20, 1890. The amendme is the part included in the brackets.

Amendment proposed by the legislature of 1903, ratified by the electors November 8, 1904, and proclaimed adopted on January 6, 1905. The text of the ori inal section is as follows: Sec. 7. No person shall be held to answer for a crimin offence unless on the presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases impeachment or in cases cognizable by Justices of the Peace, or arising in the Arm or Navy, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger, a no person for the same offence shall be put twice in jeopardy of punishment, nor sha

SEC. 8. Every person is entitled to a certain remedy in the laws for all uries or wrongs which he may receive in his person, property or character; ought to obtain justice freely and without purchase; completely and with} denial; promptly and without delay, conformable to the laws.

SEC. 9. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war inst the same, or in adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

SEC. 10. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, ers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be ated; and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by b or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and person or thing to be seized.

SEC. 11. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, nor any law impairing obligation of contracts shall ever be passed, and no conviction shall work uption of blood or forfeiture of estate.

SEC. 12. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in this State, but this I not prevent the legislature from providing for imprisonment, or holdto bail, persons charged with fraud in contracting said debt. A reason! amount of property shall be exempt from seizure or sale for the payt of any debt or liability. The amount of such exemption shall be deained by law. [Provided, however, that all property so exempted shall be le to seizure and sale for any debts incurred to any person for work done Baterials furnished in the construction, repair or improvement of the same, provided further, that such liability to seizure and sale shall also extend real property for any debt incurred to any laborer or servant for labor ervice performed. ]3

Src. 13. Private property shall not be taken, destroyed or damaged for r use without just compensation therefor, first paid or secured.4

Sac. 14. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power, and no aling army shall be kept up in this State in time of peace.

SEC. 15. All lands within the State are declared to be allodial, and feudal tres of every description, with all their incidents, are prohibited. Leases grants of agricultural lands for a longer period than twenty-one years after made, in which shall be reserved any rent or service of any kind, Il be void.

SEC. 16. The enumeration of rights in this constitution shall not be coned to deny or impair others retained by and inherent in the people. right of every man to worship God according to the dictates of his own science shall never be infringed, nor shall any man be compelled to attend,

or support any place of worship, or to maintain any religious or ecclesias1 ministry. against his consent; nor shall any control of or interference h the rights of conscience be permitted, or any preference to be given by to any religious establishment or mode of worship; but the liberty of science hereby secured shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licensness, or justify practices inconsistent with the peace or safety of the te. nor shall any money be drawn from the treasury for the benefit of any gious societies, or religious or theological seminaries.

SEC. 17. No religious test or amount of property shall ever be required a qualification for any office of public trust under this State. No religious or amount of property shall ever be required as a qualification of any

compelled in any criminal case to (be) witness against himself, nor be deprived of , liberty, or property, without due process of Law. All persons shall before contion be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offences, when the proof is lent or the presumption great; and the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall he suspended, unless, when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may uire.

Amendment proposed by the legislature of 1887 and ratified by the electors on ember 6, 1888. The amendment consists of the proviso enclosed in brackets.

Amendment proposed by the legislature of 1895, ratified by the electors on Vember 3, 1896, and officially proclaimed on December 29, 1896. The amendment led the words "destroyed or damaged."

voter at any election in this State; nor shall any person be rendered incor petent to give evidence in any court of law or equity in consequence of L opinion upon the subject of religion.

SEC. 18. Any person may sell or peddle the products of the farm garden occupied and cultivated by him without obtaining a license the for.5



SECTION 1. This State shall be called and known by the name of State of Minnesota, and shall consist of and have jurisdiction over the ter tory embraced in the following boundaries, to-wit: Beginning at the point the center of the main channel of the Red River of the North, where boundary line between the United States and British possessions crosses same; thence up the main channel of said river to that of the Bois des Si river; thence up the main channel of said river to Lake Traverse; thence the center of said lake to the southern extremity thereof; thence in a dir line to the head of Big Stone lake; thence through its center to its out! thence by a due south line to the north line of the State of Iowa; thence e along the northern boundary of said State to the main channel of the Mis sippi river; thence up the main channel of said river and following the bot ary line of the State of Wisconsin until the same intersects the St. L river; thence down the said river to and through Lake Superior, on boundary line of Wisconsin and Michigan, until it intersects the divid line between the United States and British possessions; thence up Pigeon r and following said dividing line to the place of beginning.

SEC. 2. The State of Minnesota shall have concurrent jurisdiction on Mississippi and on all other rivers and waters bordering on the said State Minnesota, so far as the same shall form a common boundary to said St and any other state or states now or hereafter to be formed by the sa and said rivers and waters, and navigable waters leading into the same, s be common highways and forever free, as well to the inhabitants of State as to other citizens of the United States, without any tax, duty, imp or toll therefor.

SEC. 3. The propositions contained in the act of Congress entitled. act to authorize the people of the Territory of Minnesota to form a constitut and state government, preparatory to their admission into the Union on eq footing with the original states," are hereby accepted, ratified and confirm and shall remain irrevocable without the consent of the United States: : it is hereby ordained that this State shall never interfere with the prim disposal of the soil within the same, by the United States, or with a regulations Congress may find necessary for securing the title to said soil bona fide purchasers thereof; and no tax shall be imposed on lands belong to the United States and in no case shall non-resident proprietors be ta higher than residents.



SECTION 1. The powers of government shall be divided into three d tinct departments-legislative, executive, and judicial; and no person or p sons belonging to or constituting one of these departments shall exercise a of the powers properly belonging to either of the others, except in the stances expressly provided in this constitution.




SECTION 1. The legislature shall consist of the Senate and House Representatives, which shall meet biennially at the seat of government of t State, at such time as shall be prescribed by law, but no session shall exce

Section 18 is a new section; it was proposed by the legislature of 1905, ratifi by the electors on November 6, 1906, and proclaimed adopted on December 27, 1906

the term of ninety (90) legislative days; and no new bill shall be introduced in either branch, except on the written request of the governor, during the last twenty (20) days of such sessions, except the attention of the legislature shall be called to some important matter of general interest by a special message from the governor.6

SEC. 2. The number of members who compose the Senate and House of Representatives shall be prescribed by law, but the representatives in the Senate shall never exceed one member for every 5,000 inhabitants, and in the House of Representatives one member for every 2,000 inhabitants. The representation in both houses shall be apportioned equally throughout the different sections of the State, in proportion to the population thereof, exclusive of Indians not taxable under the provisions of law.

SEC. 3. Each house shall be the judge of the election returns and eligi bility of its own members; a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to transact business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as it may provide.

SEC. 4. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, sit upon its own adjournment, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member; but no member shall be expelled the second time for the same offense.

SEC. 5. The House of Representatives shall elect its presiding officer and the Senate and House of Representatives shall elect such other officers as may he provided by law; they shall keep journals of their proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, and the yeas and nays, when taken on any question, shall be entered on such journals.

SEC. 6. Neither house shall, during a session of the legislature, adjourn for more than three days (Sundays excepted), nor to any other place than that in which the two houses shall be assembled, without the consent of the other house.

SEC. 7. The compensation of senators and representatives shall be three dollars per diem during the first session, but may afterwards be prescribed by law. But no increase of compensation shall be prescribed which shall take effect during the period for which the members of the existing House of Representatives may have been elected.

SEC. 8. The members of each house shall in all cases, except treason. felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during the session of their respective houses, and in going to or returning from the same. For any speech or debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other place.

SEC. 9. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he is elected, hold any office under the authority of the United States or the State of Minnesota, except that of postmaster, and no senator or representative shall hold an office under the state which has been created or the emoluments of which have been increased during the session of the legislature of which he was a member, until one year after the expiration of his term of office in the legislature.

SEC. 10. All bills for raising a revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose and concur with amendments as on other bills.

Section 1 has been amended three times: the first amendment was proposed by the legislature of 1860 and was ratified by the electors on November 6, 1860; the second amendment was proposed by the legislature of 1877 and was ratified by the electors on November 6, 1877; the present amendment was proposed by the legislature of 1887 and was ratified by the electors on November 6, 1888. The text of the original [section is as follows: Section 1. The Legislature of the State, shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives, who shall meet at the Seat of Government of the State, at such times as shall be prescribed by law. The amendment of 1860 added to the original the words: "But no session shall exceed the term of sixty days." The #text of the amendment of 1877 was as follows: Section 1. The Legislature of the State shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives, who shall meet biennially at the seat of Government of the State, at such time as shall be prescribed by law; but no session shall exceed the term of sixty days.

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