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SEC. 10. Circuit courts shall have original jurisdiction in all matters civi!! and criminal not excepted in this constitution and not prohibited by law, and appellate jurisdiction from all inferior courts and tribunals and a supervisory control of the same. They shall also have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, injunction, quo warranto and certiorari and to hear and determine the same; and to issue such other writs as may be necessary to carry into effect their orders, judgments and decrees and give them general control over inferior courts and tribunals within their respective jurisdictions, and in all such other cases and matters as the supreme court shall by rule prescribe. SEC. 11. The clerk of each county organized for judicial purposes shall be clerk of the circuit court for such county. The judges of the circuit courts may fill any vacancy in the offices of county clerk or prosecuting attorney within their respective jurisdictions, but shall not exercise any other power of ap×). pointment to public office.

SEC. 12. Each of the judges of the circuit courts shall receive a salary pay-!. able monthly. In addition to the salary paid from the state treasury, each circuit judge may receive from any county in which he regularly holds courti such additional salary as may be determined from time to time by the board of supervisors of the county. In any county where such additional salary ist granted it shall be paid at the same rate to all circuit judges regularly holdingi court therein.

PROBATE COURTS.

SEC. 13. In each county organized for judicial purposes, there shall be probate court. The jurisdiction, powers and duties of such courts and of the judges thereof shall be prescribed by law, and they shall also have original jurisdiction in all cases of juvenile delinquents and dependents.

SEC. 14. Judges of probate shall be elected in the counties in which they reside, and shall hold office for four years and until their successors are elected and qualified. They shall be elected on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November, nineteen hundred twelve, and every four years thereafter. The legislature may provide by law for the election of more than one judge of probate in counties with more than one hundred thousand inhabitants, and may provide for the election of such judges in such counties at alternate biennial elections.

JUSTICES OF THE PEACE.

SEC. 15. There shall be elected in each organized township neja four justices of the peace, each of whom shall hold the ofre

and until his successor is elected and qualified. At the first election in any township they shall be classified as shall be prescribed by law. A justice elected to fill a vacancy shall hold the office for the residue of the unexpired term. The legislature may provide by law for justices in cities.

SEC. 16. In civil cases, justices of the peace shall have exclusive juris diction to the amount of one hundred dollars and concurrent jurisdiction to the amount of three hundred dollars, which may be increased to five hundred dollars, with such exceptions and restrictions as may be provided by law. They shall also have such criminal jurisdiction and perform such duties as shall be prescribed by law.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

SEC. 17. The supreme court and the circuit and probate courts of each county shall be courts of record, and shall each have a common seal.

SEC. 18. Justices of the supreme court, circuit judges and justices of the peace shall be conservators of the peace within their respective jurisdictions.

SEC. 19. Whenever a judge shall remove beyond the limits of the jurisdiction for which he was elected, or a justice of the peace from the township in which he was elected, or by a change in the boundaries of such township shall be placed without the same, he shall be deemed to have vacated the office.

SEC. 20. When a vacancy occurs in the office of judge of any court of record, it shall be filled by appointment of the governor, and the person ap pointed shall hold the office until a successor is elected and qualified. When elected, such successor shall hold the office the residue of the unexpired term.

SEC. 21. The legislature may provide by law for the election of one or more ersons in each organized county who may be vested with judicial powers not Aceeding those of a judge of the circuit court at chambers.

SEC. 22. The style of all process shall be: "In the Name of the People f the State of Michigan."

ARTICLE VIII.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT.

COUNTIES.

SECTION 1. Each organized county shall be a body corporate, with such owers and immunities as shall be established by law. All suits and proceedgs by or against a county shall be in the name thereof.

SEC. 2. No organized county shall be reduced by the organization of new unties to less than sixteen townships as surveyed by the United States, unless i pursuance of law a majority of electors voting on the question in each unty to be affected thereby shall so decide. When any city has attained a pulation of one hundred thousand inhabitants, the legislature may organize into a separate county without reference to geographical extent, if a marity of the electors of such city and of the remainder of the county in which tch city may be situated voting on the question shall each determine in favor forganizing said city into a separate county.

SEC. 3. There shall be elected biennially in each organized county a sheriff. county clerk, a county treasurer, a register of deeds and a prosecuting attor ey, whose duties and powers shall be prescribed by law. The board of supersors in any county may unite the offices of county clerk and register of deeds one office or separate the same at pleasure.

SEC. 4. The sheriff, county clerk, county treasurer, judge of probate and egister of deeds shall hold their offices at the county seat.

SEC. 5. The sheriff shall hold no other office, and shall be incapable of holdg the office of sheriff longer than four in any period of six years. He may e required by law to renew his security from time to time, and, in default giving such security, his office shall be deemed vacant. The county shall ever be responsible for his acts.

SEC. 6. The legislature shall by general law provide for the appointment fa board of jury commissioners in each county; but such law shall not become perative in any county until a majority of the electors of the county voting tereon shall so decide.

SEC. 7. A board of supervisors, consisting of one from each organized wnship, shall be established in each county, with such powers as shall be escribed by law. Cities shall have such representation in the boards of supersors of the counties in which they are situated as may be provided by law. SEC. 8. The legislature may by general law confer upon the boards of ervisors of the several counties such powers of a local, legislative and adinistrative character, not inconsistent with the provisions of this constitution, it may deem proper.

SEC. 9. The boards of supervisors shall have exclusive power to fix the daries and compensation of all county officials not otherwise provided for by w. The boards of supervisors, or in counties having county auditors, such litors, shall adjust all claims against their respective counties; appeals may è taken from such decisions of the board of supervisors or auditors to the reuit court in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

SEC. 10. The board of supervisors of any county may in any one year levy tax of one-tenth of one mill on the assessed valuation of said county for 11 nstruction or repair of public buildings or bridges, or may borrow an equ m for such purposes; and, in any county where the assessed valuation is ess than ten million dollars, the board may levy a tax or borrow for such urposes to the amount of one thousand dollars; but no greater sum shall be aised for such purposes in any county in any one year, unless submitted to e electors of the county and approved by a majority of those voting thereon.

SEC. 11. Any county in this state, either separately or in conjunction with other counties, may appropriate money for the construction and maintenance or assistance of public and charitable hospitals, sanatoria or other institutions for the treatment of persons suffering from contagious or infectious diseases, Each county may also maintain an infirmary for the care and support of its indigent poor and unfortunate, and all county poor houses shall hereafter be designated and maintained as county infirmaries.

SEC. 12. No county shall incur any indebtedness which shall increase its total debt beyond three per cent of its assessed valuation, except counties hav ing an assessed valuation of five million dollars or less, which counties may increase their total debt to five per cent of their assessed valuation.6

SEC. 13. No county seat once established shall be removed until the place to which it is proposed to be removed shall be designated by two-thirds of the board of supervisors of the county, and a majority of the electors voting thereon shall have voted in favor of the proposed location, in such manner as shall be prescribed by law.

SEC. 14. No navigable stream of this state shall be either bridged of dammed without permission granted by the board of supervisors of the counts. under the provisions of law, which permission shall be subject to such reason able compensation and other conditions as may seem best suited to safeguard the rights and interests of the county and the municipalities therein. No such law shall preclude the state from improving the navigation of any such stream nor prejudice the right of individuals to the free navigation thereof.

SEC. 15. The board of supervisors of each organized county may organiz and consolidate townships under such restrictions and limitations as shall be prescribed by law.

TOWNSHIPS.

SEC. 16. Each organized township shall be a body corporate, with sud powers and immunities as shall be prescribed by law. All suits and proceed ings by or against a township shall be in the name thereof.

SEC. 17. The legislature may by general law confer upon organized town ships such powers of a local, legislative and administrative character, not in consistent with the provisions of this constitution, as it may deem proper.

SEC. 18. There shall be elected annually on the first Monday of April in each organized township, one supervisor, one township clerk, one commissioner of highways, one township treasurer, not to exceed four constables and one overseer of highways for each highway district, whose powers and duties shal be prescribed by law.

SEC. 19. No township shall grant any public utility franchise which is not subject to revocation at the will of the township, unless such proposition shal have first received the affirmative vote of a majority of the electors of suel township voting thereon at a regular or special election.

CITIES AND VILLAGES.

SEC. 20. The legislature shall provide by a general law for the incorp ration of cities, and by a general law for the incorporation of villages; suel general laws shall limit their rate of taxation for municipal purposes, an restrict their powers of borrowing money and contracting debts.

SEC. 21. Under such general laws, the electors of each city and villag shall have power and authority to frame, adopt and amend its charter, and t amend an existing charter of the city or village heretofore granted or passe by the legislature for the government of the city or village and, through it regularly constituted authority, to pass all laws and ordinances relating to it municipal concerns, subject to the constitution and general laws of this state.

"Amendment proposed by the legislature of 1909 and ratified at the election November 8, 1910. The text of the original section is as follows: Section 12. N county shall incur any indebtedness which shall increase its total debt beyond thr per cent of its assessed valuation.

Amendment proposed by the legislature at the second extra session of 191 and ratified at the election of November 5, 1912. The text of the original sectio is as follows: Section 21. Under such general laws, the electors of each city an

SEC. 22. Any city or village may acquire, own, establish and maintain, either within or without its corporate limits, parks, boulevards, cemeteries, hospitals, almshouses and all works which involve the public health or safety.

SEC. 23. Subject to the provisions of this constitution, any city or village may acquire, own and operate, either within or without its corporate limits, public utilities for supplying water, light, heat, power and transportation to the municipality and the inhabitants thereof; and may also sell and deliver water, heat, power and light without its corporate limits to an amount not to exceed twenty-five per cent of that furnished by it within the corporate limits; and may operate transportation lines without the municipality within such limits as may be prescribed by law: Provided, That the right to own or operate transportation facilities shall not extend to any city or village of less than twenty-five thousand inhabitants.

SEC. 24. When a city or village is authorized to acquire or operate any public utility, it may issue mortgage bonds therefor beyond the general limit of bonded indebtedness prescribed by law: Provided, That such mortgage bonds issued beyond the general limit of bonded indebtedness prescribed by law shall not impose any liability upon such city or village, but shall be secured only upon the property and revenues of such public utility, including a franchise stating the terms upon which, in case of foreclosure, the purchaser may operate the same, which franchise shall in no case extend for a longer period than twenty years from the date of the sale of such utility and franchise on foreclosure.

SEC. 25. No city or village shall have power to abridge the right of elective franchise, to loan its credit, nor to assess, levy or collect any tax or assessment for other than a public purpose. Nor shall any city or village acquire any public utility or grant any public utility franchise which is not subject to revoration at the will of the city or village, unless such proposition shall have first received the affirmative vote of three-fifths of the electors of such city or village voting thereon at a regular or special municipal election; and upon such proposition women taxpayers having the qualifications of male electors shall be entífled to vote.

GENERAL PROVISIONS.

SEC. 26. The legislature may by general law provide for the laying out. Construction, improvement and maintenance of highways, bridges and culverts by counties, districts and townships; and may authorize counties or districts to take charge and control of any highways within their limits for such purposes. The legislature may also by general law prescribe the powers and duties of boards of supervisors in relation to highways, bridges and culverts; may provide for county and district road commissioners to be appointed or elected, with such powers and duties as may be prescribed by law; and may change and abolish the powers and duties of township commissioners and overseers of highways. The legislature may provide by law for submitting the question of adopting a county or district road system to the electors of the counties or proposed districts, and such road system shall not go into operation in any county or district until approved by a majority of the electors thereof voting on such question. The tax raised for road purposes shall not exceed in any one year three dollars upon each one thousand dollars of assessed valuation for the preceding year.

SEC. 27. The legislature shall not vacate nor alter any road laid out by commissioners of highways, or any street, alley or public ground in any city or village or in any recorded town plat.

SEC. 28. No person, partnership, association or corporation operating a publie utility shall have the right to the use of the highways, streets, alleys or other public places of any city. village or township for wires, poles, pipes, tracks or conduits, without the consent of the duly constituted authorities of such city. village or township; nor to transact a local business therein without first obvillage shall have power and authority to frame, adopt and amend its charter, and, through its regularly constituted authority, to pass all laws and ordinances relating to its municipal concerns, subject to the constitution and general laws of this state.

taining a franchise therefor from such city, village or township. The right of all cities, villages and townships to the reasonable control of their streets, alleys and public places is hereby reserved to such cities, villages and townships. SEC. 29. No franchise or license shall be granted by any municipality of this state for a longer period than thirty years.

ARTICLE IX.

IMPEACHMENTS AND REMOVALS FROM OFFICE.

SECTION 1. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching civil officers for corrupt conduct in office, or for crimes or misde meanors; but a majority of the members elected shall be necessary to direct an impeachment.

SEC. 2. When an impeachment is directed, the house of representatives shall elect from its own body three members, whose duty it shall be to prosecute such impeachment. No impeachment shall be tried until the final adjournment of the legislature, when the senate shall proceed to try the same.

SEC. 3. Every impeachment shall be tried by the senate. When the governor or lieutenant governor is tried, the chief justice of the supreme court shall preside. When an impeachment is directed, the senate shall take an oath or affirmation truly and impartially to try and determine the same according to the evidence. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members elected. Judgment in case of impeachment shall not extend further than removal from office, but the person convicted shall be liable to punishment according to law.

SEC. 4. No judicial officer shall exercise his office after an impeachment is directed until he is acquitted.

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SEC. 5. The governor may make a provisional appointment to fill a cancy occasioned by the suspension of an officer, until he shall be acquitted or until after the election and qualification of a successor.

SEC. 6. For reasonable cause, which shall not be sufficient ground for impeachment, the governor shall remove any judge on a concurrent resolution of two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legislature; and the cause for which such removal is required shall be stated at length in such: resolution.

SEC. 7. The governor shall have power and it shall be his duty, except at such time as the legislature may be in session, to examine into the condition and administration of any public office and the acts of any public officer, elective or appointive; to remove from office for gross neglect of duty or for corrupi conduct in office, or any other misfeasance or malfeasance therein, any elective or appointive state officer, except legislative or judicial, and report the causes of such removal to the legislature at its next session,

SEC. S. Any officer elected by a county, city, village, township or school district may be removed from office in such manner and for such cause as shal be prescribed by law.

ARTICLE X.

FINANCE AND TAXATION.

SECTION 1. All subjects of taxation now contributing to the primary school interest fund under present laws shall continue to contribute to that fund, and all taxes from such subjects shall be first applied in paying the interest upon the primary school, university and other educational funds in the order herein named, after which the surplus of such moneys shall be added to and become a part of the primary school interest fund.

SEC. 2. The legislature shall provide by law for an annual tax sufficient with other resources to pay the estimated expenses of the state government. the interest on any state debt and such deficiency as may occur in the resources. SEC. 3. The legislature shall provide by law a uniform rule of taxation, except on property paying specific taxes, and taxes shall be levied on such property as shall be prescribed by law: Provided, That the legislature shall

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